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Volume 9, No. 1, pp. 1 - 123, 28 figures 

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Contributions from the University of Michigan Herbarium, 

Nos. 1 - 8, were published by the University of Michigan 

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Press, 1939 - 1942. All parts are still available, The title- 



page and cumulative index Qf Nos. 1-8 were published in 

For information address the Director, Herbari 
niversitv of~M 



ean, Ann 





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Michigan, U.S.A. 

irium of 








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Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biologieas 

Mexico, D.F. 



University of Michigan 


Tomo 9, Num. 1, pags. 1 - 123, 28 figuras en el texto, mapa 

University Herbarium, University of Michigan 

Ann Arbor, Michigan 




Rogers McVaugh, Editor 

Volume 9, No. 1, pp. 1 - 123, 28 figures in text, map 

Price Two Dollars ($2.00) 

Contributions from the University of Michigan Herbarium, 
Nums. 1-8, fueron publicados por la Prensa de la Univer si- 
dad de Michigan, 1939- 1942. Todas las partes estan dis- 
ponibles todavLa. La portada y el indice de los Nums. 1-8 
fueron publicados en 1966. Para informacion puede dirigirse 
al Director, Herbarium of the University of Michigan, Ann 
Arbor, Michigan, U.S.A. 






Delimitacion y descripcion fisiografica del irea 2 


Influencia humana 



Tipos de vegetacion 9 

Sumario tabular de los tipos de vegetacion 10 

Palmar 13 

Bosque tropical subdeciduo 15 

Bosque tropical deciduo 23 

Bosque espinoso 31 

Matorral subtropical 35 

Vegetacion sabanoide 41 

Zacatal 45 

Matorral crasicaule 53 

Bosque de pino y encino 55 

Bosque mesofilo de montana 69 

Bosque de oyamel 73 

Vegetacion acuatica y semiacu&tica 75 

Manglar 77 

Abstract 79 

Tabular summary of the vegetation- types 
Literatura citada 


Enumeracion sistemltica de las especies citadas en el texto 85 

Indice alfabetico 113 


K" ■■■■' . . 

Vista panorimica de la Peninsula de Santiago, cerca de Manzanillo. El bosque tropical subdeciduo cubre las laderas 
de los cerros practicamente hasta el nivel de la marea alta. Los manchones mis obscuros en la parte plana corresponden 
a vestigios del palmar de Orbignya. En el fondo, a distancia de unos 50 km, pueden observarse altas montafias del sur de 
Jalisco. (Fot. num. 10037, Cia. Mexicana Aerofoto, S. A. Reproduccion autorizada). 



Dentro del territorio de la Republica Mexicana, la porcion occidental 
cuenta entre las menos conocidas en cuanto a su flora y vegetacion. Uno de 
nosotros (McVaugh) ha iniciado desde 1949 una exploracion intensiva del estado 
de Jalisco y de ireas adyacentes, teniendo como meta la preparacion de la 
flora de la region en una epoca considerada como Nueva Galicia. El resultado 
de esta actividad ha sido la recoleccion de cerca de 60,000 ejemplares de her- 
bario. La revision de diversos grupos taxonomicos se encuentra en desa- 

La presente contribucion se refiere exclusivamente a la vegetacion de la 
zona y sus relaciones con el medio; fue realizada con la idea de ser incluida 
como capltulo introductorio a la flora. Hemos considerado conveniente publi- 
carla por separado en forma preliminar, con el objeto de ponerla a prueba y a 
la critica de todas las personas cuyas actividades pudieran estar relacionadas 
con la vegetacion y con la ecologia de esta region, asi como con el proposito 
de emplear los nombres de los tipos de vegetacion y de otras comunidades 
vegetales aqui descritas como referencia en trabajos taxonomico-floristicos 
que estan en preparacion. 

Una parte del trabajo de campo asi como varias fases del estudio reali- 
zado en Mexico, en Ann Arbor y en otros sitios han sido subvencionadas a 
traves de subsidios obtenidos de Horace H. Rackham School of Graduate Stud- 
ies, University of Michigan, y de National Science Foundation, Washington, 


El primero de los autores inicio la preparacion de este estudio mientras 

laboraba para el Colegio de Post-Graduados de la Escuela Nacional de Agri- 
cultura, de Chapingo, Mex. La confeccion de varios de los mapas se debe a 
Graciela C. de Rzedowski. La mayor parte del costo de la publicacion del 
trabajo fue sufragada por National Science Foundation. 

Los autores agradecen a los directivos del Plan Lerma, del Consejo de 
Recursos Naturales No Renovables y de la Comision de la Costa de Jalisco, el 
haber permitido la consul ta de fotografias aereas conservadas en sus archivos. 


La vegetacion de Nueva Galicia ha recibido hasta ahora tan poca atencion 
por parte de los botanicos, que sobre los estados de Jalisco, Nayarit, 
Aguascalientes y Colima no se ha encontrado ninguna cita en la liter atura. 
Leavenworth (1946) realizo un estudio bastante detallado de un transecto entre 
el Cerro Tancftaro y el rfo Tepalcatepec, en Michoacan, area situada en los 
lfmites o mas bien ligeramente fuera de la zona que se considera en este 
trabajo. Guzman y Vela Galvez (1960) publicaron mas recientementeun arti- 
culo de tipo general sobre la parte suroeste de Zacatecas. Turner (1960) 
estudio en forma breve algunas comunidades vegetales de la zona proxima a 
Coahuayana, en Michoacan. Finalmente, Duellman (1965) incluyo un capitulo 
importante relativo a la vegetacion de todo el Estado de Michoacan, en su 
trabajo biogeografico sobre la herpetofauna de esa entidad. 

En las contribuciones de Leopold (1950) y de Miranda y Hernandez X. 
(1963), que se refieren a toda la Republica Mexicana, se describen somera- 
mente diversos tipos de vegetacion presentes en Nueva Galicia y el primero 
de ellos incluye un mapa de distribucion a escala pequefla. 



En artfculos de indole diver sa se encuentran datos dispersos y obser- 
vaciones aisladas sobre la vegetacion de Jalisco y zonas vecinas. Entre tales 
publicaciones pueden mencionarse las de Kerber (1882a, 1882b), Gadow (1908), 
Gomez (1931), Pringle (Davis, 1936: 280 - 292), McVaugh (1952a, 1952b), Brand 
(1957 - 1958, 1960). 


McVaugh (1961: 145 - 146; fig. 1) presenta las razones y los detalles de la 

delimitacion del area estudiada. 

Esta a grandes rasgos corresponde 


territorio del antiguo Virreinato de la Nueva Galicia, e incluye los estados de 




Sfofe Boundaries 



Towns and cities 



Lakes, shallow 

Lfmifre de estados 








fcr&dP ¥ 

Contours Curvos de nive 

(in meters) (en metros) 

too ~ v ~" 

iooo ~- 


2ooo m 

5OO0 " A 




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Fig. 1. El mapa topogr&fico da idea de la confluencia de diferentes regiones fisiogr&ficas 
de Mexico en el territorio de Nueva Galicia. La parte central y del NE, relativamente poco 
accidentada y mis alta, corresponde a la Altiplanicie Mexicana. El sector noroccidental rep- 
resenta el extremo S de la Sierra Madre Occidental. En la mitad meridional se observa una 
parte de la Depresion del Balsas, delimitada hacia el norte por el Eje Volclnico Transversal 

y hacia el sur por la Sierra Madre del Sur. 



Jalisco, Colima y Aguascalientes, ademas de porciones de los de Nayarit, 
Durango, Zacatecas, Guanajuato y Michoacan. En tal forma definida el Irea 
abarca aproximadamente 125,000 km 2 , con un litoral de unos 500 km de largo 
(vease tambien el mapa de la fig. 1). 

En este territorio confluyen diversas unidades fisiograficas de la Repu- 
blica Mexicana, como por ejemplo: Sierra Madre Occidental, Eje Volcanico 
Transversal, Sierra Madre del Sur, Altiplanicie Mexicana, Depresion del 
Balsas, etc. De cada una de ellas Nueva Galicia participa solamente en una 
pequefia parte marginal, y los limites precisos entre algunas son bastante 
dificiles de definir. Para fines practicos y siguiendo en parte la nomenclatura 
regional conviene mas emplear la clasificacion propuesta por Gutierrez 
V&zquez (1959: 11-32, fig. 4), quien distingue 4 provincias fisiograficas para el 
estado de Jalisco y zonas adyacentes, a mencionar: l a region de los Canones; 
2^ region de los Altos; 3 a region de las Cuencas Centrales, y 4 a region mon- 
taftosa y declives del Pacific o (vease el mapa de la fig. 2). 


Fig. 2. Regiones fisiograficas y principales rios de Nueva Galicia. 1. Region de los 

Canones. 2. Regi6n de los Altos. 
y declives del Pacifico. 


3. Region de las Cuencas Centrales. 4. Region montafiosa 



La region de los Canones, de relieve escarpado, corresponde a un area 

intensamente disecada porel rio Santiago y los afluentes de su margenderecha. 

Los profundos cafiones de estos ultimos corren en forma mas o menos paralela 

de norte a sur,estando separados por serranias alineadas en el mismo sentido. 

Las laderas occidentales generalmente son mas pendientes que las orientales 

(Gutierrez Vlzquez, op. cit. : 12) y el desnivel entre el fondo de la barranca y 

las montanas circundantes normalmente pasa de 700 m y a veces de 1500 m. 

La altitud varia entre 200 m en las partes inferior es del rio Santiago y cerca 

de 2800 m en la cumbre mis alta, pero en general se mantiene entre 500 y 
2400 m. 

La region de los Altos es la de topograffa mas uniforme y participa de la 
Altiplanicie Mexicana. Tiene el aspecto de una plataforma algo inclinada en el 
sentido NE-SW, desde las llanuras de Ojuelos, situadas a 2200 m de altitud 
hasta las de Tepatitlan, que se encuentran a unos 1600 m. Macizos montafiosos 
aislados llegan a medir hasta 2700 m sobre el nivel del mar. 

La region de las Cuencas Centrales se define claramente por una serie de 
depositos lacustres antiguos o actuales, situados entre Guadalajara, Ameca, 
Ciudad Guzman y Jiquilpan, que se hallan separadas entre si por sierras y 

sierritas de magnitud diver sa. 


son los mas notables entre los actuales. La altitud de los fondos lacustres 
varia entre 1250 y 1600 m, la de las montanas intercaladas 11( 
de 3000 m. 

La region montanosa y declives del Pacffico es la mas heterogenea de 
todas, pues ademas de representar el area de confluencia de la Sierra Madre 
Occidental, del Eje Volcanico Transversal y de la Sierra Madre del Sur, 
incluye una porcion de la Depresion del Balsas y una serie de pequeiias plani- 
cies costeras en el litoral Paclfico. Como el nombre lo indica, la region es 
predominantemente montanosa en su relieve y los valles son en general de 
poca extension y significacion. Las sierras frecuentemente se inician desde el 
punto de contacto con el Oceano mismo; las proximas a la costa, sin embargo, 
rara vez llegan a medir 1200 m de altitud. Mas tierra adentro los cerros 
alcanzan con frecuencia la cota de 1500 m, y las elevaciones mas prominentes 
se encuentran en el area del Nevado de Colima (4330 m) y del Cerro Tancftaro 
(3960 m). Tres llanuras costeras merecen mencionarse por su extension: la 

del Valle de 



de Tomatlan; y la de Tecoman, que fue formada por los sedimentos aportados 
por los rios Armeria y Coahuayana. 

Las rocas volcanicas, principalmente del Cenozoico Medio y Superior 
(riolitas, andesitas y basaltos), predominan en Nueva Galicia, alternando fre- 
cuentemente con aluviones recientes. Solamente la franja costera, 
km de ancho, ofrece una mayor diversidad de substrato geologico. A hi afloran 
rocas intrusivas (granitos y rocas af ines) del Mesozoico y del Cenozoico, rocas 
metamorficas paleozoicas (gneiss, esquistos y otras) y calizas del Cretacico 
Inferior, estas ultimas sobre todo en el sur de Jalisco, en Colima y en zonas 
adyacentes de Michoacan. Un pequeho afloramiento de calizas de < 
se localiza tambien al este de Rincon de Romos en Aguascalientes. 


Hidrologicamente mas de la mitad del territorio estudiado pertenece a la 
cuenca de Lerma - Santiago; a traves de este sistema se drena toda la region 
de los Cailones, casi toda la de los Altos y la mayor parte de la de las Cuencas 
Centrales. Una pequefia zona perteneciente a la region montanosa y declives 
del Pacffico forma parte de la cuenca del rio Balsas, a traves del rio Tepal- 
catepec; es el extremo SE de Nueva Galicia. El resto de esta ultima region 
desagua a traves de rios de menor significacion directamente al Oceano 
Pacffico, los mas importantes de los cuales son los Ameca y Armeria. Los 


lagos de Sayula, de Zacoalco y algunos mas forman pequeilas areas de drenaje 
endorreico en la region de las Cuencas Centrales. Igualmente sin desague 
hacia el mar quedan algunas zonas del estado de Aguascalientes y la region de 
Ojuelos, en el extremo noreste de Jalisco. 


La variada topografia de Nueva Galicia tiene su reflejo en una notable 
diver sidad de climas. El ecuador termico toca el extremo sur del area, y por 
otra parte en las cumbres del Tancitaro y del Nevado de Colima se alcanza el 
limite de la vegetacion arborea. Faltan los climas francamente humedo y 
francamente arido, pero existe toda la amplitud de situaciones inter medias. 
Como caracteres climaticos notables de toda la zona deben resaltarse la 
ausencia de estaciones termicas marcadas y la presencia de dos estaciones 
hidricas muy bien definidas. 

La temperatura parece alcanzar valores mas altos en el Valle del rfo 
Tepalcatepec, que participa de la depresion del Balsas, y donde en promedio 
anual se registran temperaturas hasta de 29° C. En la faja costera el calor es 
un poco menos intenso y las temperaturas medias anuales se mantienen entre 
25 y 27°C; a altitudes cercanas a 1600 m sus valores son alrededor de 20°C. 
De acuerdo con Gutierrez Vazquez (1959: 57) el gradiente termico promedio 
por debajo de 1200 m de altitud es de 0.0031, y por encima de esta cota 
aumenta a 0.0045. 

La zona libre de heladas se encuentra por lo general por debajo de 1200 m 

de altitud, pero en algunas localidades asciende hasta llegar a cerca de 1600 m 

sobre el nivel del mar. 

El mes mas caliente es comunmente mayo o junio, y enero el mis frio; 

las diferencias entre sus temperaturas medias varian entre 2.5 y 10° C, aumen- 
tando por regla general de la costa hacia el interior. Las temperaturas maxi- 
mas extremas alcanzan valores cercanos a 50° C en las zonas mas calidas. 

En la fig. 3 se representa la distribucion de isoyetas medias anuales, ob- 
tenidas a base de datos de 187 estaciones meteorologicas. En ciertas areas, 
particular mente en la region de los Canones, el numero de estaciones fue in- 
suficiente y las lfneas se trazaron tomando en cuenta la topografia y sobre todo 

la vegetacion. 

De este mapa se desprende que la zona mas pobre en precipitacion se 
localiza hacia el extremo nor-oriental, donde llueve menos de 500 mm en 
promedio anual (385 mm es la media mas baja registrada). Las fajas mas 
humedas estan situadas en algunas sierras cercanas a la costa de Jalisco y 
Nayarit, con precipitacion superior a 1500 mm (de haber areas en que llueve 
mis de 2000 mm, estas deben ser muy limitadas). En general valores mayores 
de 1000 mm se limitan a las regiones montaiiosas, en cambio las zonas donde 
llueve entre 750 y 1000 mm son las que mayor superficie ocupan en Nueva 
Galicia. Las partes bajas de la depresion correspondiente a la cuenca del 
Balsas y a las pequeiias planicies costeras de Tomatlan y de Tecoman, conpre- 
cipitaciones inferiores a 750 mm, son tambien marcadamente secas, dadas 



cae, en promedio, en los meses de mayo a octubre, con lo cual el afio se divide 
en un periodo humedo y otro seco; la duracion del ultimo varia de 5 a 8 meses. 
Las precipitaciones suelen ser de tipo torrencial y de duracion corta; se pro- 
ducen generalmente por las tardes. 



Sonescasos los datosreferentesa la humedad atmosferica relativa. A base 
de 9 estaciones que registran este parametro, se puede deducir que valores 
super lores a 75% en promedio anual se alcanzan en la franja costera y particu- 
larmente en las montaiias cercanas a la misma. Hacia el extremo noreste, en 
la zona de Aguascalientes y Lagos de Moreno, la media anual es solamente de 
unos 50%. En el resto del territorio de Nueva Galicia los valores de humedad 
relativa son intermedios entre las dos cifras mencionadas. 

Gutierrez Vazquez (1959) presenta un mapa de climas del estado de Ja- 
lisco, elaborado de acuerdo con el criterio de Koeppen. Segun la mencionada 
autora, do mi nan en el area los climas de tipo Cwagy Awg. Ademas se localizan 
los siguientes: Awgi, Cwa (?.), BShwg, BSkwg, Cwbg, BSh T wg, Aw, Cwcg y ET, 
en orden de importancia decreciente. 




Fig. 3. Nueva Galicia. Esquema de isoyetas medias anuales en mm. 



Este factor es muy de tomarse en cuenta, aunque la intensidad de las modi - 
ficaciones de la vegetacion, debidas directa o indirectamente a las actividades 

del hombre, varia de un sitio a otro. 

La influencia humana sobre la vegetacion natural es parti cularmente 
acentuada en la region fisiografica de las Cuencas Centrales (alrededores de 
Guadalajara y del Lago de Chapala), zona que parece haber sido densamente 
habitada desde tiempos prehispanicos. El impacto del hombre es ligeramente 
menos acentuado hacia el noreste, noroeste y sur, y alcanza su minima im- 
portancia relativa en la faja costera de Jalisco, donde la densidad de poblacion 

aun es baja. 

Las principales causas de disturbio que sufre la vegetacion natural en el 
area estudiada son agricultura seminomada, ganaderia y corte de drboles para 
lefla y carbon. Las primeras dos implican comunmente el uso periodico del 
fuego, siendo tan extendida la practica de incendiar la vegetacion, que la com- 
posicion de la misma se modifica con el tiempo, adaptlndose a este factor 
ecologico. De manera semejante influye el intenso pastoreo,que hace disminuir 
o desaparecer las especies palatables en favor de otras que no toca el ganado. 

En resumen, puede afirmarse que, con excepcion de algunas regiones 
proximas al litoral del Pacifico, son escasas las areas en que la vegetacion se 
vea libre de los efectos de disturbio humano. 


El area que denominamos Nueva Galicia queda incluida dentro de una re- 
gion floristica mis bien natural que se extiende aproximadamente desde el 
centro de Sinaloa hacia el sur, a traves de Nayarit, Jalisco y Colima y luego a 
lo largo del litoral del Pacifico hasta Guerrero y Oaxaca (McVaugh y Rzedow- 
ski, 1965: 318-319). La flora de Nueva Galicia resulta por consiguiente es- 
trechamente relacionada con la de la Sierra Madre del Sur; contiene algunos 
elementos propios de los zacatales y matorrales xerofilos de la Altiplanicie, 
pero posee pocas especies en comun con la flora del Desierto Sonorense y con 
la de las Montanas Rocallosas, aunque no son raras las ireas de distribucion 
que se extienden a lo largo de la Sierra Madre Occidental hasta Chihuahua. 
Muchos generos y especies propias del Eje Volcanico Transversal existen en 
Nueva Galicia, al mismo tiempo que en las partes altas de Michoacan, Puebla y 
Veracruz, pero puede observarse una zona de discontinuidad en el centro de 
Michoacan, a resultas de la cual numerosas especies bien conocidas de los 
alrededores de la ciudad de Mexico faltan al oeste de Morelia. 

Llevando este somero analisis a relaciones con areas floristicas de mayor 
jerarquia, el rasgo mis notable de la flora de Nueva Galicia es su fuerte 
carlcter mexicano o mexicano-centroamericano. A nivel de genero resulta 
clara la afinidad de las zonas calientes con el reino neotropical y de las zonas 
de clima mas fresco con el dominio holirctico y en parte con el andino. Las 
especies, sin embargo, son casi todas de distribucion restringida a Meso- 
america y con mas frecuencia a solo una pequena fraccion de su territorio. La 
importancia de los elementos autoctonos, expresada tan to en terminos de su 
participacion cuantitativa como en terminos de su nivel taxonomico aumenta en 
general al disminuir la humedad disponible para las plantas (comp. en 
Rzedowski, 1962: 54-55). 

En las descripciones que siguen enumeramos unas 1400 especies y va- 
riedades de plantas vasculares, entre las dominantes y las mas caracteristicas 
de los diferentes tipos de vegetacion. 



La inclusion de las Pteridofitas obedece sobre todo a la circunstancia de 
que estas plantas constituyen un eleraento importante de la flora y de la vege- 
tacion de muchas partes de Nueva Galicia. Se les puede encontrar en casi todos 
los habitats, excepto quizas el zacatal homogeneo de las llanuras. Muchas 
especies de los generos Bommeria, Cheilanthes, Notholaena, Pellaea, Poly- 
podium y Selaginella son rupicolas, especialmente en condiciones de clima mas 
seco, y con frecuencia se pueden localizar sobre laderas o pefiascos rocosos 
que constituyen "islotes" mis aridos en medio del zacatal, del bosque de pino y 
encino o del bosque tropical deciduo. Estas mismas especies pueden ser com- 
ponentes normales del matorral crasicaule o del matorral subtropical. En el 
bosque tropical subdeciduo, en el bosque mesofilo de montafla y en el bosque de 
oyamel las Pteridofitas for man parte importante del estrato inferior de la 
comunidad o bien viven como epifitas, como por ejemplo los representantes de 
los generos Adiantum, Asplenium , Dryopteris, Polypodium. 

Hemos obtenido de fuentes diversas los nombres de los taxa tratados en 
esta obra. La mayor parte de tales nombres se han definido por medio de la 
identificacion de nuestros propios ejemplares y en menor extension de los de 

otros colectores. 


vez mas evidente que la flora incluye un considerable numero de especies 
endemicas, aunque por otra parte muchos de los supuestos endemismos demues- 
tran no ser sino poblaciones locales de especies de distribucion mas amplia. 
En todos los grupos hasta ahora revisados para la Flora Novo-Galiciana se 
encontro un numero significativo de elementos nuevos para la ciencia. Se esta 
llevando a cabo el estudio taxonomico critico de la flora vascular entera, pero 
diver sos problemas en grupos diffciles aim estan sin re solver se y muchas de 
nuestras identificaciones deben interpretarse a la luz de esta circunstancia. 

Nuestros ejemplares se distribuyeron a los siguientes herbarios: Herbario 
Nacional del Instituto de Biologfa, Mexico, D.F. (MEXU); Herbario de la 
Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biologicas, Mexico, D.F. (ENCB); y Herbario de 
la Universidad de Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, E.U.A. (MICH). Se han 
enviado, o se enviaran, duplicados a otras instituciones. 


Basandose fundamentalmente en datos de orden fisonomico, pero tomando 
tambien en cuenta otros aspectos, se han distinguido 13 tipos de vegetacion (o 
formaciones) como caracteristicas en el Irea de estudio. Todos ellos se des- 
criben a continuacion, incluyendo breves discusiones relativas a su distribu- 
cion geografica, a las exigencias ecologicas de cada uno, y otras observaciones 
que se consideraron de interes. 

En cuanto a la cartograffa de la vegetacion (vease mapa al final del texto), 
la intensidad de la exploracion realizada no fue suficiente ni suficientemente 
uniforme para pretender elaborar un mapa definitivo. Vastas areas, especial- 
mente en la region de los Cafiones y en la costa no fueron visitadas, sino muy 
fragmentariamente. Por for tuna, se dispuso de la informacion contenida en fo- 
tografias aereas para la mayor parte de la zona estudiada, pues se consultaron 
las correspondientes a toda la cuenca Lerma - Santiago y a una franja de 
aproximadamente 100 km de amplitud que corre paralela al litoral del Pacifico, 
desde Manzanillo hasta Puerto Vallarta. La region montanosa de la Sierra 
Madre de Durango y de Nayarit, asi como un cinturon de unos 50 km deancho 
entre Compostela y Tomatlan, son quizas las dos areas mas debiles en lo 
tocante a la cartograffa de su vegetacion y probablemente habra necesidad de 
rectificar limites ahi. 

Debido a la complicada topograffa de muchas areas, que tiene su fiel re- 
flejo en la distribucion de la vegetacion, ha habido necesidad de recurrir con 
frecuencia a generalizaciones, en perjuicio de la precision del mapa. En virtud 
de ello el lector debe quedar advertido que el haber cartografiado un deter- 
minado tipo de vegetacion sobre una superficie definida no significa necesaria- 
mente que este se extienda ininterrumpidamente en toda el area marcada, sino 
mis bien que es el que con mayor frecuencia puede encontrarse ahi. 

Debido a las mismas causas no se han incluido en el mapa varios de los 
tipos de vegetacion, cuyas Ireas se han estimado demasiado pequefias o frag- 
mentarias para lograr una representacion adecuada a la escala empleada. 

Es pertinente recordar tambien que en Jalisco se localiza una de las zonas 
agricolas mas importantes de la Republica y que se cultiva en casi todas las 

superficies susceptibles. Al cartografiar estas areas se ha intentado interpre- 
tar la vegetacion potencial correspondiente. 

En las piginas 10-11 se incluye un resumen tabular de los 13 tipos de 
vegetacion, en el cual se concentran algunos de sus rasgos ecologicos, sus 
componentes floristicos mas notables, asi como una estimacion de su extension 
superficial relativa. 





Tipo de 


en Nueva 




















25 - 27 


7600 - 71000 

Bosque tropical 


- 1200 

22 - 27 


750 - 71600 

Bosque tropical 

15 - 20 

, _ . _ 

- 1600 

20 - 28 


600 - 1000 

Bosque espinoso 

2 - 3 

- 2000 

17 - 29 


500 - 750 



15 - 20 

1500 - 2000 

17 - 21 


500 - 900 



50 - 800 

23 - 27 7 


7700 - 71200 


15 - 20 

1700 - 4300 



350 - 7800 



1800 - 2200 

16 - 18 


350 - 550 

Bosque de pino 

y encino 

25 - 30 

300 - 4000 

5 - 25 


400 - 71500 

Bosque mesofilo 
de m on tafia 



800 - 2400 

15 - 23 7 


71000 - 72000 

Bosque de oyamel 


1500 - 3500 

7 - 21 ? 


71000 - 71500 


+ 1 

- 4000 

5 - 29 


350 - 72000 



- 5 

25 - 27 


7600 - 71000 




Preferencia de 

Arenas cercanas a 
las play as 

Somero de ladera 


Somero de ladera 

Plantas caracteristicas 

Orbignya cohune, Ficus spp 

Brosimum alicastrum, Bumelia cartilaginea, Bursera arborea, 
Celtis monoica, Enterolobium cyclocarpum, Ficus spp., Hura 

Amphipterygium spp., Bursera spp., Ceiba aesculifolia, Loncho- 
carpus spp., Lysiloma divaricata 

Acacia spp., Caesalpinia spp., Cercidium praecox, Haematoxylon 
brasiletto, Pithecellobium dulce, Prosopis laevigata, Ziziphus 


Acacia pennatula, Eysenhardtia polystachya, Forestiera spp., 
Ipomoea spp., Opuntia fuliginosa 

Somero de ladera 

Somero de ladera 

Byrsonima crassifolia, Crescentia alata, Curatella americana 

Andropogon spp., Aristida spp., Bouteloua spp., Hilaria cench- 
roides, Muhlenbergia spp., Acacia tortuosa 

Opuntia guilanchi, Opuntia streptacantha, Mimosa biuncifera, 
Mimosa monancistra 


Pinus spp., Quercus spp., Arbutus spp. 

Carpinus caroliniana, Clethra spp., Prunus spp., Quercus acutifolia, 
Styrax spp., Symplocos prionophylla 

Abies spp., Alnus firmifolia, Meliosma dentata, Quercus laurina 

Salino de orillas 
de esteros 

Rhizophora mangle, Avicennia nitida 




Fig. 4. Palmar de Orbignya cohune, cerca de Las Varas, Nay. (Fot. Tad Nichols, repro- 
ducida gracias a la amabilidad del fot6grafo y la del Sr. Dale Stuart King, editor del libro Meet 
Flora Mexicana de M. Walter Pesman). 


Se describird bajo este nombre la comunidad dominada por Orbignya 
cohune, propia de algunas localidades cercanas a la costa de Nueva Galicia. 

Otra e specie de la misma familia, Sabal rosei, puede ser frecuente en los 
declives de la sierra al norte de Tepic, pero se trata evidentemente de una 
invasion secundaria y la palma no llega a ser dominante en ningun lugar 

En la cuenca del Balsas se conocen areas cubiertas por palmares de 
Brahea dulcis y otros de Sabal pamos, en general intercalados entre los 
bosques de pino y encino por un lado, y los bosques tropicales por el otro.No 
es imposible que alguno de estos enclaves pueda localizarse en el area bajo 



de los lugares proximos al litoral y en los cuales aparentemente el agua fremiti - 
ca esta al alcance de las raices de las palmeras. Su distribucion geografica es 
discontinua, pues se le localiza casi siempre a lo largo de las bahias y ensena- 
das, en forma de manchones que pueden ser de 10 km o un poco mas de largo, 
pero rara vez pasan de 5 km de ancho. Las zonas de mayor concentracion se 
localizan en las costas del sur de Nayarit y a lo largo del litoral de Colima. 



olectan en gran 

comestibles, se aprovechan como materia prima en la industria de las grasas. 
Su rendimiento, sin embargo, es inferior al de la palma cocotera (Cocos 


y puesto que los requerimientos ecologicos de ambas especies son 



extensiones de palmar primitivo; en Jalisco y Nayarit se conservan un poco 
mejor, pero al terminarse de construir la carretera costera es probable que 
desapareceran con gran rapidez. 

Por su fisonomia el palmar de Orbignya es indudablemente el tipo de 
vegetacion mas majestuoso de Nueva Galicia. El bosque tiene 15 a 30 m de 
alto y es tan denso como para crear condiciones de penumbra al nivel del 
suelo (Figs. 4, 5). La dominancia de Orbignya es absoluta y solo puede haber 
arboles esporadicos de otras especies en el estrato alto, como por ejemplo 


cast rum, 

F. glabrata, F. glaucescens, F. lentiginosa, Brosimum ali- 
anax arboretis, Enterolobium cyclocarpum, Bursera aff. 

Un estrato de arboles mis bajos a menudo incluye: 

Acacia sp. 
Annona sp. 
Ardisia revoluta 
Bravaisia integer rima 
Coccoloba barbadensis 
Coccoloba floribunda 
Colubrina triflora 
Cordia alliodora 

Cupania aff. glabra 
Godmania aesculifolia 
Guarea excelsa 
Nectandra perdubia 
Swartzia ochnacea 
Thevetia plumeriifolia 
Thouinidium decandrum 
Trichilia hirta 

Se desconoce cual ha sido la composicion de los estratos arbustivo y her- 
biceo, pues estos se hallan intensamente perturbados en todos los sitios que 
se han visto. Entre los arbustos encontrados pueden mencionarse: 




Acacia farnesiana 
Acanlhocereus occidentalis 

Bromelia karatas 
Cassia oxyphylla 
Celtis igitanea 
Cnidos coins tubulosus 

Eugenia acapulcensis 
Eupatorium quadrangulare 

Forchhammeria sessilifolia 

Garcia nutans 
He lie teres guazumifolia 
Hybanthus aff . mexicanus 
Hyhanthus yitcatanensis 
Hyperbaena ilicifolia 

Morisonia americana 
Ouratea mexicana 
Picramnia antidesma 
Piper spp. 
Pisonia aculeata 
Pithecellobium lanceolatum 
Quassia amara 

Randia arm at a 
Rauwolfia hirsuta 
Solarium bicolor 
The ve tia pe ru viana 
Trichilia havanensis 
Xylosma flex no sum 

Como se indica en la description del bosque tropical subdeciduo, 
Orbignya puede for mar parte de el, a menudo siendo codominante en sitios 
poco alejados de la costa. Se desconoce la razon por la cual esta palma esta 

ausente en condiciones aparentemente analogas, pero a mayor distancia del 


Fig. 5. Palmar de Orbignya cohune, cerca de Las Varas, Nay. Notense los individuos de 
Ficus spp. que inician su vida como epifitos sobre las palmeras. (Fot. Rzedowski). 


De entre los tipos de vegetacion que se describen en la presente contribu- 
cion este es indudablemente el mis exuberante, el mis complejo por su 
estructura asi como por su composicion floristica. Su fisonomia y su fenologia 
colocan a esta formacion en una situacion intermedia entre el bosque tropical 
perennifolio y el bosque tropical deciduo, pues si bien la gran mayoria de las 
especies pierde sus hojas durante el periodo seco, hay muchos Irboles que no 
se defolian totalmente y otros lo realizan por un periodo corto, a veces solo de 
unas semanas. La altura del estrato dominante es invar iablemente mayor que 
en el caso del bosque tropical deciduo, al igual que la abundancia de lianas, 
epifitas y plantas esciofilas. 

El verdadero bosque tropical perennifolio aparentemente no existe en la 
vertiente pacffica de Mexico mas al norte del Istmo de Tehuantepec, y lo unico 
que pudiera asemejarsele se encuentra en algunos sitios protegidos dentro del 
irea general del bosque tropical subdeciduo. Estos manchones se localizan con 
cierta frecuencia en Nayarit, entre Tepic y el litoral del Pacifico. Por su 
fenologfa y estructura quizas ameriten clasificarse como bosque tropical sub- 
perennifolio, pero su extension es tan reducida y su composicion floristica tan 
poco diferente del bosque tropical subdeciduo, que se ha optado por mencionar 
solo su existencia en este sitio. 

Miranda (1958: 232-236) describe en la Peninsula de Yucatan lo que de- 
nomina "selva alta o mediana subdeeidua," que parece ser equivalente al 
bosque tropical subdeciduo de Nueva Galicia. Este tipo de vegetacion tiene una 
distribucion algo irregular en el pais y no ocupa grandes extensiones en la 
vertiente del Golfo de Mexico. En eambio, en los declives pacificos parece ex- 
tender se en forma de una franja estrecha y mas o menos continua desde 
Chiapas hasta Nayarit y posiblemente hasta Sinaloa. De la parte central de 
este ultimo estado Gentry (1946b: 359) refiere bajo el nombre de "apomal" una 
comunidad que, de corresponder al bosque tropical subdeciduo, representaria 
quizes su extremo nor- occidental. Posiblemente se trate de un manchon 

El bosque tropical subdeciduo es de importancia economica por incluir 
varias especies arboreas de maderas preciosas, y sobre todo porque el micro- 
clima al abrigo de los irboles es con frecuencia favorable para el cultivo del 
cafe, que esti particularmente extendido en las zonas costeras de Guerrero y 

En Nueva Galicia el bosque tropical subdeciduo parece estar confinado a 
las areas poco elevadas y no demasiado alejadas del mar. Una franja proba- 
blemente continua se extiende a lo largo de la costa desde el sur de Nayarit 
hasta cerca de Manzanillo, desde donde su zona de distribucion se interna para 
ocupar los declives inferiores occidentales, meridionales y orientales del 
macizo del Nevado de Colima. Las ireas inmediatas a la costa desde los 
alrededores de Manzanillo hacia el sureste se caracterizan por una vegetacion 
mis xerofila, pero ya dentro del territorio del estado de Michoacan una irea 
continua del bosque tropical subdeciduo aparentemente vuelve a alcanzar el 
litoral mis o menos a la altura de la Bahia de Tizupan, como puede deducirse 
indirectamente de las fotografias de Brand (1957-1958). 

El tipo de vegetacion que se describe es evidentemente muy termofilo en 
sus exigencias ecologicas y existe solo en ireas en que las heladas no se 
presentan nunca. No se le ha observado a altitudes superiores de 1200 m, por 



lo cual las temperaturas medias anuales dentro de su £rea de distribucion son 

superiores a 21°C. La precipitacion en casi todo el territorio ocupado por el 

bosque tropical subdeciduo de Nueva Galicia es en promedio anual superior a 

900 mm. En ciertas Ireas de Nayarit y Jalisco excede de 1500 mm, pero en 

los alrededores de Colima es solo del orden de 850 mm y en Cabo Corrientes 

de 750 mm. Es probable que en estas dos regiones se compense la falta de 

lluvia a traves de alta humedad atmosferica o quizas algun otro factor 

Los suelos caracteristicos del bosque tropical subdeciduo pueden ser 
someros o profundos y de textura muy variable, desde francamente arcillosos 
hasta arenas casi puras. El contenido de materia organica suele ser elevado, 
al menos en el horizonte en contacto directo con la hojarasca. La acidez 
medida en valores de pH se encontro entre limites de 4 a 6.5. 

A pesar de que a priori podria pensarse en lo contrario, el bosque tropical 
subdeciduo en Nueva Galicia es uno de los tipos de vegetacion relativamente 
mejor conservados, aun hoy en dia. Tal circunstancia es cierta en particular 
para el estado de Jalisco y su explicacion debe buscarse en la baja densidad de 
la poblacion humana en toda la region costera de esta entidad federativa. La 
zona ha permanecido aislada de la civilizacion durante mucho tiempo y aun en 
el presente no parece constituir un gran atractivo para una colonizacion mas 
intensa. Estas condiciones no se mantendran probablemente por mucho mas 
tiempo. Aunque serfa diffcil hacer un calculo exacto, de acuerdo con las esti- 
maciones de los autores, cerca de la mitad del Irea total sehalada para es- 
ta formacion en Nueva Galicia posiblemente esta cubierta todavia por un tapiz 
vegetal no muy diferente del climax. En muchas partes la agricultura se ha 
limitado a ocupar los suelos profundos de los valles y la ganaderia no parece 
ser muy importante. Ciertos sectores han sido sometidos a la explotacion 
forestal (principalmente de Cedrela, Cybistax, Enterolobium , Tabebuia, 
Swie tenia, Hum y Bros imam), aunque esta ultima nunca fue muy severa. Los 
incendios no se propagan con tanta facilidad en este tipo de vegetacion y la 
demanda de lena es relativamente escasa. 

El bosque tropical subdeciduo suele presentarse bajo la forma de comuni- 
dad forestal densa, de manera que en la epoca lluviosa el suelo se encuentra en 
condiciones de penumbra, inclusive a las horas de mayor insolacion. Su altura 
varfa entre 15 y 35 m, mas frecuentemente alrededor de los 25 m. Los drboles 
del estrato dominante se caracterizan por sus troncos mas o menos derechos y 
desprovistos de ramas hasta lo alto de la boveda, o ramificandose en la mitad 
superior (Figs. 6, 7). En condiciones naturales de crecimiento el diametro de 
la copa suele ser mucho menor que la altura de la planta. Algunas especies 
pueden presentar raices tabulares mis o menos desarrolladas; el grosor de los 
troncos rara vez llega aim, por lo general oscila entre 30 y 60 cm. La 
corteza de muchas de las especies tiene un color blanquecino caracteristico, 
que al parecer se debe a la presencia de un liquen crustaceo que la cubre casi 
por completo. Con frecuencia, asimismo, esta corteza esta partida de tal 
manera que recuerda un poco las tejas de un techo. Las especies estrangula- 
doras de Ficus llegan a ser frecuentes en algunas localidades. 

El tamano predominant^ de la hoja o foliolo es mediano (categoria de 
mesofilo de la clasificacion de Raunkiaer), existiendo tambien especies de 
foliolo muy pequefio [Lysiloma divaricata, Enterolobium cyclocarpum). La 
gran mayor la de las plantas es de hoja decidua, pero en varias la perdida del 
follaje en tiempo seco parece ser mas o menos facultativa, de modo que en 
anos muy secos la defoliacion es usualmente mis pronunciada y mas prolonga- 
da que en los humedos. El periodo de franca carencia de hojas dura de 1 a 4 
meses. Algunas especies, como Ficus spp.y Orbignya cohune son perennifolios. 



No quedan muchos restos de bosque tropical subdeciduo sobre suelos 
profundos, pero de los vestigios que en ocasiones pueden encontrarse es facti- 
ble deducir que este parece haber tenido una composicion florfstica bastante 
uniforme y definida, con predominancia de varias e species de Ficus (F. 
glabrata, F. padifolia, F. involuta), casi siempre con Enterolobium cyclo- 
carpum. Otros Irboles m&s o menos frecuentes en el estrato dominante de 
este tipo de bosque deben haber sido: Ceiba pentandra, Hura polyandra, Salix 
chilensiSy Bumelia cartilaginea, Pithecellobium lanceolatum. En condiciones 
de deficiencia de drenaje los Ficus son practicamente duefios del terreno, pero 
en lugares de fdcil desague Enterolobium siempre es muy frecuente. 

Sobre suelos someros de las laderas de los cerros el bosque tropical sub- 
deciduo se presenta bajo la forma de diversas asociaciones. Brosimum ali- 
castrum es indudablemente la e specie mis caracterfstica, siendo casi siempre 
dominante o codominante sobre laderas calizas, pero de ninguna manera 

Fig. 6. Bosque tropical subdeciduo, cerca de Barra de Navidad, JaL, con Brosimum 
alicastrum, Astronium graveolens, Orbignya cohune. (Fot. Rzedowski). 



Fig. 7. Restos del bosque tropical subdeciduo, cerca de Las Varas, Nay. En primer 
piano Brosimum alicastrum, atras Orbignya cohune. (Fot. McVaugh). 



restringida a este substrato, como parece suceder en la vertiente atlantica de 
Mexico. Con Brosimum suele estar asociada Celtis monoica y a menudo tam- 
bien algunos de los siguientes irboles altos: 

Aralia sp. 

Astronium graveolens 
Bernoullia flammea 
Bur sera arbor ea 
Calophyllum brasiliense var. 

Cedrela sp. 
Cnidos coins sp. 
Conzattia multiflora 
Cordia alliodora 
Cordia elaeagnoides 
Couepia polyandra 
Coussapoa aff. purpusii 
Cybistax donnell '- smithii 
Dendropanax arbor ens 
Dipholis minntiflora 
Drypetes lateriflora 
Enterolobium cyclocarpum 
Ficus cotinifolia 
Ficus glabrata 
Ficus glaucescens 

Ficus involuta 

Ficus lentiginosa 

Ficus mexicana 

Ficus padifolia 

Guarea excelsa 

Eur a polyandra 

Hymenaea courbaril 

Licaria cervantesii 

Luehea Candida 

Ly silo ma divaricata 

Mastichodendron angustifolium 

Mastichodendron capiri 

Orbignya cohune 

Per sea sp. 

Phoebe arsenii 

Posoqueria latifolia 

P outer iacampechiana vzx.palmeri 

Swie tenia humilis 
Tabebuia palmer i 
Tabebuia pentaphylla 
Trophis racemosa 

Orbignya puede ser bastante abundante en lugares proximos al mar, pero 
va desapareciendo al internarse el bosque hacia las sierras. 

En las £reas cercanas a la costa al WNW de Manzanillo la comunidad esta 
dominada por Celaenodendron mexicanmn y Bur sera arborea; en cambio sobre 

suelos originados de roca basaltica en los alrededores de Colima Bumelia 
cartilaginea es la especie prevaleciente. En algunas barrancas Hura polyandra 
y Cnidos colus sp. llegan a ser dominantes; se han observado tambien bosque s 
de Tabebuia spp. y Cordia spp., pero es factible que se trate de estados 
sucesionales avanzados. 

Un estrato arboreo inferior de 5 a 15 m de alto comunmente existe en el 
bosque tropical subdeciduo, aunque su densidad es muy variable. Se han obser- 
vado en el: 

Acacia langlassei 
Apoplanesia paniculata 
Ardisia compressa 
Ardisia revoluta 
Bauhinia subrotundifolia 
Belotia mexicana 
Bomb ax ellipticum 
Bur sera excelsa vars. 
Bur sera grandifolia 
Bur sera aff. simaruba 
Carica mexicana 
Ceiba aesculifolia 
Cnidos colus tubulosus 
Coccoloba barbadensis 
Coccoloba floribunda 
Comocladia sp. 

Cordia seleriana 
Croton draco 
Cupania glabra 
Esenbeckia berlandieri 
Eugenia michoacanensis 
Eugenia rekoi 
Eugenia salamensis 
Euphorbia fulva 
Exothea copalillo 
Forchhammeria pallida 
Heliocarpus cf. occidentalis 
Heliocarpus pallidus 
Inga eriocarpa 
Inga laurina 
Inga oophylla 
Jatropha peltata 



Lemaireocereus sp. 
Loncliocarpus constrictus 
Oxandra lance olata subsp. 

macro carp a 
Parathesis spp. 
Picramnia antidesma 
Piptadenia cons trie ta 
P la lyrni s c turn, trifo I io la turn 

P lamer ia rubra 
Poeppigia procera 
Psidium sartorianum 

Quassia amara 
R up re ch tia fits ca 
Sapium pedicellatitm 

Schaefferia aif.frutescens 
Swartzia ochnacea 
Thouinia acuminata 


Trema micrantha 
Trichilia colimana 

Trichilia palmer i 

Triumfetta paniculata 

Vitex hemsleyi 

Las plantas arbustivas no abundan cuando el bosque se encuentra bien 
conservado, pero su densidad y diver sidad aumenta mucho en sitios en que hay 
mayor penetracion de luz. Forman un estrato de 1 a 4 m de alto, que solo se 
vuelve diffcil de atravesar en condiciones de fuerte disturbio. Las especies 
mis frecuentemente encontradas fueron: 

Acalypha cincta 
Acalypha schiedeana 
Amy r is sylvatica 
Aphelandra sp. 
Ar thro sty lidium sp. 
Barter ia mi cans 
Be mar dia gentryana 
Bernardia mexicana 
Bromelia karatas 
Bunchosia palmeri 
Cassia biflora 
Chamaedorea pochutlensis 
Colubrina triflora 
Cracca aletes 
Cryosophila nana 
Cynometra oaxacana 
Eupatorium qiiadrangidare 
Eupatorium tepicanum 
Euphorbia pidcherrima 
Galipea sp, 
Hamelia xoridlensis 

Heliconia sp. 
Hibiscus bifurcatus 
Hirtella racemosa 
Hybanthus aff . mexicanus 
Hy ban thus serrulatus 

Hybanthus yucatanensis 

Hyperbaena ilicifolia 

Jacobinia roseana 

Lasiacis ruscifolia 

Malvaviscus arbor eus 

Margaritaria nob His 

Olyra latifolia 

Onoseris onoseroides 
Pavonia palmeri 

Pedilanthus calcaratus 
Pedilanthus palmeri 
Phyllanthiis acuminatus 
Piper brachypus 
Piper jalapense 
Piper jaliscanum 
Piper tuberculatum 
Piper uhdei 
Pipe r um be lla turn 
Psychotria sp. 

Robinsonella sp. 
Rue Ilia jaliscana 

Vernonia palmeri 

Xylosma velutinum 
Zamia sp. 


Las plantas herblceas esciofilas de los estratos inferiores del bosque 
tropical subdeciduo rara vez son frecuentes, y en muchos lugares el suelo 
esta casi completamente desprovisto de cubierta herbacea. Pueden mencio- 
narse representantes de los siguientes generos: 









Dors tenia 



Henry a 

Monnie ria 


Rue Ilia 


Las lianas y las epifitas suelen ser frecuentes y numerosas, pero su 
abundancia varfa notablemente de un lugar a otro. Laderas protegidas, pe- 
quenas barrancas y orillas de arroyos constituyen a menudo los habitats mis 
favorables para el desarrollo de estas formas biologicas. 

Las trepadoras lefiosas altas incluyen entre otras: 

Byttneria catalpifolia 
Canavalia acuminata 
Clematis dioica 
C ombre turn farinosum 
C ombre turn laxum 
Cydista aequino ctialis 
Drymonia sp. 
Entada polystachia 
Heteropteris laurifolia 
Heteropteris palmer i 
Hippocratea volubilis 
Mande villa subsagittata 
Monstera sp. 
Paullinia fuscescens 

Paullinia sessiliflora 
Petastoma pate llife rum 
Philodendron polytomum 
Philodendron radiatum 
Rourea glabra 
Saldanhaea seemanniana 
Securidaca diver sifolia 
Smilax spinosa 
Solandra nitida 
Strychnos brachistantha 

Strychnos panamensis 
Syngonium aff . podophyllum 
Tetracera volubilis 
Vitis tiliifolia 

Las epifitas fanerogamicas son en su gran mayoria Monocotiledoneas de 
las dos familias mis caracteristicas: orquidiceas y bromeliiceas, como por 


Aechmea bracteata 
Anthurium fortinense 
Anthurium sp, 
Epidendrum barkeriola 
Epidendrum chinense 
Erycina echinata 

Laelia saivyeri 
Oncidium liebmannii 
Tillandsia caput-medusae 
Tillandsia schiedeana 
Tillandsia sp. 

Las comunidades secundarias que se originan a raiz del desmonte del 
bosque tropical subdeciduo son en general de tipo arbustivo o arboreo, y solo 
artificialmente puede mantenerse una cubierta herbacea que a menudo resulta 
mis conveniente para fines de pastoreo u otro uso. Los elementos mas ca- 
racteristicos de estos matorrales y bosques de crecimiento secundario son los 

Acacia hinds ii 
Acalypha cincta 
Acrocomia mexicana 
Agdestis clematidea 
Antigonon leptopus 
Ardisia revoluta 
Baccharis trine r vis 
Bauhinia ungidata 
Bauhinia sp. 

Bixa ore liana 
Bunchosia palmeri 
Caesalpinia platyloba 
Casearia arguta 
Casearia dolichophylla 
Cassia atomaria 
Cassia nicaraguensis 
Castilla elastica 
Cecropia obtusifolia 



Cnidos coins tepiquensis 
Cnidoscolus tubulosus 
Cock lo spe rmum vitifo Hum 
Conostegia xalapensis 

Cordia alliodora 

Croton re flexifo lilts 
Cyrtocarpa procera 
Forclihammeria pallida 
Gliricidia septum 
Gouania polygama 
Gouania stipularis 
Guaziima ulmifolia 

Gyrocarpus americanus 
Hamelia versicolor 

He lie teres giiazumifolia 
Heliocarpns afL occidentalis 
Heliocarpus pallidas 
Jacquinia aurantiaca 
Liabum caducifolium 

Piper tuberculatum 
Piptadenia constricta 
Psidium guajava 
Quassia amara 
Randia armata 
Randia cine re a 
Ran wo If ia hirsuta 
Rourea glabra 
R up re ch tia fits ca 
Sabal rosei 
Sapindus saponaria 
Sapium pedice llatum 
Spondias purpurea 

Stemmadenia lomentosa var .palmeri 
Tabernaemontana amygdalifolia 
TJiouinia acuminata 
Trema micrantha 
Trichilia havanensis 
Triumfetta polyandra 

Liabum glabrum var. hypoleucum Urera baccifera 

Ly silo ma acapulcensis 
Muntingia calabur a 
Myriocarpa longipes 
Phyllanthus m icrandrus 

Urera caracasana 
Verbesina crocata 
Xylosma flexuosum 
Zanthoxylum f agar a 

El bosque tropical subdeciduo se comporta de maneras diversas en las 
regiones en que se pone en contacto con otros tipos de vegetacion. Lfmites 
claros y netos pueden observarse en los casos en que el factor ed&fico parece 
ser el determinante. El limite con el palmar de Orbignya cohune esta general- 
mente bien definido en funcion del suelo, pero como ya se indico mas arriba, la 
palma con frecuencia forma parte tambien del primero, de manera que no es 
raro encontrar grandes extensiones cubiertas por una comunidad aparente- 
mente mixta de Brosimum y Orbignya, a veces tambien con otros Irboles 

Los limites con la vegetacion de tipo sabanoide o de bosque espinoso 
suelen ser tambien bastante claros y f&ciles de observar, pues las diferencias 
fisonomicas son muy notables y la zona de transicion reducida. 

La situacion suele ser diferente en los sitios en que el bosque tropical 
subdeciduo limita con el bosque tropical dec i duo. Lo comiin en estos casos es 
que exista un amplio cinturon de transicion en el cual la cubierta vegetal se 
dispone en forma de mosaico, ocupando el primer tipo de vegetacion las 
cailadas y lugares protegidos en general, y el segundo los filos de las laderas y 
la mayoria de los sitios expuestos. Este mosaico es particularmente ficil de 
observar en los primer os meses de la epoca seca (noviembre a marzo), cuando 
el bosque subdeciduo estS. verde aun, en cambio el deciduo ya estl totalmente 
desprovisto de follaje. 

En forma semejante se presenta la transicion con los bosques de pino- 
encino, en este caso casi siempre encinares, que frecuentemente descienden a 
lo largo de los filos hasta altitudes de 400 m, mientras el bosque tropical sub- 
deciduo puede alcanzar elevaciones de 1000 m sobre el nivel del mar en el 
fondo del arroyo contiguo. 

Una transicion muy gradual, muchas veces con substitucion paulatina de 
unas especies por otras, se ha observado en los sitios en que se ponen en con- 
tacto el bosque tropical subdeciduo y el bosque mesofilo de montana. 


En esta formacion se incluyen las comunidades vegetales caracterizadas 
por la dominancia de e species arboreas no espinosas, de talla mas bien 
modesta, que pierden sus hojas por un periodo prolongado, coincidiendo con la 

epoca seca del ano. 

El bosque tropical deciduo cubre una gran parte de los declives inferiores 
y medios de la vertiente pacifica de Mexico y tiene una amplia distribucion en 
la mitad sur- occidental de Nueva Galicia, aunque quizas no tan grande como 
podrta deducirse del mapa de Leopold (1950). Esta aparente discrepancia se 
debe al hecho de que la circunscripcion aqui adoptada del tipo de vegetacion 
mencionado es mis estrecha, reconociendose como unidades independientes el 
bosque tropical subdeciduo y el matorral subtropical, tipos de vegetacion 
fisonomica y floristicamente afines al bosque tropical deciduo y evidentemente 
incluidos en el ultimo por Leopold, 

Se le encuentra por lo comun a altitudes entre y 1600 m, mas frecuente- 
mente debajo de la cota de 1400 m, y las ireas en que est£ mejor representado 
se localizan en la mitad meridional de Colima, en la parte de Jalisco corres- 
pondiente a la cuenca del Balsas, en el valle superior del rio Naranjo (que 
incluye la zona de Ciudad Guzman y Tecalitlan), en la gran depresion del valle 
superior del rio Armeria y de sus afluentes (region de Autlan y Villa Ca- 
rranza),en los valles de los afluentes superiores del rio Ameca, en los declives 
de la sierra al oeste de Compostela y al norte de Tepic, enlasladeras inferio- 
res a lo largo de las barrancas del rio Santiago y sus afluentes, donde en las 
localidades protegidas de exposicion sur alcanza sus mayores altitudes. 

El bosque tropical deciduo parece estar ecologicamente restringido a los 
suelos someros y de drenaje rapido de las laderas de los cerros, pues no se le 
encuentra sobre terrenos aluviales profundos. Estos ultimos en la gran 
mayorfa de los casos se emplean para la agricultura, pero hay bastantes in- 
dicios para suponer que antes de ser desmontados, sostenian una vegetacion 
que aqui se clasifica como bosque espinoso (vease el inciso correspondiente). 
En consecuencia, dentro del area general senalada en el mapa adjunto como 
bosque tropical deciduo de hecho existen muy numerosos enclaves (potencial- 
mente) ocupados por el bosque espinoso. En forma similar, en el interior de 
la zona marcada como bosque tropical subdeciduo existen frecuentes man- 
chones de bosque deciduo, y viceversa, que no se seRalan en el mapa por ser 
relativamente pequenos y por desconocerse su extension y limites exactos. 

Todo lo anteriormente expuesto puede dar idea de lo complejo de la distri- 
bucion geogrlfica del bosque tropical deciduo en el area estudiada. Si a ello 
se agrega la circunstancia de que amplias zonas antes cubiertas por este tipo 
de vegetacion se encuentran en la actualidad sosteniendo diferentes tipos de 
comunidades secundarias herbiceas y arbustivas, podra comprenderse facil- 
mente que los limites que se senalan en el mapa no constituyen en realidad 
sino una representacion aproximada de los hechos naturales. 

El factor climatico de maxima importancia que limita la distribucion del 
bosque tropical deciduo parece ser la temperatura, y en particular la tempera- 
tura minima extrema, que no debe bajar o solo excepcionalmente baja de 0°C. 
La isoterma correspondiente a esta temperatura no siempre sigue con fidelidad 
el recorrido de las curvas de nivel, pues existen sitios a mas de 1500 m de 
altitud en los que aparentemente nunca hiela, y otros cerca de 1000 m sobre 
el nivel del mar con heladas en la mayor parte de los inviernos. Tal 



circunstancia permite explicar, al menos en parte, por que los Hmites alti- 
tudinales del bosque tropical deciduo se comportan a menudo de manera al 
parecer caprichosa. Este aspecto se discutira tambien mas adelaiite al des- 
cribir el bosque de pino-encino. 

Otro factor climatico limitaiite es sin duda la humedad. El clima hidrico 
de la vertiente pacifica de Mexico se caracteriza por una concentracion muy 
acentuada de la precipitacion en 4 a 5 meses, siendo seco todo el resto del ano. 
Tal distribucion es semejante al regimen monzonico, caracteristico de ciertas 
Ireas intertropicales del Antiguo Mundo, y no es de extranarse la analogia en 
la vegetacion, pues el llamado "bosque monzonico" de la India es comparable 
al bosque tropical deciduo. 

Dada esta distribucion de la precipitacion, parece ser que todos los fac- 
tor es del medio ambiente que tengan que ver con la retencion de la humedad, 
de manera que las plantas puedan disponer de ella durante una mayor o menor 
parte del periodo seco, deben ejercer mucha influencia sobre la distribucion de 
las comunidades vegetales ahi. Las apariencias indican que el suelo profundo 
de los terrenos aluviales de relleno, cuando bien drenado, constituye un sub- 
strato menos favorable que el suelo somero y pedregoso de las laderas de 
los cerros, y mientras el ultimo sostiene el bosque tropical deciduo, el primero 
alimenta en las mismas condiciones climaticas un tipo de vegetacion de as- 
pecto mis xeromorfo, el bosque espinoso. 

En ireas en que la precipitation media anual es superior a unos 1000 mm 
el bosque tropical deciduo usualmente es substituido por el mucho mas ex- 
uberante bosque tropical subdeciduo. En ninguna estacion meteorologica 
situada dentro de los limites de la mitad suroccidental de Nueva Galicia la 
precipitacion media anual es inferior a 600 mm, y si acaso existen zonas que 
reciben menos lluvia, estas deben ser de extension reducida. Gentry (1942: 14) 
calcula una precipitacion anual de aproximadamente 500 mm como correspon- 
diente al "short tree forest," que es el equivalente del bosque tropical deciduo 
en Sonora. De ser correcta tal estimacion, debe tratarse del limite inferior de 
la tolerancia de este bosque, pues en otras partes de Mexico 500 mm anuales 
en condiciones calidas o semicalidas solo son suficientes para el desarrollo de 
matorrales xerofilos, como "thorn- scrub" en Yucatin (Lundell, 1937: 7) o 
"matorral submontano" en San Luis Potosi (Rzedowski, 1965:135). 

La temperatura media anual caracterfstica del bosque tropical deciduo 
suele ser del or den de 20 a 28° C, siendo las mas calientes algunas depresiones 

inter iores. 

Los suelos son de naturaleza diversa, arenosos a arcillosos, acidos a casi 
neutros, pobres o ricos en materia organica, pero siempre bien drenados, mas 
o menos someros y generalmente pedregosos. No es frecuente la presencia de 
horizontes de endurecimiento. 

El bosque tropical deciduo carece en la actualidad de mayor importancia 
forestal, y aunque muchos de los arboles se utilizan localmente para fines de 
construction, como postes, combustible y algunos otros propositos, no existen 
en la zona estudiada explotaciones forestales comerciales dentro de este tipo 
de vegetacion. La influencia del hombre sobre este tipo de vegetacion varia de 
un lugar a otro. En las zonas densamente pobladas grandes extensiones han 
sido completamente desmontadas y estan bajo cultivo o cubiertas por comuni- 
dades secundarias de diversos tipos. Esto es muy notable por ejemplo en la 
barranca cerca de Guadalajara, en los alrededores de Autlan, de Ciudad 
Guzmln, etc. En las Ireas menos sometidas a la presion demografica la situa- 
cion es generalmente mejor y muchas laderas se ven cubiertas aun por un 
manto ininterrumpido de bosque. Es de notarse, sin embargo, que casi en 
todas partes se encuentra ganado, y la mayoria de este territorio esta sometida 



a incendios periodicos mas o menos intencionales y ligados con la cria de los 
animates. De manera que la estructura y la composicion florfstica de muchas 
asociaciones del bosque tropical deciduo estan modificadas en funcion de estos 
factores de disturbio permanente o periodico. 

En estado natural o poco perturbado, el bosque tropical deciduo suele ser 
una comunidad vegetal densa, dominada por arboles de 8 a 15 m de alto, que 
forman un techo de altura m&s bien uniforme, pero no es raro encontrar un 
estrato adicional de eminencias aisladas. La copa de estos Irboles tiende a 
ser convexa o plana y su dilmetro con frecuencia iguala o sobrepasa la altura 
de la planta. El dilmetro de los troncos rara vez excede de 50 cm. Las ramas 
parten por lo general desde la altura de 1 a 2 m y el eje principal pierde pronto 
su individualidad (Figs. 8, 9). Durante los 4 a 5 meses de la temporada lluviosa 
el bosque esta cubierto de un follaje que de lejos se aprecia de color verde 
claro, mucho m£s claro que el propio del bosque tropical subdeciduo. El 
tamano predominante de las hojas o foliolos es medianamente pequeno (cate- 
goria de nanofilas de la clasificacion de Raunkiaer). Un gran numero de plantas 
lenosas florece al finalizar la epoca seca, antes o al tiempo de la aparicion de 
las hojas. Las plantas espinosas no son abundantes en el estrato arboreo, 
aunque a veces alguna especie de cactacea columnar forma parte de la comuni- 
dad. Plantas con troncos cubiertos por corteza papiracea (Bursera spp., 
Jatropha cordata, Pseudosmodingium perniciosum) a menudo constituyen un 
elemento importante del bosque tropical deciduo en Nueva Galicia en altitudes 
intermedias, pero solo rara vez llegan a dominar como en el caso de los M cua- 
jiotales" de muchos sectores de la cuenca del Balsas (comp. Miranda, 1941) y 
de ciertas zonas del estado de Oaxaca. 


Fig. 8. Bosque tropical deciduo, cerca de Tepalcatepec, Mich., con Bursera trimera, 
Bursera f agar oides y. diversas leguminosas. (Fot. Rzedowski). 



Aunque en algunas localidades se observa clara dominancia de una sola 
especie (Lysiloma divaricata), lo corriente es que 2 a 4, o a veces hasta 10 y 
mis especies distintas com par tan la preponderancia del estrato arboreo. Por 
lo general suelen ser algunas de las siguientes: 

Ampkipterygiurn spp. 




Bur sera grandifolia 
Bursera kerberi 
Bur sera multijuga 
Bursera penicillata 
Cap par is incana 
Capparis verrucosa 
Ceiba aesculifolia 
Comocladia erigleriana 

Cyrtocarpa procera 
Forchhammeria pallida 
Jatropha cor data 

Loncho carpus eriocarinalis 
Lonchocarpus lanceolatus 
Lysiloma acapulcensis 
Ly silo ma divaricala 
Pseudos))iodingiu)}} perniciosum 
Spondias purpurea 
Thouinia acuminata 
Trichilia colimana 
Trichilia palmeri 

siendo casi siempre presentes alguna especie de Bursera, Ceiba, y Lysiloma 


Otros arboles mis o menos frecuentes en el mismo estrato pueden ser: 

Acacia acatlensis 
Acacia macilenta 
Agonandra racemosa 

Albizzia tomentosa 
Astroniitm graveolens 
Bombax elUpticum 

Fig. 9. Bosque tropical deciduo, cerca de Mezquitic, Jal. Destacan Bursera spp., 
Ampkipterygiurn sp., Lysiloma diuaricata. (Fot. Rzedowski). 



Bombax palmeri 
Bur sera citronella 
Bur sera confusa 
Burse ra copallifera 
Bur sera denticulata 
Bur sera he teres the s 
Bur sera occulta 
Bur sera sarcopoda 
Bur sera aff. simaruba 
Bur sera trimera 
Caesalpinia coriaria 
Caesalpinia eriostachys 
Carica mexicana 
Cassia skinner i 
Cephalocereus sp. 

Erioxylum palmeri 
Guaiacum coulteri 
Jacquinia pungens 
Jatropha curcas var. rufus 
Jatropha peltata 
Jatropha sympetala 
Lasiocarpus sp. 
Lemaireocereus sp. 
Ly silo ma tergemina 
Morisonia americana 
Pereskiopsis aff. rotundifolia 
Piptadenia constricta 
Plumeria rubra 
Ruprechtia fuse a 
Tabebuia palmeri 

Finalmente, hay varias especies arborescentes que parecen estar favo- 

recidas por condiciones de disturbio: 

Acacia cymbispvm 
Apoplanesia paniculata 
Ateleia standleyana 
Bunchosia palmeri 
Bur sera bipinnata 
Caesalpinia platyloba 
Cassia atomaria 
Cassia emarginata 
Cnidos coins tepiquensis 
Cnidos coins tubulosus 
Cochlospermum vitifolium 
Colubrina triflora 
Cordia alliodora 
Cordia seleriana 
Cordia sonorae 
Crataeva tapia 
Erythrina lanata 
Ficus cotinifolia 
Guazuma ulmifolia 
Gyro carpus ame ricanus 
Helio carpus spp. 
Ipomoea intrapilosa 

En el estrato de eminencias puede 

Ipomoea wolcottiana 

Ipomoea sp. 

Leucaena glauca 

Liabum caducifolium 

Liabum glabrum var. hypoleucum 

Loncho carpus constrictus 

Mastichodendron capiri 

Phy sodium corymbosum 

Pistacia mexicana 

Randia cinerea 

Randia sp. 

Ruprechtia pallida 

Sabal rosei 
Sapindus saponaria 

Sapium pedicellatum 

Stemmadenia tomentosa var. palmeri 

Thevetia ovata 

Thevetia plume riifolia 

Trichilia hirta 

Vitex mollis 

Zanthoxylum aff. arborescens 

Ziziphus amole 

r conspicua Conzattia multiflora, y 

hacia los lugares protegidos y cercanos a los cursos temporales de agua, 
Enterolobium cyclocarpum, Ficns spp. y diversos otros arboles propios del 
bosque tropical subdeciduo. 

El techo del estrato arboreo es a veces denso y entonces permite el creci- 
miento de esciofitas arbustivas o herbaceas, como: 

Chamaedorea pochutlensis 
Dorstenia drakena 
Lasiacis divaricata 

Lasiacis ruscifolia 
Maranta arundinacea 
Oplismenus rariflorus 

pero lo mas frecuente es que bien en forma natural, o bien debido a la inter- 
vencion del hombre, las copas de los Irboles dejen pasar suficiente luz para el 



establecimiento de un estrato arbustivo y otro herbaceo bien definidos, que con 
frecuencia constituyen un serio obstaculo para quien pretenda caminar a traves 
de esta espesura. 

Los arbustos mas frecuentes de 1 a 3 m de alto suelen ser: 

Acacia angustissima 
Acalypha cincta 

Acalypha filipes 
Acalypha langiana 
Acalypha vagans 

Aeschynomene amorphoides 
Agave sp. 
Ayenia glabra 
Ayenia p r ingle i 

Bauhinia pringlei 
Bromelia karatas 

Bur sera s chle chtendalii 
Cap par is verrucosa 
Casearia dolichophylla 
Casearia pringlei 
Chiococca alba 
Cordia carta 
Course tia mollis 
Croton flavescens 
Croton fragilis 
Croton pseudoniveits 
Croton suberosus 
Dale tribe r tia populifolia 
DipJiysa suberosa 
E ry th roxy Ion mexicanum 
E ry th roxy Ion pall idum 

Eugenia pleurocarpa 
Euphorbia colletioides 
Euphorbia s chle chtendalii 

Exo sterna caribaeum 
Hamelia versicolor 
Haplophyton cimicidum 
Hintonia latiflora 

Hintonia standleyana 

Hyperbaena ilicifolia 
Jacquinia aurantiaca 
Jatropha peltata 
Lagascea decipiens 
Malpighia mexicana 
Malpighia ovata 
Nopalea sp. 
Notoptera tequilana 
Phyllanthus acuminatus 
Phyllanthus mocinianus 
Porophyllum punctatum 
Pouzolzia pahneri 
Re c chia mexicana 
Se m e iandra g randiflo ra 
Tabe rnae montana amygdalifo lia 
Wimmeria persicifolia 
Zexmenia ceanotliifolia 
Ziziphus mexicana 

Entre las plantas herbaceas heliofitas se anotaron: 

Acalypha sp. 

Bou te Jo ua repe ns 

C allies tecum e rectum 

Des medium sp. 

Dyscho ris te h irs utis s ima 

Elytrarm squamosa 

Euphorbia heterophylla 

Euphorbia humayensis 

Flore stina pedata 

Henry a sp. 

Hilaria ciliata 

Hybanthus serrulatus 

Notholaena brachypus 

Opizia stolonifera 

Oplismenus burmannii 
Oxalis sp. 

Podophania dissecta 
Rivina humilis 
Rue Ilia sp. 

Setariopsis latiglumis 
Tragoceros flavicomum 
Tripsacum sp. 

Las lianas usualmente no constituyen un elemento muy importante en la 
estructura del bosque tropical deciduo, habiendose observado las siguientes en 
situaciones protegidas: 

Adenocalymma calderonii 
Ampelocissus acapidcensis 
Doxanlha unguis -cati 
Entada polystachia 
Exogonium brae tea turn 
Heteropteris laurifolia 
Heteropteris pahneri 

Hippocratea volubilis 
Nissolia fruticosa 
Paullinia sessiliflora 
Paullinia tomentosa 
Pittiecoctenium echinatam 
Saldanhaea seemanniana 
Vitis tiliifolia 


Diver sas trepadoras mas delicacies, en cambio, pueden ser muy abun- 
dantes, por ejemplo representantes de: 

Antigonon Passiflora 

Arts to lochia Phaseolus 

Dioscorea Qiiamoclit 

Ipomoea Rhynchosia 

Marsdenia Se rjania 
Nis solia 

Entre las epifitas predominan francamente las e species del genero Ti- 
llandsia, siendo mas bien escasas las Araceas y las Orquid&ceas. Las anotadas 

Selenicereus vagans Tillandsia juncea 

Tillandsia achy ro sir achy s Tillandsia recurvata 

var. stenolepis Tillaitdsia schiedeana 

Tillandsia ionantha Tillandsia tenuifolia 

De los diferentes tipos de comunidades secundarias que se originan 
despues de la destruccion del bosque tropical deciduo los mas frecuentes son 
los bosquecillos o matorrales abiertos de Acacia fames iana y deA. pennatula y 
acompanadas a menudo de numerosas especies herbaceas y de las siguientes 

Acacia hindsii Lantana spp. 

Alvaradoa amorphoides Opuntia fuliginosa 

Casearia pringlei Pisonia aculeata 

Cassia emarginata Pithecellobium dulce 

Celtis iguanea Triumfetta spp. 

Croton ciliato-glanduliferus Zanthoxylum fagara 

Cuando el desmonte no es completo, arboles espaciados propios de la 
comunidad pueden convivir con las especies caracteristicas de los matorrales 
secundarios, en formas diversas. Cuando el terreno es perturbado en forma 
mcis o menos permanente y sometido a incendios, suele haber muchos espacios 
abiertos abundando las grammeas y otras plantas herbaceas. Por el contrario, 
si despues del desmonte se abandona la parcela sin inter venir posteriormente, 
un matorral denso se establece en poco tiempo y persiste durante muchos 
afios, mientras se recupera el bosque y sus Irboles caracterfsticos logran 
volver a aduenarse del terreno. 

Es muy factible que ciertas areas seftaladas en al mapa adjunto como 
cubiertas por el matorral subtropical sostenian en epocas anteriores un bosque 
tropical deciduo como vegetacion climax. A este respecto vease la discusion 
introductoria correspondiente al matorral subtropical. 



Fig. 10. La barranca del Rio Grande de Santiago, al norte de Amatitln, JaL, vista hacia 
rfo abajo. En las laderas pendientes pueden observarse los restos del bosque tropical deciduo. 
(Fot. McVaugh). 


Leopold (1950), en su mapa de la vegetacion de Mexico, marca la exis- 
tencia de una angosta y practicamente continua franja de esta formacion a lo 
largo del litoral de Pacifico, de Nayarit a Guerrero. Como ya lo observo 
Turner (1960: 276), tal manera de interpretar constituye solamente una gruesa 
aproximacion a la realidad. De hecho la distribucion del bosque espinoso en 
la costa es dispersa y esporadica, pues en amplias extensiones el bosque tropi- 
cal subdeciduo y el bosque tropical deciduo estan en contacto casi directo con 
el mar. En otros sitios se intercalan manglares o palmares, y solo en las 
areas de terrenos aluviales de suelo fino, bien drenado y sin nivel freatico 
elevado, que penetren tierra adentro y que esten sometidos a una precipitacion 
media anual inferior a 800 mm, parece haber condiciones favorable s para la 
existencia de bosque espinoso de tipo litoral. Las principales zonas de su 
desarrollo en la region bajo e studio se localizan en la llanura costera situada 
entre la Laguna de Cuyutlan y la desembocadura del rio Coahuayana, lo que 
corresponde a la region de Tecoman, y en la llanura costera proxima a la 
poblacion de Tomatlan. 

Un bosque espinoso fisonomica y floristicamente analogo se ha encontrado 
tambien en areas localizades en algunas depresiones interiores, especialmente 
en terrenos aluviales proximos al lecho del rio Tepalcatepec, en la region 
limftrofe entre Jalisco y Michoacan, de donde fue descrito por Leavenworth 
(1946: 143-144) bajo el nombre de "arid scrub forest/' De una asociacion 
similar se han visto asimismo enclaves (que no se senalan en el mapa adjunto) 
en la depresion correspondiente a la cuenca alta del rio Armeria, entre Autlan 
y Ciudad Guzman. 

En el concepto de bosque espinoso se incluye en este trabajo otra co- 
munidad vegetal, tambien de distribucion irregular y esparcida. Es la que co- 
rresponde a los bosques de Prosopis laevigata y de Pithecellobium dulce, que 
probablemente ocupaban los suelos profundos, sin nivel freatico elevado, dentro 
del &rea general del bosque tropical deciduo y del matorral subtropical. Los 
mezquitales (bosques de Prosopis) se conservan aun en algunos sitios im- 
propios para la agricultura; no se ha visto la existencia de bosques de Pithe- 
cellobium, solo se localizan arboles aislados en terrenos actualmente culti- 
vados, de los que se presume que debieron haber sostenido el mencionado bos- 
que antes de su desmonte. Debido a dificultades tecnicas estas ireas no se 
cartografiaron como tales y en su mayor ia quedan incluidas en las zonas del 
bosque tropical deciduo y del matorral subtropical (veanse las discusiones 
correspondiente s). 

Ambos tipos de comunidades considerados en Nueva Galicia como bosque 
espinoso deben interpretarse como climax edaficos, puesto que solo se desa- 
rrollan sobre suelos profundos y la vegetacion sobre las laderas de cerros in- 
mediatos es distinta y en general mas exuberante. A este respecto cabe hacer 
la observacion que en la planicie costera de Sinaloa y del sur de Sonora el bos- 
que espinoso puede considerarse como climax climltico (Shreve, 1937; Gentry, 

El bosque espinoso de la zona de Tecoman se encuentra actualmente en 
gran parte desmontado y las ireas que quedan presentan sefiales de disturbio 
fuerte. En la region de Tomatlln, en cambio, existen aun grandes superficies 
bastante bien conservadas y de ahi, al igual que del irea del rio Tepalcatepec, 
se tomo la mayor parte de los datos que sirvieron para la siguiente descripcion. 




Esta formacion ocupa superficies planas o levemente inclinadas de suelo 
profundo, mas bien arenoso y bien drenado, donde la precipitacion media anual 
es del orden de 500 a 750 mm, con 7 a 8 meses de sequia. La altitud no pasa 
de 800 m y la temperatura es muy elevada, pues se registrant valores de 25 a 
29°C en escala media anual; las heladas se desconocen por complete 

El bosque es m&s o menos denso y suele estar formado por un solo estrato 
arboreo de 4 a 7 m de alto (Figs. 11, 12). Dominan arboles delgados que se 
ramifican desde niveles bajos, provistos de hojas o foliolos pequenos (en su 
mayorfa de la categoria de nanofilia de la clasificacion de Raunkiaer), los que 
son deciduos en la gran mayoria de los casos, por periodos variables de 
tiempo. A bun dan en el sobremanera los elementos espinosos, incluyendo a 
veces algunas cactaceas. Las trepadoras y las epifitas son escasas, al igual 
que los elementos herbaceos. 

No tiene importancia desde el punto de vista forestal y se aprovecha mas 
bien para fines ganaderos, aunque con rendimientos escasos. El clima no 
permite cultivos sin riego, pero cuando este existe, las condiciones cambian 
por completo y el bosque se convierte en zonas agricolas importantes, como es 
el caso de muchos terrenos cercanos a Tecoman y Tepalcatepec. 

En las zonas costeras los siguientes arboles se encontraron con mayor 

Acacia cymbispina 
Achatocarpus gracilis 
Bur sera instabilis 
Caesalpinia coriaria 
Celtis sp. 
Croton alamo sanus 

Lemaireocereus sp. 
Pithecellobium dulce 
Ruprechtia fusca 
Ruprechtia pallida 
Ziziphus amole 

-w i n. - 

Fig. 11. Bosque espinoso, cerca de Tomatlan, Jal. Destacan Achatocarpus gracilis, 
Ruprechtia pallida, Podopterus mexicanus , Celtis sp. (Fot. Rzedowski). 



En cambio en las depresiones inter iores se han visto con abundancia: 

Acacia cymbispina 
Amphipterygium glaucum 
Caesalpinia coriaria 
Caesalpinia platyloba 
Cercidium praecox 
Gnaiacum coulter i 
Haematoxylon brasiletto 
Manikot tomatophylla 
Mitrocereus militaris 

Otros irboles observados fueron: 

Acacia farnesiana 
Apoplanesia paniculata 
Bumelia persimilis subsp. 

Bur sera spp. 
Caesalpinia cacalaco 

Caesalpinia eriostachys 

Capparis asperifolia 

Capparis incana 

Opuntia sp. 

Pachycereus pecten-aboriginum 

Podopterus mexicanus 

Prosopis laevigata 

Ruprechtia fusca 

Ximenia americana 

Ziziphus amole 

Ziziphus mexicana 

Capparis sp. 
Crataeva tapia 
Crescentia alata 
Cordia dentata 
Cordia elaeagnoides 
Forchhammeria pallida 
Lysiloma tergemina 
Morisonia americana 
Pithecellobium lanceolatum 

En el mas bien escaso estrato arbustivo se anotaron: 

Acanthocereus occidentalis 
Bauhinia pauletia 
Celtis iguanea 

Diphysa suberosa 
Erythroxylon sp. 
Jacquinia aurantiaca 

**. ***** _i*\ 

-■ » ' ■- .- : *-, . ■■ ■ -. - — **♦"""*•■ '• 

. . -■.- 

..^ — ' - * - 




Fig. 12. Bosque espinoso, cerca de Tepalcatepec, Mich. Pueden observarse Mitrocereus 
militaris, Cercidium praecox, Prosopis laevigata, Ziziphus amole. (Fot. Rzedowski). 


Jacquinia pungens Randia spp. 

Karwinskia humboldliana Ruellia aff. albiflora 

Lagrezia monosperma 

de los cuales Acanthocereus y Celtis hacen las veces de trepadoras. Entre las 
epifitas solo se encuentran especies xerofilas de Tillandsia, pero Struthanthus 

venetns es un parasito comun sobre arboles diversos. En el suelo a veces 
abundan Bromelia spp. lo suficiente para hacer dificil el paso. 

En zonas cercanas a los lagos de Zacoalco y de Sayula, asi como en un 
area extensa entre San Francisco del Rincon y Manuel Doblado, en Guanajuato, 
se han conservado bosques de Prosopis laevigata, pues el terreno se inunda 
con frecuencia y no es util para la agricultura. Estos mezquitales forman una 
comunidad densa, de 5 a 10 m de alto; sobre las ramas de Prosopis a menudo 
abunda Tillandsia recuruata. Muy pocos elementos lefiosos conviven con el 
mezquite; de los altos se han observado solamente Celtis pallida, Lemaireo- 
cereus sp. y Opuntia fidiginosa. En la epoca favorable abundan las plantas 

Los pocos restos de vegetacion natural indican que las tierras aluviales 
profundas de muchos sitios de Nueva Galicia sostenian una vegetacion seme- 
jante. Es probable que a altitudes inferiores de 1600 m y en condiciones mas 
favorables de humedad Pithecellobium dulce tambien era componente de estos 
bosques y quizas dominante a altitudes por debajo de 1000 m. Se requiere un 
estudio mas profundo para reconstruir con mayor detalle la composicion de la 
vegetacion que anteriormente ocupaban estos suelos, hoy dedicados a la agri- 


En su estudio sobre la vegetacion de la parte SW del estado de Zacatecas, 
Guzmln y Vela Galvez (1960: 54) aplicaron este nombre a un tipo de vegetacion 
que caracterizaron como matorral, subtropical por su composicion floristica, 
y que se desarrolla entre las cotas de 1600 y 1800 m sobre el nivel del mar. 
La lista deespecies incluye Bursera spp., Ipomoea intrapilosa, Lemaireocereus 

sp., Myrtillo cactus geometrizans y algunas otras. 

La denominacionde "matorral subtropical'' se empleara en el presente tra- 
bajode manera provisional para incluir en ella un grupo algo heterogeneo de co- 
munidades vegetales, una de las cuales es con seguridad la que Guzman y Vela 
observaron y describieron. Es posible que estudios ulteriores mas detallados 
requieranuna modificacion del concepto adoptado, cambiando el alcance del ter- 
mino, substituyendolo por otro, o empleando quizas otra manera de clasificar 
estosmatorrales y eliminandopor completoel concepto abstracto aqui utilizado. 

Una de las caracteristicas sobre salientes de todas las comunidades que se 
pretende circunscribir como matorral subtropical es el hecho de que, hasta 
donde los autores pudieron observar, estas estan dominadas, por lo menos en 
gran parte, por e species que se conocen en otros sitios como indicadoras de 
disturbio o francamente propias de asociaciones secundarias. La dificultad, 
por otra parte, de considerar estos matorrales simplemente como secundarios 
estriba en la circunstancia de que ocupan un area muy extensa, y sobre todo 
porque en la mayoria de los casos no se ha podido encontrar un indicio claro 
de cual seria la formacion climax correspondiente, pues a pesar de haber 
dedicado tiempo y haber realizado viajes especiales no se ha localizado nada 
que fuera distinto en esencia y que pudiera considerar se como tal formacion 
climax existente. Debe advertirse al respecto que el area general de distri- 
bucion geografica del matorral subtropical corresponde en grandes superficies 
a una zona intensamente poblada desde hace muchos siglos y podrta pensarse 
en ello como una posible causa de la destruccion de la vegetacion primitiva. 

De tratarse de un matorral secundario el razonamiento mas viable iria en 

el sentido de postular el bosque tropical deciduo como formacion climax hipo- 
tetica, al menos para una gran parte del area bajo consider acion. En favor de 
ello se pronuncia sobre todo la composicion floristica del matorral subtropical 
que se caracteriza por numerosos elementos comunes con el bosque tropical 
deciduo, como por ejemplo: Bursera multijuga, B. penicillata, Lysiloma aca- 
pulcensis, Ceiba aesculifolia, Guazuma ulmifolia, Ipomoea intrapilosa, Helio- 
carpus terebinthaceus, Lemaireocereus sp., Jatropha cordata, etc. Donde los 
dos tipos de vegetacion se ponen en contacto la transicion es muy gradual y 
existen numerosas localidades, en las cuales es dificil decidir a cual de las 
dos formaciones corresponde una vegetacion deter minada. El bosque tropical 
deciduo no se ha observado nunca en la zona estudiada por encima de 1700 m 
sobre el nivel del mar; el matorral subtropical, en cambio, que a menudo se 
desarrolla mis arriba sobre las laderas del mismo canon, alcanza muchas 
veces la altitud de 1900 m y en ocasiones de 2000 m. En algunas partes de la 
cuenca del rio Balsas, sin embargo, el bosque tropical deciduo llega, segun 
Miranda (1941: 572), hasta la cota de 1800 m. Es muy notable asimismo, que ni 
de la cuenca del Balsas (Miranda, 1947; Leavenworth, 1946), ni de Sinaloa o 
Sonora (Gentry, 1942, 1946a, 1946b) se cita nada semejante al matorral subtro- 
pical en las descripciones de la vegetacion. 

Como conclusion de este razonamiento podria suponerse que el bosque 




tropical deciduo se extendia con anterioridad en Nueva Galicia tal vez hasta 

1800 a 2000 m de altitud, pero por tratarse de una zona critica en cuanto a las 

limitaciones climaticas, una vez destruido no puede recuperar facilmente el 

terreno per dido y esta siendo substituido por el matorral subtropical, que por 

no ser una comunidad climax se encuentra heterogenea y con aspecto de falta 
de equilibrio. 

En favor de la otra alternativa (en apariencia opuesta),es decir de la posi- 
bilidad de considerar el matorral subtropical como un tipo de vegetacion inde- 
pendiente, se pronuncian los argumentos siguientes: 

1. Amplitud y continuidad de su area de distribucion. 

2. Correspondencia aparente con condiciones climaticas bien definidas. 

3. En la porcion oriental de Mexico, hacia el area general de la Sierra 
Madre Oriental, entre Queretaro y Nuevo Leon, existe en condiciones clima- 
ticas muysemejantes un tipo de vegetacion fisonomicamente analogo al matorral 
subtropical, que se ha descrito bajo los nombres de "piedmont scrub" (Muller, 
1939) ^y de "matorral submontano" (Rzedowski, 1956). Este tipo de vegetacion 
tambien es florfsticamente similar al bosque tropical deciduo y posee un areade 
distribucion bien def inida, ocupando regiones un poco mas frescas y un poco mas 
aridas que las que corresponden al ultimo tipo de vegetacion. Nohayninguna 
duda de que el matorral submontano represente una formacion climax, aunque 
es de notarse que cuando se desarrolla cobre el substrato de roc a ignea, suele 
incluir muchas especies indicadoras de disturbio (comp. Rzedowski y 
Rzedowski, 1957:51). A este respecto cabe hacer la observacion que 
extension del matorral subtropical en Nueva Galicia corresponde al area de 
afloramiento de rocas volcanicas. 

Por los motivos arriba expuestos los autores resolvieron conservar, al 
menos temporalmente, el concepto y el nombre de matorral subtropical, mien- 
tras investigaciones ulteriores puedan definir con mayor exactitud el lugar que 
corresponde al grupo de comunidades que se describen a continuacion. 

El matorral subtropical es el tipo de vegetacion caracteristico de la parte 
central del estado de Jalisco, extendiendose al oriente hasta Michoacan y 
Guanajuato, y al norte hacia Zacatecas, Aguascalientes y quizas Nayarit. Su 
area continua mas extensa es la situada alrededor del Lago de Chapala y de un 
gran numero de otras cuencas lacustres menores. Mas al norte, su habitat 
preferente son las laderas de profundos canones que caracterizan la region, 
ocupando una situacion intermedia, por encima del piso del bosque tropical 
deciduo, pero por debajo del piso del bosque de pino-encino y del zacatal. Sus 
limites altitudinales se localizan por lo comun hacia los 1600 y 1900 m, aunque 
en ocasiones se le encuentra unos 100 m mas abajo o mas arriba de las men- 
cionadas cotas. 

El clima correspondiente es sin duda mas riguroso que el propio del bos- 
que tropical deciduo, pues las heladas se presentan con regularidad, sin ser 
demasiado severas. Las temperaturas medias anuales son del orden de 17° a 
21°C y la precipitacion en promedio anual parece variar entre 500 y 900 mm. 
Las lluvias se concentran en un periodo de 4 a 5 meses (junio a octubre), 
mientras el resto del afio resulta seco. 

A semejanza del bosque tropical deciduo el matorral subtropical esta 
restringido a suelos someros y pedregosos de las laderas de los cerros, siendo 
substituido en terrenos pianos o poco inclinados por el bosque espinoso o por 
el zacatal. Como ya se indico, el substrato geologico caracteristico es el 
volcamco, predominando riolitas y andesitas, que producen por lo comun un 
suelo mas o menos arenoso, acido y mas bien pobre en materia organica. 

El impacto de las activadades humanas se nota practicamente por don- 
dequiera, bien en forma de desmontes, de la explotacion de la lena, en forma 
de incendios y de crfa de ganado. No se han podido observar lugares 



completamente libres de algunas, al menos, de estas causas de disturbio. La 
ganaderia y las actividades conexas son, sin embargo, las que mis influencia 
parecen causar en la epoca actual. 

Por su fisonomia el matorral subtropical puede ser una formacion mas o 
menos cerrada o abierta, dominada por arbustos altos o arboles pequeflos de 3 
a 5 m de alto (Fig. 13). La mayor parte de las plantas pierde sus partes 
verdes durante un periodo de 7 a 9 meses. Los arbustos espinosos pueden 
ser mas o menos frecuentes, pero rara vez juegan el papel de dominantes. El 
tamaho de la hoja o foliolo es en promedio pequeno (categoria de nanofilia de la 
clasificacion de Raunkiaer), aunque re sultan notables algunos componentes de 
organos foliar es de tamano relativamente grande, como Annona longiflora, 
Heliocarpus terebinthaceus, Ipomoea spp. 

Un estrato de eminencias aisladas, de 6 a 12 m de alto, puede estar pre- 
sente. Estos Ir boles son en general los propios del bosque tropical deciduoy 

quizes no representan sino restos del mismo: 

Bur sera copallifera 

Bur sera multijuga 
Bur sera palmer i 

Bur sera penicillata 
Ceiba aesculifolia 
Euphorbia fulva 

Guazuma ulmifolia 
Leucaena esculenta 
Leucaena glauca 
Lysiloma acapulcensis 
Lysiloma divaricata 

Sobre laderas rocosas verticales o casi verticales destaca a menudo el tronco 
amarillo de Ficus petiolaris, todo adherido al substrato. 

En el estrato arbustivo principal las dominantes suelen ser comunmente 
una o varias de las siguientes e species: 

Fig. 13. Matorral subtropical, cerca de San Juan CozalS, JaL, con Ipomoea intrapilosa, 
Acacia pennatula, Eysenhardtia polystachya. (Fot. Rzedowski). 



Acac ia fa me s iana 
Acacia pennatida 
Acacia sp. 
Bursera fagaroides 
Eysenliardtia polystachya 
Fores tie ra phillyreoides 

Forestiera tomentosa 
Ipomoea intrapilosa 

lpo))\oea murucoides 

Ipomoea sp. 
Opuntia fuliginosa 

Otros arbustos altos o arbolitos encontrados con mas o menos frecuencia 


Agonandra racemosa 
Annona loiigiflora 
Bursera bipinnata 
Bursera schlechtendalii 
Cap parts incana 
Celtis pallida 
Colubrina triflora 
Croton morifolius 
Fouquieria formosa 

Heliocarpus terebinthaceus 

Jatropha cordata 
Karivinskia humboldtiana 

Liabum glabrum 
Manihot caudata 
Montanoa iJiyriocephala 


var. hypoleucum 

Montanoa pyramidata 
My rtillo cactus geornetrizans 
Notoptera tequilana 
Opuntia guilanchi 
Pithecellobiitm acatlense 
Plume ria rubra 
P tele a trifoliata 
Randia watsonii 
Sageretia elegans 
Stetmnadenia tomentosa var. 

Vigaiera quinqueradiata 
Vitex mollis 
Wimmeria confusa 
Zanthoxylum fagara 

El matorral subtropical esta desprovisto de lianas conspicuas y entre las 
epifitas vasculare s solamente destaca Tillmulsia recur vata. 

Un estrato arbustivo inferior (1 a 2 m) esta por lo general bien desarro- 
llado, de preferencia en las comunidades abiertas. De manera semejante, esta 
compuesto en su mayorta de plantas de hoja pequena y decidua. Entre las mas 
caracterlsticas pueden mencionarse: 

Agave aff. pacifica 
Ayenia jaliscana 
Asterohyptis stellulala 

Bouvardia multiflora 

Brickellia Janata 

Bunchosia palmeri 

Cordia cana 

Cordia globosa 

Cordia inermis 

Cordia oaxacana 

Croton adspersus 

Croton ciliato -glandidiferus 

Croton flavescens 

Croton in c anus 

Eupatorium collinum 
Hyp lis albida 

Hyp lis rhytidea 
Lagascea decipiens 
Lantana camara 
Lasiacis divaricata 
Liabum p ring lei 
Mande villa foliosa 
Mimosa monancis tra 
Pe rymenium m ende z ii 
Perymenium subsquarrosum 
Porophyllum nutans 
Tecoma stans 
Triumfetta brevipes 
Trixis angustifolia 
Verbesina sphaerocephala 
Zexmenia greggii 

Zexmenia macrocephala 

Las plantas herbaceas estin bien representadas y forman en la epoca 
favorable del ano un estrato mas o menos conttnuo, sobre todo en funcion de la 
superficie disponible del suelo, pues en las laderas muy inclinadas las rocas y 
las piedras no dejan mucho espacio entre si. 



Entre las perennes un lugar prominente corresponde a menudo a las 


Andropogon spp. 

Aristida spp. 
Bouteloua curtipendula 

Bouteloua filiformis 

Cathestecum sp. 

Hackelochloa granularis 

Heteropogon contortus 

Hilaria cenchroides 

Muhlenbergia rigida 
Muhlenbergia stricta 

Paspalum spp. 
Pentarrhaphis polymorpha 

Rhynchelytrum roseum 

Setaria geniculata 

Sorghastrum incompletum 

De las e species mas frecuentes de hoja ancha cabe citar: 

Acalypha ostryaefolia 
Allionia choisyi 

Ayenia spp, 
Bogenhardia crispa 
Bolanosa coulteri 
Bouvardia ternifolia 
Calea urticifolia 
Cheilanthes kaulfussii 
Cheilanthes myriophylla 
Dalea tuber culata 
Desmodium spp. 
Euphorbia dentata 
Euphorbia graminea 
Euphorbia heterophylla 

Euphorbia hirta 
Euphorbia hyssopifolia 
Euphorbia indivisa 
Ipomoea stans 

ademls de las trepadoras de los generos: 

Cardiospe rmum 



Ire sine s chaff neri 
Jatropha dioica 
Kallstroemia sp. 
Lantana achyranthifolia 
L ant ana f rut ilia 
Margaranthus solanaceus 

Notholaena aurea 
Notholaena sinuata 
Pellaea ternifolia 
Phaseolus heterophyllus 
Polypodium thyssanolepis 

Selaginella spp. 
Tagetes lucida 
Talinum paniculatum 
Tetramerium sp. 
Tradescentia crassifolia 
Trixis longifolia 




Las anuales son tambien abundantes, como por ejemplo 

Aristida adscensionis 
Bouchea prismatica var 

Bouteloua barbata 
Eragrostis spp. 
Flore s Una pedata 
Gomphrena decumbens 
Heterosperma pinna turn 

Melampodium spp. 
Pedis pro strata 
Priva mexicana 
Sanvitalia procumbens 

Tagetes elongata 
Tragoceros schiedeanus 

Tragoceros zinnioides 

Zinnia peruviana 

Entre las diferentes comunidades vegetales que se incluyen dentro del 
matorral subtropical merecen mencion especial las siguientes: 

En los alrededores del Lago de Chapala se presenta un matorral mis o 
menos cerrado, de 3 a 5 m de alto, con Ipomoea intrapilosa, Bursera bipinnata, 

B. fagaroide 

sp., Acacia 


palmeri, cor 

Opuntia fi 


Tecoma stans, Eysenhardtia 

Hyptis albida, Stemmadenia tomentosa var. 
Lysiloma, Ceiba, Bursera multijuga 


En el canon de Juchipila (Zacatecas), en los alrededores de Calvillo y en 
otros lugares de la region de profundas barrancas al norte de Guadalajara, el 
matorral es tambien mas o menos cerrado y mide por lo comun 3 a 5 m 
de alto, entrando en su composicion Bur sera fagaroides, Ipomoea aff. muru- 
coides, Acacia sp., Mimosa monancistra, Opuntia streptacantha, O. fidiginosa, 
Myrtillo cactus geometrizans, Eysenhardtia polystachya, Manilio t caudata, 
Plumeria rubra, Lemaireocereits sp., Wimmeria confusa, habiendo arboles 
aislados de Bursera multijuga, Jatropha cordata, Lysiloma divaricata, Ceiba 
aesculifolia y Fie us petiolaris. 

Hacia la region de Jiquilpan y Zaraora, en Michoacln, el matorral subtrop- 
ical sepresenta aveces bajo la forma decomunidad abierta, en aparente transi- 
cion con el zacatal. Ahl predominan Mimosa monancistra, Eysenhardtia. poly- 
stachya, Forestiera philly re aides, siendo tambien abundantes Acacia pennatula, 
A, farnesiana, Opuntia fidiginosa, Opuntia sp., con dr boles ocasionales de Ceiba 
aesculifolia, Lysiloma acapulcensis y Bursera palmeri. 

En la region de Tepatitl£n ; Yahualica y San Juan de los Lagos, que parece 
estar dominada por el zacatal con Acacia tortuosa, en las laderas abruptas, en 
las pequenas barrancas y canones, los declives estan cubiertos por un matorral 
de 2 a 4 m de alto, en que usualmente predominan Eysenhardtia polystachya con 
Forestiera tomentosa, Acacia pennatula, Mimosa monancistra^ Ipomoea muru- 
coides, Opuntia fidiginosa, Hyptis albida, Acacia farnesiana. 

Como se seiialo con anterioridad, tanto por su composicion florfstica, 
como por su aspecto, la mayor parte de estas comunidades da la impresion de 
ser el resultado de un fuerte disturbio. 


Miranda (1952: 116-123; 1958: 240-243) describio bajo el nombre de 
"sabana" una serie de asociaciones vegetales de Chiapas y de la Peninsula de 
Yucatan, caracterizadas por ser "una agrupacion constituida por extensas 
praderas de gramfneas, a veces con abundantes ciperaceas, y ordinariamente 
con arboles bajos dispersos, pero en ocasiones sin arboles." De las especies 
arboreas mas frecuentes se citan Byrsonima crassifolia, Curatella americana, 
Crescentia alata yC, cujete. El habitat caracteristico esta constituido por te- 



del ano y con suelo muy seco en la otra temporada. 

Leopold (1950) senala en su mapa de vegetacion un area correspondiente a 
"savanna" situada en la planicie costera del sur de Sinaloa y del noroeste de 

Nayarit. Esta zona no ha sido < 
limites de Nueva Galicia. Otro pequeho manchon de "savanna" se localiza en 
el mencionado mapa en la region costera alrededor de Manzanillo. Es de pre- 
sumirse que se trata de alguna confusion o quizas de error tipografico, pues 
nada semejante a una sabana se ha podido localizar en ese sector. En otros 


sitios del estado de Colima, en cambio (1° cerca de Cerro de Ortega, 
municipio de Tecoman, dentro del area general del bosque espinoso, y 2° al 
este de la ciudad do Colima, en el area general del bosque tropical subdeciduo) 
se encontraron manchones de un bosquete abierto de Crescentia alata (Fig. 14), 
creciendo sobre suelo negro arcilloso y mal drenado, facilmente anegable 

Fig. 14. Bosquete de Crescentia alata, cerca de Cerro de Ortega, Col. (Fot. Rzedowski) 




con un buen aguacero. Algunos de los acompanantes de Crescentia en estos 

sitios son: 

Acacia cymbispina 
Acacia farnesiana 
Achatocarpits gracilis 
Ampliipterygium glauciun 
Bur sera aff. j 'agar v ides 
Bur sera palmeri 

Caesalpinia cacalaco 
Caesalpinia coriaria 
Cassia skinner i 

Coccoloba liebmannii 
Cordia pringlei 
Diphysa sp. 

Pithecellobium sp. 
Randia aff. mitis 
Randia sp. 
Thevetia aff. ovata 
Trichilia trifolia 

El suelo esta cubierto en la epoca lluviosa por numerosas plantas herbl- 
ceas, pero no son abundantes las gramineas altas, que deben caracterizar una 

sabana tipica. Incuestionablemente se trata de un climax edafico. 

Mucho mas extendido que el anterior parece ser en Nueva Galicia otro 
tipo de comunidad vegetal, con semejanza fisonomica y floristica a la sabana. 
Este se localiza sobre suelos someros derivados con frecuencia de rocas 
metamorficas, en laderas de cerros, a altitudes entre 400 y 800 m, en forma 
de manchones mas o menos extensos, que en su conjunto constituyen quizas una 
franja estrecha pero casi continua desde Nayarit hasta Colima, y con proba- 
bilidad mucho mas alia de estos limites, pues Gentry (1946b: 362) cita una 
comunidad en apariencia analoga bajo el nombre de "savanilla" de Sinaloa, y 
los autores la han observado en diver sas localidades de Guerrero y Oaxaca. 
Miranda (com. pers.) la ha visto en las montanas de Oaxaca, proximas al Istmo 
de Tehuan tepee. 

Las gramineas mas o menos elevadas a menudo juegan un papel prepon- 
derate en esta comunidad y los arboles o arbustos caracteristicos son: 

Byrsonima crassifolia 
C let lira rosei 
Conoslegia xalapensis 
Citrate lla ame ricana 
Dodonaea viscosa 

Miconia albicans 
Que reus aristata 
Que reus macro phylla 
Vilex pyramidala 

Byrsonima siempre se encuentra presente, muchas veces domina y en 
ocasiones puede constituir el unico elemento arborescente; Curate lla le sigue 
en frecuencia. Es muy notable la asociacion con encinos, que en ocasiones es 
solamente de tipo de ecotonia, pero en varios sitios una o mas especies de 
Quercus entran a formar parte de la comunidad, que en tales casos suele ser 
mis cerrada y se convierte en un bosque bajo mis o menos denso. 

La sinusia epifftica puede estar compuesta por Tillandsia balbisiana, 
Struthanthus aii.grahamii y Plioradendron commutatum,este ultimo un par&sito 
algo frecuente de Byrsonima, 

El numero de especies herbaceas, que forman parte de la comunidad, 
puede ser elevado. Algunas de las encontradas son: 

Aeschynomene amorphoides 
Age ration aff. corymbosum 
Ageratum salicifolium 
Andropogon brevifolius 
Andropogon hirtiflorus 
Aristida adscensionis 
Aristida joridlensis 
Aristida aff. orizabensis 

Aristida aff, ternipes 
Ayenia sp. 
Borreria spp. 
Bouteloua aff. filiform is 
Bouleloua glandulosa 
Bouteloua re pens 

Brickellia oliganllies 
Buchnera pusilla 



Bulbostylis capillaris 
Bulbostylis aff. vestita 
Cassia aif.flexuosa 

Cassia hispidula 
Cassia leptadenia 

Cassia standleyi 
Centaur ium sp. 
Coccocypselum hirsutum 
Crotalaria sagittalis 
Croton repens 
Ctenium plumosum 
Cuphea hookeriana 
Cuphea lobophora 

Cuphea llavea 
Cynoctonum mitreola 

D ie c to m is fa s tigia ta 
Diodia sp. 

Elephantopus mollis 
Elytraria squamosa 
Eragrostis maypurensis 
Euphorbia subreniformis 
Euphorbia thymifolia 
E volvulus alsinoides 
Heteropogon contortus 

Lasiacis procerrima 
Mexianthus mexicanus 
Muhlenbergia speciosa 
Ophryosporus sp. 
Oplismenus burmannii 

Oxalis hernandesii 
Oxypappus seemannii 
Panicum trichoides 
Panicum sp. 
Paspalum multicaule 
Paspalum no latum 
Paspalum plicatulum 
Pedis dichotoma 
Pennisetum setosum 
Poly gala angustifolia 
Poly gala longicaulis 
Porophyllum punctatum 
Pterolepis pumila 
Russelia tepicensis 
Salvia lasiocephala 
Schultesia 2&i.guianensis 
Sebastiania corniculata 
Sida linifolia 
Sida urens 

Stylosanthes aff. subsericea 
Tephrosia submontana 
Trachypogon secundus 
Turner a pumilea 
Viguiera tenuis 
Zexmenia macrocephala 
Zinnia greggii 
Zinnia maritima 
Zornia diphylla 


animales y en efecto muchas de las areas cubiertas por esta vegetacion de tipo 
sabanoide se utilizan para tal fin y a menudo ( 



que no se 

undaria mantenida indefinidamente 

por el fuego, lo que de hecho puede ser verdad para ciertos sectores. Por otra 
parte, sin embargo, la curiosa distribucion geografica, unida al hecho de que 
se le ha visto en algunos sitios sin aparente huella de incendios, asi como la 
correlacion con un substrato geologico particular, sugieren mas bien la idea 



al fuego pudo haber extendido su &rea de distribucion. 

Queda, desde luego, por dilucidar el determinismo ecologico preciso de la 
asociacion que se acaba de describir, pues al tiempo de poseer las caracte- 
rlsticas de sabana, no se presenta sobre terrenos pianos y con drenaje defi- 
ciente,que es elhabitat tipico de este tipo de vegetacion (Beard, 1953; Miranda, 
1958). Es de sefialarse, sin embargo, que el mismo Beard (op. cit.: 159, 168- 
169) cita de Trinidad y de Cuba comunidades que clasifica dentro del conjunto 



rros. La fotografia de la fig. 8 de la mencionada contribucion de Beard que 

savanna" con Curatella y Byrsonima de St. Joseph 




tampoco deja de ser significativa. 



Fig. 15. Zacatal, cerca de Monte Escobedo, Zac. Destacan Muhlenbergia rigida, Stevia 
serrata. (Fot. Rzedowski). 


Este tipo de vegetacion se distingue por la predominancia de plantas 
herbaceas de tipo graminiforme. Esta representado en diver sas zonas del 
Irea bajo estudio, pero es particularmente caracterfstico de la parte oriental, 
conocida con el nombre de los Altos de Jalisco, asi como de porciones vecinas 
de Zacatecas, Aguascalientes y Guanajuato. El zacatal de esta region repre- 
senta el extremo meridional de la extensa franja de gr amine turn, que arran- 
cando desde el Canadl, abarca enormes superficies conocidas con el nombre 
de pradera {prairies) en la parte central de los Estados Unidos, y penetra hacia 
el sur por la Altiplanicie de Mexico en forma de una cuna que corre al pie y a 


En este zacatal, 


tinguirse por lo menos dos tipos fisonomica, floristica y ecologicamente di- 


El primero es un zacatal tipico, con participacion escasa o casi nula de 


vegetacion lefiosa, muy semejante al que es comun mas al norte, en Duj 
en Chihuahua. Predomina a menudo a altitudes generalmente mayores de 1900 
m, que son frecuentes alnoreste de Lagos de Moreno, al este de Aguascalientes 
y en ciertas Ireas de Zacatecas y del extremo norte de Jalisco. Es caracte- 
rfstico de llanuras aluviales y de las que se extienden sobre mesetas rioliticas, 
pero cubre tambien con frecuencia laderas rocosas de cerros y sus abanicos 
aluviales. La precipitacion anual es de 350 a 700 mm, con 6 a 7 meses secos. 
Las temperaturas medias anuales son del orden de 14 a 19°C,y se presentan 
en promedio anual 30 o mas dias con heladas. Son comunes los suelos de color 
claro, arenosos y moderadamente acidos; a menudo se presentan horizontes 
endurecidos ferruginosos, a mayor o menor profundidad. 

El pastoreo constituye el aprovechamiento economico mas importante de 
las Ireas cubiertas por el zacatal, y esta actividad, en apariencia, ha influido 
de manera notable modificando la composicion y la estructura de la vegetacion. 
En ciertas Ireas de suelo profundo se practica tambien la agricultura, princi- 
palmente de temporal. En la mayor parte de los casos las cosechas son muy 
deficientes; los terrenos se abandonan pronto y es muy comun enconti 


se cundar 


Fisonomicamente, este zacatal tiene el aspecto de un cesped monotono e 
ininterrumpido de gramfneas perennes mis bien bajas, con sus partes aereas 
amarillentas o parduzcas durante la mayor parte del ano, y verdes 

epoca lluviosa. 

La densidad de la cubierta vegetal es muy variable y depende sobre todo 
de las condiciones edificas y de la intensidad del pastoreo, pero, salvo ireas 
en que puede haber humedad edifica adicional, las plantas no forman una 
carpeta continua y no son comunes las especies grandes amacolladas (Fig. 16). 

La altura del zacatal, como es normal en un tipo de vegetacion dominado 




cias llegan a formar un estrato de 40 a 80 cm de alto (Fig. 15). En sitios 
protegidos de pastoreo las hojas de las gramineas forman durante todo el ano 
un estrato de 20 a 50 cm de alto, pero tales sitios son raros y lo que se en- 
cuentra casi siempre en epoca seca son macollas cortadas casi al ras del 
suelo, sobre saliendo a lo sumo unos 5 a 10 cm. 

En condiciones optimas del zacatal las plantas lenosas pueden faltar en su 




totalidad, pero de hecho casi siempre se les encuentra, y su importancia 
aumenta de ordinario en funcion de ciertos tipos de disturbio, en funcion del 
aumento de la pendiente,y sobre todo en ecotonos con otros tipos de vegetacion. 
Se trata por lo general de subarbustos o arbustos, pudiendo Lntervenir a veces 
pequefios £rboles. Los componentes normales de las comunidades climax pa- 
recen ser: 

Acacia tortuosa 
Agave filifera 

Brickellia spinulosa 
Bur sera fagaroides 

Coivania mexicana 
Dasylirion parryanum 
E chinofo s sitlo cactus sp. 
Ferocactus melocactiformis 

Forestiera phillyreoides 
Helianthemum glomeratiun 
Jatropha dioica 
Main miliaria spp. 

Pe rymenium parvifolium 
Pithe ce llobiiim leptopliylliim 
Prosopis laevigata 
Yucca decipiens 

Las especies siguientes se comportan comunmente como invasoras en 
terrenos perturbados. Es muy notoria la invasion por parte de Opuntia, que 
modifica de manera considerable la fisonomia de la comunidad. 

Asclepias linaria 

Baccharis ramiilosa 
Bozivardia ternifolia 
Brickellia veronicifolia 
Buddleia scordioides 
Calliandra eriophylla 
Dale a tuber culata 

Dodonaea viscosa 
E ysenhardtia po lysia ch ya 
Hap lo pap pus ve ne tits 
Mimosa biuncifera 
Opuntia robusta 
Opuntia streptacantha 

•■ !t&**, 

Fig. 16. Zacatal de Bouteloua gracilis, cerca de Ojuelos, Jal. (Fot. Rzedowski). 



Las e species dominantes en las comunidades son gramineas perennes de 
tipo xeromorfo, con la mayor parte de las hojas en roseta basilar y de textura 
mis o menos rigida, debida al parecer al alto contenido de silice. 

Bouteloua gracilis da la impresion de haber prevalecido en amplias ex- 
tensiones en terrenos pianos o poco inclinados y de suelo profundo, formando un 
zacatal moderadamente bajo, de 20 a 40 cm de altura. En la actualidad es mas 
habitual encontrar como dominante B. scorpioides, especie cercana a la 
anterior, pero de menor altura y robustez. Otras gramineas accompafiantes de 
estas comunidades son: Muhlenbergia rigida, M. repens, Aristida divaricata, 
A. schiedeana, Microchloa kunthii, Buchloe dactyloides, Lycurus phleoides, 
Bouteloua chondrosioides , Tripogon spicatus. 

En laderas mas inclinadas, de suelo somero, el zacatal suele ser mas alto, 
alcanzando hasta 0,8 m de altura, pero a menudo menos denso. La dominancia 

(frecuentemente compartida entre varias) puede ser de alguna de las siguientes 
especies: Bouteloua curtipendula, B. gracilis, B.hirsuta,Andropogon hirtiflorus 
var. feensis, Aristida schiedeana, Muhlenbergia rigida, Heteropogon contortus; 

siendo otras gramineas a veces frecuentes: Bouteloua filif or mis , B. radicosa, 
Trachypogon secundus, Lycurus phleoides, Aristida divaricata, Tripsacum Ian- 

ceolatum.. Nolina watsonii, una liliacea siempre verde de aspecto graminoide, 
se presenta en algunas localidades. 

Un gran numero de especies herbaceas perennes forma parte de estos 
tipos de zacatal, pero tal hecho solo se pone de manifiesto en los anos en que 
las lluvias son abundantes y oportunas. En afios de precipitacion escasa 
muchas de estas plantas no desarrollan, al parecer, sus partes aereas. Son en 
su mayoria de estatura baja, muchas de ellas rastreras o semi-rastreras, en 
cambio las trepadoras son poco comunes. La siguiente lista solo pretende in- 
cluir las mas frecuentemente encontradas: 




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Fig. 17. Area de laderas abruptas cerca del Paso de las Trojes, entre Aguascalientes y 
Ojuelos. Al frente pueden observarse los irboles de una zona aluvial; al fondo destacan 
manchones de encinar arbustivo. (Fot. McVaugh). 



Acacia liar live git 
Age ra turn co rym bo sum 
Allium kunthii 
Astragalus hartwegii 
Astragalus hypoleucus 
Astragalus mollissimus 

Be s sera elegans 
Bouchetia anomala 
Bulbostylis juncoides 
Cacalia sinuata 
Calochortus barbatus 
Commelina scabra 
Cyperus seslerioides 
Cyperus spectabilis 
Dichondra argentea 
Dyschoriste decumbens 
Echeandia sp. 
E ryngium he te rophyllum 
Eupliorbia biformis 
Euphorbia potosina 
Euphorbia sphaerorhiza 
E volvulus alsinoides 
E volvulus prostratus 
E volvulus rotundifolius 
E volvulus sericeus 
Gaudicliaudia sidiverticillata 
Hypoxis decumbens 
Ipomoea costellata 
Ipomoea stans 

Kosteletzkya paniculata 
Kramer ia secundiflora 

Kyllinga o do rata 
Lotus oroboides 
Macrosiphonia hypoleuca 
Milla biflora 
Nemastylis tenuis 
Nothoscordum bivalve 
Oxalis sp. 
Perymenium rosei 
Phaseolus heterophyllus 
Pin/zropappus roseus 
Piqueria trine r via 
Polianthes graminifolia 
Poly gala spp, 
Sisyrinchium spp. 
Spiranthes michuacana 

Stenandrium sp. 

Stevia micrantha 
Stevia purpurea 
Stevia serrata 
Tagetes lucida 
Tradescantia crassifolia 
Valeriana ceratophylla 
Viguiera linearis 
Viguiera pachycephala 
Zinnia angustifolia 
Zornia diphylla 

Las anuales, en su gran mayor ia, son mas bien indicadoras de terrenos 
sobrepastoreados o perturbados en otra forma. Aqiu destacan entre otras: 

Bidens spp. 
Bouteloua simplex 
Bulbostylis capillaris 
Crusea sp. 
Dale a spp. 
Dyssodia papposa 
Gomphrena decumbens 

Heterosperma pinnatum 
Loeselia coerulea 
Monnina ivrightii 
Pedis prostrata 
Tagetes micrantha 

Zinnia peruviaiia 

El segundo tipo de zacatal, que probablemente tambien constituye forma- 


pera, se localiza a altitudes entre 1700 y 2000 m, sobre todo en terrenos 
pianos o algo inclinados, que abundan en el area entre Aguascalientes, Leon, 
Teocaltiche, Tecalitlan y 

como en partes adyacentes de 

Arandas. En diversas zonas del norte de Jalisco, ast 

Zacatecas, se presenta a menudo ocupando ex- 

tensiones mas pequenas y discontinuas, debido a la topografia quebrada de esa 

Este tipo de zacatal se diferencia del anterior por la presencia constante 
de una especie lenosa, Acacia tortuosa, la que le presta una fisonomia muy 
peculiar, algo semejante a la de una sabana tropical de tipo africano (Fig. 18). 

Por sus gramineas dominantes, este pastizal tambien es distinto del descrito 
mas arriba. 

Shreve (1942: 196-197), al discutir los zacatales del norte de Mexico, 



describe lo que denomina "cactus-acacia-grassland," formacion que ha obser- 
vado en el sur de Durango, en Zacatecas, en el norte de Jalisco y en el sur 
de San Luis Potosi, y que ademas de gramineas y de Acacia tortiwsa, se 
caracteriza por la predominancia de una especie de Prosopis, de Opuntia 
streptacantha y de O. durangensis.i El mencionado autor situa el "cactus- 
acacia-grassland M como un tipo de vegetacion ecologicamente intermedio entre 

el zacataly elmatorral desertico ("desert") • 

Serfa dificil negar que en algunos sitios de Aguascalientes y de Jalisco, y 
en muchos lugares del estado de Zacatecas existen terrenos cuya cubierta 
vegetal responde a la descripcion de Shreve, pero el area total que ocupan no 
parece justificar su reconocimiento como formacion, dentro del intrincado 
mosaico que forma la vegetacion en toda esa region. Debe precisarse que en el 
suroeste de San Luis Potosi, en el sureste y en el centro de Zacatecas, en 
zonas adyacentes de Guanajuato y en ciertas areas de Aguascalientes predomina 
sobre suelos derivados de rocas volcanicas el tipo de vegetacion denominado 
M matorral crasicaule M (Rzedowski, 1957), caracterizado por la predominancia 
de cactaceas arbustivas (en especial Opuntia streptacantha, O. leucotricha y 
My rtillo cactus geometrizans) , acompafiadas de varias especies de leguminosas 
lenosas (vease p. 53). El papel de las gramineas en estas "nopaleras" suele 
ser muy reducido y desde luegoestacomunidad tiene poco en comun floristica y 
fisonomicamente con los zacatales, salvo las zonas de transicion o areas per- 
turbadas con intensidad. El matorral crasicaule corresponde de hecho a la 
situacion (esbozada por Shreve) ecologicamente intermedia entre el zacatal y 

el matorral desertico. 

El zacatal con Acacia tortuosa, desde luego, es diferente por su ecologia y 
con dificultad podria participar en la misma unidad fisonomica con el matorral 
crasicaule. Por consiguiente, en opinion de los que escriben, es mas 


(Fot. Rzedowski). 



conveniente considerar el "cactus-acacia-grassland" como un estadto de 

transicion entre ambos tipos de vegetacion mencionados, o bien como una 
variante del primero. 

El zacatal con Acacia torluosa existe en algunas regiones de Durango 
(Gentry, 1957: 73), no es raro en Zacatecas y Aguascalientes, pero alcanza 
su mejor desenvolvimiento en "los Altos" de Jalisco, donde constituye el ele- 
mento dominante del paisaje. Se le encuentra asimismo en localidades aisladas 
del suroeste de San Luis Potosi y en areas restringidas de los estados de 
Hidalgo y Mexico. Gentry sugiere que "su desarrollo puede estar relacionado 
con factores climaticos, como temperatura mas elevada y mayor cantidad de 
luz" (en relacion con el zacatal tipico) y que "su presencia aqui (en Durango) 
parece anticipar mayores cambios vegetacionales hacia el tropico." 

En cuanto a su clima el area del zacatal con Acacia es un tanto mas calida 
que la correspondiente a la primera variante, pues la temperatura media anual 
se mantiene entre 18 y 19° C. Tambien en promedio anual llueve 500 a 800 mm; 
las heladas suelen concentrarse en menos de 30 dias al ano. 

El suelo caracteristico es en general profundo, de color gris o a veces 
rojizo, y predominantemente arenoso cuando derivado de rocas rioliticas, o 
mas o menos arcilloso en zonas en que predominan basal tos. La presencia de 
horizontes de endurecimiento es frecuente. 

El impacto de las actividades humanas sobre este tipo de zacatal tambien 
es muy notable. Hay grandes areas dedicadas al cultivo, y la ganaderia emplea 
los terrenos cubiertos por vegetacion natural. El excesivo disturbio parece 
favorecer el establecimiento de arbustos y de especies anuales que desplazan 
las gramineas dominantes. 

El aspecto tan peculiar de Acacia torluosa contribuye en buena medida a 
integrar la fisonomia de este pastizal. Se trata de un arbusto 6 arbolito de 3 a 
5 m de alto, con copa plana o casi plana y ramificaciones desde bastante abajo, 
recordando el conjunto la forma de un hongo. La mencionada especie es a 
menudo la unica en el correspondiente estrato; la distancia promedio entre los 
individuos es por lo general superior a 7 m. No es rara la presencia de 
Tillandsia recurvata sobre las ramas de Acacia. Otras especies a veces 
existentes en el estrato arboreo son las siguientes: 

Acacia farnesiana 
Eysenhardtia polystachya 
Forestiera phillyreoides 
Opuntia fidiginosa 

Opuntia guilanchi 

Opuntia streptacantha 
Prosopis laevigata 

Un estrato arbustivo de 0.5 a 1.5 m de alto en general se encuentra pre- 
sente, aunque, salvo lugares perturbados, cubre escasa superficie. Pudieron 

BaccJiaris ramulosa 
Brickellia veronicifc 

Mimosa monancistra 
Opuntia robusta 

de las cuales Mimosa es la mas constante y abundante. 

En el estrato herbaceo suelen predominar dos especies de gramineas 
perennes bajas (10 a 30 cm): Bouteloua filiform is e Hilar ia cenchroides, ya 

menudo tambien una grammea mas elevada (40 a 80 cm), Muhlenbergia rigida. 
En ocasiones Bouteloua gracilis o B. hirsuta pueden prevalecer tambien, 
aunque es de presumirse que en condiciones originales M. rigida fue la especie 
mas caracterfstica de toda esa area. 

Otras gramineas acompafiantes pueden ser: 



Andropogon barbinodis 
Aristida adscensionis 
Aristida divaricata 
Bouteloua chondrosioides 
Bouteloua radicosa 
Bouteloua simplex 
Buchloe dactyloides 

Eragrostis spp. 
Lycurus phleoides 
Microchloa kunthii 
Muhlenberg ia repens 
Rhynchelytrum roseum 
Setaria genicidata 
Tripogon spicatus 

Las especies herbaceas perennes son numerosas y muchas alcanzan tallas 
de mis de 50 cm. Su desarrollo esta, como en el caso anterior, muy en rela- 
ci6n con la incidencia y la abundancia de las lluvias. Pueden citarse entre las 


Acalypha sp. 
Astragalus mollis simus 
Brayulinea densa 
Buchnera sp. 
Cacalia sinuata 
Commelina scabra 
Cyperus seslerioides 

Dichondra argentea 
Grindelia oxylepis 
Hypericum sp. 

Ipomoea stans 
Nemastylis tenuis 
Phaseolus heterophyllus 

Piqueria trinervia 
Polygala glochidiata 
Stevia serrata 
Stevia viscida 
Tagetes lucida 
Zornia diphylla 

Las especies anuales son tambien abundantes y conspicuas, por ejemplo: 

Gomphrena decumbens 
Heterosperma pinnatum 
Melampodium sericeum 
Sanvitalia ocymoides 

Schkuhria anthemoides var 

Tagetes spp. 
Zinnia peruviana 

En la parte introductoria de este articulo se llama la atencion del lector 
acerca del significado relativo de los limites entre los tipos de vegetacion, tal 
como se senalan en el mapa adjunto. Esta precaucion es muy aplicable al 
zacatal. Las Ireas que se marcan como cubiertas por esta formacion, en su 
mayoria constituyen de hecho un complejo mosaico, en el cual intervienen 
varios otros tipos de vegetacion tambien. Pequenos manchones de encinar o de 
encinar arbustivo pueden encontrarse por dondequiera sobre eminencias topo- 
graficas, especialmente en exposiciones hacia el norte. Cerca de Lagos de 
Moreno y de Aguascalientes, as! como en areas situadas al oriente de estas 
poblaciones, muchas laderas abruptas, algunos abanicos aluviales y depresiones 
propias del sistema hidrografico estan cubiertas por el matorral crasicaule 
bien desarrollado y denso. Sobre algunas mesetas rioliticas en la misma area 

:ia de Yucca decipiens puede llegar a ser lo suficientemente grande 

^a dar 1 

En la 

zona mas baja hacia el suroeste de Aguascalientes y de Lagos de Moreno los 
sitios de topografia mas abrupta suelen estar cubiertos por un matorral que 
siempre da la impresion de estar muy perturbado, y en el cual son conspicuos 

Eysenhardtia polystachya, Mimosa monancistra, Acacia 

Esta comunidad se describe 

Opuntia fuliginosa 9 

tortuosa, A. fames: 

mis arriba con el nombre de matorral subtropical. 

Reciprocamente, pequefias extensiones de zacatal se intercalan de manera 

semejante entre otros tipos de vegetacion en muchas partes de Nueva Galicia. 
t?™ in moTmrfo Ho inc pqchc ccs +~rQfQ Hp pnrniinirtarlpc; spria.lps. de comunidades 

mantenidas por el 


sentan. sin embargo, 

muchas situaciones dudosas, dificiles de comprender, y cuya correcta 



interpretacion ecologica requerira estudios mas profundos, tal vez experi- 

mental s. 

Es en particular notable el caso de los pastizales bastante extensos de los 
alrededores de Guadalajara (a 1500-1700 m de altitud) y de los alrededores de 
Tepic (a 1000-1200 m de altitud). En ambas areas el clima parece ser demasia- 
do humedo para la existencia de zacatal climax y la cercania de 
centros de poblacion sugiere el caracter secundario de estas comunidades. Por 
otra parte, en amplias areas no se encuentra resto o indicio alguno de los 
posibles antiguos habitantes lenosos de la zona y el zacatal da la impresion de 

ser perfectamente estable. Las especies de gramineas que con frecuencia se 
encuentran aht son: 


Andropogon condyle* trichus 

Andropogon hirtiflorus 
Bonte lo iia curtipe ndit la 

Bouteloita gracilis 

Bouteloua hirsute 
Bouteloita radicosa 
Cathes tecum e rectum 
He te ropogo n con to rtus 
Heteropogon melano carpus 
Muhlenbergia grandis 

Muh lenbe rgia rigida 
Muhlenbergia robusta 
Muhlenbergia stricta 
Paspalum spp. 
Pentarrhaphis polymorpha 
Rhynchelytrum roseum 
Sorghas trum incomple turn 
Trachypogon secundus 
Tristachya avenacea 

Zacatales secundarios pueden encontrarse como claros en medio del 
bosque de pino o de encino, en medio del bosque tropical deciduo o del bosque 

espmoso. Se 



y que regresan con lentitud hacia la condicion boscosa natural, o mas a menudo 
de Ireas en las cuales el pastizal se mantiene artificialmente mediante 
cendios periodicos. 

Los zacatales edaficos en la region estudiada son de dos tipos: los propios 
de suelos salinos y los que se discuten bajo el nombre de vegetacion sabanoide 
en otro apartado de este trabajo. 

Los caracterfsticos de suelos con exceso de sales solubles presentan una 
distribucion muy restringida, pues se limitan en esencia a los fondos de 
algunas cuencas cerradas, en donde existen lagunas salobres mas o menos in- 
termitentes. Este es el caso de los lagos de Sayula y de Zacoalco, entre 
Guadalajara y Ciudad Guzman, con franjas anulares angostas de zacatal bajo de 
Distichlis spicata con Sporobolus pyramidatus, Scirpus americanus y Eragros- 
tis obtusiflora, y varias especies anuales, a menudo entremezclado con man- 
chones de bosquecillos de Prosopis con Opuntia y Celtis pallida. 

Otra comunidad vegetal dominada por gramineas, tambien de &rea muy 
definida y pequeiia, es la que se presenta por encima del limite de la vegeta- 
cion arborea. Para su descripcion vease la pag. 66. 


Este tipo de vegetacion descrito por Rzedowski (1955, 1957) ocupa impor- 
tantes superficies en el centro y sureste de Zacatecas as! como en el suroeste 
de San Luis Potosi y partes de Guanajuato, con enclaves en Aguascalientes y en 
el extremo nororiental de Jalisco. 

En la region bajo estudio no cubre muchas extensiones continuas, sino se 
presenta en forma de manchones, generalmente rodeados por el zacatal, y en 
ciertas partes forma amplias fajas de transicion con el zacatal, que se discuten 
en el inciso correspondiente a ese tipo de vegetacion. 

El matorral crasicaule es una formacion de aspecto xeromorfo, con pre- 
dominancia de cactdceas arbustivas o arborescentes, acompanadas de legu- 
minosas espinosas, formando una cubierta casi siempre mas cerrada que la 
mayoria de los matorrales deserticos, pero sin que muchos de los arbustos in- 
dividuals del estrato superior se toquen entre si y sin ofrecer mayor obsti- 
culo al paso del hombre o del ganado (Fig. 19). Por su situacion ecologica el 
matorral crasicaule ocupa un sitio intermedio entre los matorrales deserticos 
y el zacatal, pues convive con ambos en muchas regiones. 

Tipicamente se presenta sobre suelos someros derivados de rocas vol- 
canicas de laderas de cerros, canones o depresiones, pero tambien se le ob- 
serva a veces sobre llanuras y entonces puede adquirir en la region estudiada 
el aspecto de TT cactus-acacia-grassland Tr (vease la discusion en el inciso co- 
rrespondiente al zacatal). Sus limites altitudinales se localizan en Nueva 
Galicia cerca de los 1800 y 2200 m, y la precipitacion media anual de las 
localidades que incluye varia entre 350 y 550 mm. 


- - ■ 
■■ j ■ ■ *■ -■ 

.'.- '-■... 

■-** ' 

■ L L ■ 


■y. x 

v ; ::: :i 

. . 

.; ": 

. „ ' ■ 

Fig. 19. Matorral crasicaule, cerca de Aguascalientes, Ags., con Opuntia streptacantha, 
Opuntia guilanchi, Mimosa motiancistra, Eysenhardtia polystachya. (Fot. Rzedowski). 




Economicamente el matorral crasicaule es interesante por sostener una 

ganaderia mediocre o a veces vigor osa y por el aprovechamiento del fruto de 

Opuntia streptacantha ("tuna cardona"), que es comestible y altamente aprecia- 

En la fisonomia de este tipo de vegetacion las cactaceas juegan un papel de 
primera importancia, proporcionandole un aspecto peculiar y un verdor 
perenne. Las leguminosas, asi como la mayor parte de otros componentes, 
son de hoja decidua, aunque algunos (como Prosopis) solo por un periodo breve, 

El estrato dominante suele medir 3 a 5 m de alto, siendo siempre impor- 

tante en el Opuntia streptacantha. Otros arbustos codominantes 6 mas 6 menos 
frecuentes pueden ser: 

Acacia tort no s a 
Aloys ia ligustrina 

Baccharis ramiflora 
Cassia wislizenii 
Celtis pallida 
Eysenhardtia polystachya 

Karwinskia humboldtiana 
Lemaireocereus sp. 

Opuntia guilanchi 
Opuntia leucotricha 
Opuntia r obits ta 
Prosopis laevigata 
Trixis angustifolia 
Verbesina ser rata 
Yucca decipiens 

Tillandsia recurvata no es rara sobre las ramas de Prosopis y a veces tambien 
sobre Opuntia. 

Un estrato subarbustivo es muy conspicuo y con frecuencia cubre 
superficie que el anterior. Sobresalen en el: 


Bri eke Ilia veronicifolia 
Calliandra eriophylla 
Gymnosperma glutinosum 
Hap lo pap pus venetus 

Mimosa biuncifera 
Mimosa monancistra 
Parthenium incanum 
Zaluzania augusta 

El estrato herbaceo tiene buen desarrollo en los aiios mas humedos, pero 

solo por un periodo de 3 a 4 meses. Las gramineas son relativamente poco 

importantes, en especial sobre suelos someros. Entre las diversas especies 
pueden citarse: 


Ageratum corymbosum 
Bahia absinthifolia 
Boerhaavia spp. 
Bouteloua chondrosioides 
Bouteloua curtipendula 
Bouteloua gracilis 
Dyssodia setifolia 
Enneapogon desvaitxii 


Allionia choisyi 
Aristida adscensionis 
Bouchea prismatica 
Bouteloua aristidoides 
Cheno podium graveolens 
Chloris virgata 
Dyssodia cancellata 
Dyssodia papposa 

Eragrostis cilianensis 
Euphorbia dentata 

Froelichia inter rupta 
Leptochloa dubia 

Ly cunts phleoides 

Muhlenbergia rigida 

Plumbago pulchella 

Setaria geniculata 

Stipa eminens 

Euphorbia potosina 
Euphorbia stictospora 
Franseria sp. 

Gomphrena decumbens 
Kallstroemia sp. 

Muhlenbergia tenuifolia 
Pa rthenium b ip inna tifidum 
Pedis pro strata 
Salvia reflexa 
Zinnia peruviana 


Los pinares y los encinares constituyen la vegetacion caracteristica de las 
montanas de todo Mexico. Segun Leopold (1950: 509) ocupaban en epocas 
anteriores mis del 25% del territorio de la Republica, y si bien esta extension 
puede ser un poco exagerada, no se puede dejar de observar que, al lado de los 
bosques tropicales y de los matorrales deserticos, ocupan un lugar preponde- 
rate en la caracterizacion del paisaje mexicano. En general, el area de dis- 
tribucion de los bosques de pino y encino corresponde con la zona climatica 
subhumeda que en el pais se conoce con el nombre de "tierra templada, TT a di- 
ferencia de "tierra caliente," cubierta por lo general por vegetacion de tipo 
tropical. Este tipo de clima (aproximadamente Cw de la clasificacion de 
Koeppen) tiene distribucion muy vasta en la Republica y a sus numerosas va- 
riantes corresponden otras tantas de los bosques de pino y encino, que en su 
conjunto constituyen una unidad ecologica amplia y heterogenea, pero no del 
todo mal definida. Ademas, en las ireas de clima ligeramente mas arido y 
algo mas humedo pueden existir tambien pinares y encinares, aunque por lo 
comun fisonomicamente distintos de los tipicos, y que en la literatura han 
recibido los nombres de "chaparral/ 1 fT encinar arbustivo," "pifionar," "cloud 
forest/' bosque deciduo templado/' "bosque deciduo," "bosque mesofilo de 
montana," etc. La nota aparentemente mas "discordante" corresponde a estos 
restringidos tipos de encinares y pinares que penetran a la "tierra caliente" y 
se desarrollan al lado de los bosques tropicales; su existencia ahi parece estar 
ligada a ciertas condiciones edificas peculiar es, aun poco conocidas. 

En otro trabajo uno de los autores (Rzedowski, 1965) discute los incon- 
venientes y la necesidad de mantener por el momento las diferentes clases de 
pinares y encinares (del estado de San Luis Potosi) en un solo tipo de vegeta- 
cion. En el caso de Nueva Galicia subsiste el mismo problema y la situacion 
resulta aun mas complicada. Debido a su escasa representacion y a los di- 
ferentes estados intermediosno parece practico distinguir por separado a nivel 
de tipo de vegetacion los bosques de Cupressus, los deJuniperus, los de Pinus 
cembroides, los de Alnus, los encinares arbustivos de Quercus potosina y de 
Q. macrophylla, ni tampoco los encinares de bajas altitudes. Al reunir, sin 
embargo, todas estas comunidades con el ya bastante diverso "bosque de pino y 
encino" los autores se dan cuenta de que crean una unidad algo dificil de defi- 
nir fisonomica, ecologica y floristicamente, por indudables que sean sus re- 
laciones de una u otra indole. Solo al bosque de oyamel y al bosque mesofilo de 
montana se ha decidido mantener como tipos de vegetacion independientes. 

Resulta cada vez mas necesario un estudio profundo y extensivo de los di- 
ferentes tipos de comunidades forestales de la altas montanas de Mexico, con 
la mira de establecer bases firmes para su debida clasificacion. Es factible, 
tal vez, que investigaciones ulteriores mis pormenorizadas, llevadas a cabo 
dentro de la misma Nueva Galicia permitiran obtener una definicion mejor y 
separacion de varios tipos de bosques, aqui incluidos bajo el amplio concepto 
de "bosque de pino y encino." 

Habiendo en la region estudiada numerosas sierras y sierritas discon- 
tinuas, el Irea de distribucion del bosque de pino y encino se presenta a menu- 
do forma de manchones aislados de tamano diverso, muchos de los cuales se 
han tenido que eliminar por completo del mapa por representar superficies 
demasiado reducidas. El resto se concentra en dos zonas continuas de mayor 
extension: la primera se localiza en la parte occidental de Jalisco, en el area 




situada al oeste de Cocula, al norte de Autlan, al este del Cabo Corrientes y al 

sur de Compostela; esta zona esta unida a traves de corredores estrechos con 

otras dos areas importantes, la del macizo del Nevado de Colima y la de las 

sierras altas entre Autlin, Manzanillo y Colima; la segunda comprende amplio 

territorio en la Sierra Madre Occidental, en el norte de Jalisco y en Nayarit, 

con prolongaciones hacia Zacatecas y Durango. Existen numerosos manchones 

mis o menos extendidos en Nayarit, en las partes central y meridional de 

Jalisco y en secciones adyacentes de Michoac&n. Partiendo del Irea general 

del Lago de Chapala hacia el noreste y hacia el este, en cambio, el tipo de 

vegetacion se vuelve cada vez mis escaso, en especial en la region de los Altos 
de Jalisco. 

Se desarrolla con preferencia en altitudes entre 1000 y 4000 m, donde al- 

canza el limite de la vegetacion arborea, pero en las montaiias cercanas al 

litoral puede descender hasta 300 m sobre el nivel del mar. Cabe observar que 

los lfmites altitudinales de los pinares son algo distintos que los de los enci- 

nares en Nueva Galicia, puesmientras los primeros vegetan entre 800 y 4000 m 

sobre el nivel del mar, el intervalo para los segundos queda aproximadamente 
entre 300 y 2800 m. 

En tales condiciones es dificil discutir los requerimientos termicos de 
esta formacion, pero cabe hacer la observacion que, si se exceptua el Irea de 
los declives hacia la costa donde el encinar sin duda se encuentra en condi- 
ciones clim&ticas propias de los bosques tropicales, sus limite s altitudinales 
inferiores parecen seguir muchas veces una linea que separa hacia abajo el 
area libre de heladas. Desafortunadamente no se cuenta con suficientes esta- 
ciones meteorologicas para poder estar seguro de la existencia de esta corre- 
lacion. Cerca de la cumbre del Nevado de Colima el pinar soporta un clima en 

Fig. 20. Pinar de Finns oocarpa, con Cupressus y Quercus, en la Sierra de Manantlin, 
cerca de AutlSn, Jal. (Fot. McVaugh). 



que se presentan heladas durante todo el ano y en ocasiones puede nevar; la 
temperatura media anual a nivel de la cota de 4000 m puede calcularse de unos 

5°C (Garcia, 1964). 

El regimen de precipitacion pluvial es semejante al que se describio para 

Fig. 21. Encinar de Quercus acutifolia, Quercus castanea, Quercus sp., cerca de Autlan, 
Jal. Pueden observarse pinos jovenes, y troncos cortados de pinos grandes. (Fot. McVaugh). 



otros tipos de vegetacion, es decir las lluvias se concentran en 5 meses y el 

periodo restante es de sequta. La cantidad minima de precipitacion necesaria 

para la existencia del pinar o encinar varia, de acuerdo con varios factores, 

entre ellos la altitud, pues mientras en la region limitrofe con San Luis Potosi, 

a unos 2300 m se requieren por lo menos 400a 500 mm anuales para el encinar 

arbustivo o piiionar (Rzedowski, 1965: 175, 182), en la parte central de Jalisco, 

a altitudes entre 1400 y 1800 m, parece necesitarse cerca del doble de esta 

cantidad para la existencia de encinares o pinares de tipo arboreo. Es posible 

que algunas regiones cubiertas por pinares reciban 1500 mm anuales o mas, 

pero ninguna estacion meteorologica establecida registra esta cantidad, en 

La mayor parte de la superficie cubierta por este tipo de bosque se ca- 
racteriza por el substrato geologico de naturaleza fgnea, aunque hacia el occi- 
dente se presentan tambien a menudo rocas metamorficas. Suelos arcillosos 
rojos son frecuentes en la zona, pero tampoco son raros los suelos arenosos 
muy acidos derivados de riolitas e inclusive arenas casi puras procedentes de 
la descomposicion de granito. Salvo en las areas de los encinares arbustivos, 
no se han encontrado horizontes notables de endurecimiento. Este tipo de 
vegetacion se localiza siempre sobre suelos bien drenados, someros o pro- 

fundos, aunque estos ultimos en su mayor parte se encuentran dedicados a la 

Se dedican o se han dedicado a la agricultura en otros tiempos, asimismo, 
muchos terrenos sobre laderas, ocasionando una disminucion del area boscosa, 
pues despues del desmonte el pastoreo, los incendios, la erosion del suelo y el 
desequilibrio biotico causado impiden con frecuencia la recolonizacion del te- 
rreno por plantas arboreas, una vez abandonada la agricultura. La ganaderla 
constituye en la epoca actual el aprovechamiento principal de la mayor parte de 
las extensiones cubiertas por el bosque de pino y encino (especialmente de los 
primeros), en las cuales se favorece y se estimula el crecimiento de la 
cubierta herbacea mediante incendios periodicos. A pesar de existir amplias 
zonas susceptibles en apariencia de explotacion maderera, esta es mas bien 

y no se ha visto ningun sector boscoso importante, en que pudiera 
observarse el empleo de practicas silvlcolas. Es muy desconsolador ver en 
Jalisco centenares y centenares de kilometros cuadrados de bosques carentes 
por completo de plantas arboreas jovenes y destinados por consiguiente a des- 
aparecer, a sabiendas que estos bosques debidamente aprovechados y mane- 
jados podrian constituir una fuente permanente de riqueza y prosper 
los habitantes de la region. 

El area de pinares y encinares en Nueva Galicia va disminuyendo ra- 
pidamente; de no tomarse medidas para impedirlo seguira. disminuyendo hasta 
quedar reducida a las escasas porciones en que la reproduccion natural del 
bosque es tan pujante,que puede realizarse a pesar delas actividades humanas. 

Fisonomicamente, el tipo de vegetacion puede presentarse bajo formas 
diversas, pues por principio de cuentas los pinares suelen tener un aspecto 
exterior y una estructura interior bien distintos de los encinares. Existen, sin 
embargo, muy frecuentes situaciones mixtas e intermedias, y las dos clases de 
bosque con sus diversas variantes entran a menudo en un mosaico complejo, 

que requerira e studios a nivel de asociacion antes de ser debidamente com- 

Los pinares suelen formar una comunidad de 10 a 20 m de alto (aunque 
algunos pueden estar un poco fuera de estos limites), cerrada 6 por lo comun 
semi-cerrada y en ocasiones abierta, aunque quiza a causa de disturbio. Los 
troncos de los pinos en lo general son derechos y altos y se ramifican solo en 
la parte alta, formando una copa mas o menos hemisferica. El estrato 





dominante es siempre verde, aunque no necesariamente asi el sotobosque, que 
a menudo presenta un aspecto desolado en la temporada seea. En muchos 
pinares el estrato arbustivo es apenas perceptible y en ocasiones solo hay 
arboles y vegetacion herbacea, en la cual de ordinario predominan gramineas 

Fig. 22. Pinar de Finns oocarpa, en la Sierra de los Corales, cerca de Jilotlin, Jal. (Fot. 




amacolladas. Es posible que tal situacion sea el resultado del pastoreo y de 
los incendios, pero en muchos casos con seguridad es natural. 

Loock (1950: 28-29) cita no menos de 14 especies y varias variedades 
como componentes de los pinares de la zona estudiada. De ser correcto tal 
dato muchos deestos taxa deben tener una distribucion mas bien disnersa. nues 

las grandes masas forestales parecen estar formadas por un numero mis re- 
ducido de especies. 

A altitudes entre 1000 y 2500 m la especie mis ampliamente distribuida y 
en general dominante es Finns oocarpa, acompaflada a menudo de P. miclioa- 
cana (Figs. 20-22), y a veces de P. douglasiana y P. leiophylla. En la zona del 
Nevado de Colima y en el Irea del Cerro Tancitaro los pinares son un poco 
mis variados, pues P. pseudostrobus, P. moniezumae y P, ayacahuite pueden 
ser mis o menos abundantes hasta altitudes de 3000 m. De este nivel aproxi- 
mado hasta el lfmite de la vegetacion arborea suele predominar P. hartivegii 
(Fig. 25). 

Plnits lumholtzii y P. chihuahuana a veces forman bosquecitos mas bien 
bajos y ralos en el Irea general de clima mas Irido, sobre todo en Zacatecas, 
Aguascalientes y partes adyacentes de Jalisco. Hacia la zona de los zacatales 
de los alrededores de Ojuelos, Lagos de Moreno, y de Huejuquilla, en cambio, 
existen pequeflos manchones de piflonar de P. cembroides, comunidad tambien 
baja y poco cerrada. 

De entre los encinares los mis caracteristicos y extendidos en Nueva 
Galicia son los de Que reus macrophylla, que se presentan en casi todas las 
Ireas sefialadas en el mapa como cubiertas por el bosque de pino y encino. 
Esta asociacion es dificil de confundir con cualquier otra y puede distinguirse 
a distancia gracias a la especie dominante que posee hojas de tamano grande, 

Fig. 23. Encinar de Que reus macrophylla, cerca de Huejuquilla El Alto, Jal. (Fot 




de color verde oscuro en el haz y amarillento-grisaceo en el enves; el conjunto 
de hojas refleja la luz de manera muy especial. Los encinares de Quercus 
macrophylla ocupan usualmente los habitats mas secos dentro de las con- 
diciones climaticas propias del bosque de pino y encino, pero no siempre se 
comportan asf, pues hacia la region costera colindan con el bosque tropical 
subdeciduo y se mezclan con el bosque mesofilo de montana. En la mencionada 
zona descienden a veces hasta altitudes de 300 m; en la parte central de Jalisco 
y en Zacatecas, en cambio, pueden dominar hasta 2600 m sobre el nivel del 
mar. En fisonomia y estructura tampoco son uniformes, ya que varian desde 
matorrales de 3 a 5 m de alto, densos o espaciados, propios de la parte noreste 
de Jalisco, Aguascalientes y Zacatecas, pasando por la forma mis caracte- 
ristica de bosque bajo y denso de 6 a 10 m de alto (Fig. 23), hasta bosques den- 
sos y oscuros de 15 a 20 m de alto, en las montanas proximas a la costa. 

Otros encinares de tipo xerofilo y mas bien arbustivos son los dominados 
por Quercus depressipes, Q. grisea, y Q. potosina, que se localizen en Aguas- 
calientes y en el extremo noreste de Jalisco hacia los limites con San Luis 
Potosf. Forman matorrales o bosquecillos densos de 3 a 5 m de alto, a menudo 
diftciles de penetrar. A veces Quercus eduardi y Q. coccolobifolia forman 
parte de la asociacion, 

Del lado mas humedo, a altitudes inferiores (400 - 1400 m) en Nayarit y en 
el area proxima al litoral de Jalisco son frecuentes los bosques de Quercus 
aff. aristata y Q. planipo cula , entremezclandose a menudo con los matorrales y 
bosquetes de tipo sabanoide de Byrsonimay Curatella. 

A mayor altitud, entre 1500 y 2500 m, en condiciones favorables de hume- 
dad, no son raros en Jalisco los bosques de Quercus obtusata, de 10 a 20 m de 
alto, asi como los de Q. mexicana, un poco mas bajos. Q. rugosa, Q. laurinay 

Fig. 24. Encinar de Quercus spp., cerca de Monte Escobedo, Zac. (Fot. Rzedowski). 



Q. cand leans pueden en ocasiones ser dominantes, pero mas a menudo se pre- 
sentan en compafua de otros Irboles. (Fig. 24). 

Los autores no han tenido la oportunidad de observar todos los tipos de 
encinares en la epoca seca, pero es seguro que en su mayoria (y probable que 
todos) sean de hoja decidua. Los Irboles permanecen sin follaje por unperiodo 
cor to, por lo comun de unas cuantas semanas anteriores al comienzo de la 
tempo rada lluviosa. Casi todos los encinos dominantes se caracterizan por sus 

hojas de tamafio mediano o grande, de textura coriacea, a menudo francamente 

Ademas de los mencionados, los siguientes arboles pueden ser mas o me- 
nos abundantes en los bosques de pino y encino: 

Alnus jorullensis 
Arbutus glandule* sa 
Arbutus xalapensis 
Be f aria mexicana 
Clethra spp. 
Cupressus lindleyi 
Juniperus deppeana 
Jim ip e rus fla c c ida 

Que reus castanea 
Que reus crassifolia 
Que reus elliptica 
Que reus gentryi 

Que reus glaueoide s 
Que reus laxa 

Que reus salicifolia 

Rliamnus mucronata 

y hacia las orillas de los arroyos pueden encontrarse con alguna frecuencia: 

Alnus argitta 
Buddie ia cor data 
Bur sera spp. 
Ficus cotinifolia 
F rax in us ahdei 
Garrya laurifolia 
Ilex brandegeana 

Inga er io car pa 

Juglans major var . glabrata 

Primus serotina 

Salix bonplandiana 

Salix chilensis 

Viburnum elatum 

Vitex mollis 

En algunos lugares Cupressus lindleyi y en otros Juniperus spp. pueden ser 
localmente dominantes o exclusivos en el bosque, pero en Nueva Galicia estas 
comunidades son raras y ocupan areas muy reducidas. 

El desarrollo del estrato arbustivo varia mucho de una asociacion a otra y 
de una localidad a otra, siendo por lo general mayor en los encinares que en 
los pinares, aunque se dan tambien situaciones contrarias. En su mayoria son 
arbustos de hoja decidua, con follaje resistente a las 

A partir de altitudes cercanas o a veces algo inferiores a 1000 m hacia 
arriba, los siguientes pueden ser frecuentes, especialmente en situaciones 
menos humedas: 


Arctostaphylos angustifolia 
Arctostaphylos polifolia 
Arctostaphylos pungens 
A rth ro s tylidium longifo I ium 
Ar thro sty lidiiun racemiflorum 
Baccharis thesioides 
Brickellia spp. 
Buddie ia parviflora 
Calea urticifolia 
Calliandra houstoniana 
Calliandra palmeri 

Cercocarpus macrophyllus 
Chits que a sp. 

Croton re pens 
Cunila spp. 
Dasylirion sp. 
Desmanthodium fruticosum 
Desmodium jaliscanum 
Desmodium plicatum 
Eupatorium areolare 
Eupatorium bertholdii var. 

Eupatorium calaminthifolium 
Eupatorium collinum 
Eupatorium tepicanum 
Eysenhardtia polystachya 



Garry a ovata 
Guardiola mexicana 
Heterocentron mexicanum 
Hymenostephium micro cephalum 
Lasiacis sorghoidea 
Piptothrix jaliscensis 
Porophyllum viridiflorum 
Rhus allophylloides 
Salvia chapalensis 
Salvia iodantha 
Salvia polystachia 

Salvia purpurea 
Salvia thyrsiflora 
Stevia glandidosa 
Stevia subpubescens 
Verbesina greenmanii 
Vernonia mucronata 
Vernonia aff. pallens 
Viguiera angustifolia 
Viguiera pr ingle i 
Ximenia parviflora 

En altitudes superiores a 2000 m se vuelven importantes otros elementos, 
algunos de los cuales son comunes tambien en el bosque de oyamel: 

Archibaccharis hirtella 
Archibaccharis serratifo 
Baccharis heterophylla 
Berberis spp. 
Brickellia spp. 
Ceanothus caeruleus 
Oestrum sp. 
Coriaria thymifolia 
Cornus disciflora 
Crataegus mexicana 
Dahlia pinna t a 
Eupato rium m airetianum 
Fuchsia michoacanensis 
Fuchsia microphylla 
Fuchsia pringlei 
Fuchsia thymifolia 
Holodiscus argenteus 
Litsea glaucescens 
Lobelia laxiflora 

Monnina xalapensis 
Pernettya aff. ciliata 
Podachaenium eminens 
Ribes ciliatum 
R umfo rdia flo ri b unda 
Salvia elegans 
Salvia gesneriflora 
Satureia macrostema 

Senecio albonervius 
Senecio angulifolius 
Solanum nudum 
Sphacele pine to rum 
Stevia lucida 

Symphoricarpos microphyllus 
Ternstroemia pringlei 

Vaccinium stenophyllum 
Verbesina klattii 
Verbesina liebmannii 
Viburnum dispar 

El numero de componentes herbaceos suele ser muy elevado, aunque, como 
en el caso de los arbustos, en una localidad determinada no debe esperarse 
sino la presencia de una fraccion de algunas de las especies mis comunes que 
a continuacion se citan. Es preciso observar que muchas de ellas abundan mas 
bien en los claros de los bosques que a la sombra de los Irboles. 

Los siguientes pueden ser frecuentes en los bosques mas altos y humedos: 

Acaena elongata 
Adiantum spp. 
Alchemilla aphanoides 
Alchemilla procumbens 
Alchemilla sibbaldiifolia 
Arenaria lanuginosa 
Asplenium monanthes 
Brachypodium mexicanum 
Bromus spp. 
Cacalia eriocarpa 



Coidterophytum laxum 
Cynoglossum pringlei 

Dry mar ia spp. 
Eryngium deppeanum 
Eryngium globosum 
Eryngium gracile 
Geranium deltoideum 
Geranium seemannii 
Habenaria clypeata 
Habenaria entomantha 
Heliopsis procumbens 

Hieracium abscissum 
Hie ra c ium fe ndle ri 
Jaeger ia hirta 
Jaegeria macro cephala 
Lasiarrhenum strigosum 



Lobelia jaliscensis 
Lotus re pens 
Macromeria exserta 
Macromeria longiflora 
Malaxis spp. 

Me lampodium montanum 

Micropleura renifolia 
Oxalis spp. 

Penstemon campanulatus 
Penstemon kunthii 
Pinguicula moranensis 

Otros componentes herbaceos son: 
Acalypha uagans 

Adiantum patens 
Aegopogon tenellus 
Agalinis peduncular is 
Age rate lla palmer i 
Age ra turn salicifolium 
Andropogon myosurus 
Astragalus ervoides 
A s traga I us gua te m a le nsis var . 

A s tra n th turn co ndi?n e n turn 

Astranthium xylopodum 
Baccharis potosina 
Begonia gracilis 
Begonia monoptera 
Begonia ornithocarpa 
Be s sera elegans 
Bidens spp. 
Bletia gracilis 

Bommeria spp. 

Bouteloua hirsuta 
Boavardia longiflora 
Bouvardia tenuifolia 

Brickellia lanata 

Buchnera ob liqua 
Bulbostylis juncoides 
Cacalia palmeri 
Cacalia sessilifolia 
Cacalia sinuata 
Calea palmeri 
Calea peduncularis 
Calochortus barbatus 
Carex polystachya 
Car ex turbinata 
Carphochaete grahami 
C as til lej a te nu iflo ra 
Castilleja tenuifolia 
Cheilanthes angustifolia 
Cheilanthes farinosa 
Cheilanthes lendigera 
Cheilanthes pyramidalis 

Polymnia maculata 
Pteridium aquilinum 
Salvia mexicana 
Senecio callosus 
Sibthorpia pichinchensis 
Sisyrinchium spp. 
Stachys coccinea 
Stellar ia cuspidata 
Trisetum virletii 
Zeugites mexicana 
Zeugites smilacifolia 

Commelina coelestis 
Commelina dianthifolia 
Cosmos exiguus 
Crotalaria filifolia 

Crusea spp. 
Ciiphea jortdlensis 

Cuphea llavea 

Cy penis apicidatus 

Cyperus flavus 

Cyperus hermaphroditus 

Cyperus manimae 

Cyperus mutisii 

Cyperus orbicephalus 

Cyperus seslerioides 

Cyperus spectabilis 

Dahlia coccinea 

Dale a pectinata 

De smodium cordis tipulum 

Desmodium occidentale 

Donne I Is m i th ia pe uce dano ide s 

Dryopteris patula 

Erigeron karvinskianus 

Eriosema diffusum 

E ry}igium beeche yanum 

E upa to rium b re vipe s 

Euphorbia b if or mis 

Euphorbia spp. 

Galium spp. 

Gnaphalium spp. 

He lianthemum glome ratum 
Hilaria ciliata 
Hygrophila pringlei 
Hypericum spp. 
Hypoxis decumbens 
lostephane heterophylla 
Lamourouxia multifida 
Lamourouxia viscosa 
Loeselia ample ctens 
Loeselia mexicana 
Muh le n bergia dumosa 
Muhlenbergia leptoura 



Muhlenbergia macroura 
Muhlenberg ia rigida 
Neogoezia aff. planipetala 
Oplismenus hirtellus 
Oxalis spp. 

Oxypappus seemannii 
Panicum albomaculatum 
Panicum bulbosum 
Paspalum spp. 

Peperomia umbilicata 
Perezia wislizenii 
Perymenium buphthalmoides 
Piptochaetium fimbriatum 
Pitcairnia karwinskyana 
Polygala gracillima 
Porophyllum nutans 
Prochnyanthes viridescens 
Ranunculus macranthus 
Ranunculus petiolaris 
Ruellia bourgaei 
Ruellia sp. 

Salvia guadalajarensis 
Salvia hyp to ides 
Salvia lavanduloides 
Salvia xalapensis 

Senecio guadalajarensis 
Seymeria virgata 
Sisyrinchium spp. 

Solanum spp. 
Spigelia scabrella 
Spiranthes aurantiaca 
Stevia alatipes 
Stevia elongata 
Stevia viscida 
Tagetes lucida 
Tagetes subulata 
Tephrosia saxicola 
Thalictrum pr ingle i 
Trachypogon montufari 
Tradescantia crassifolia 
Tripogandra ample xicaulis 
Tristachya avenacea 
Valeriana densiflora 
Valeriana urticifolia 
Verbena Carolina 
Viguiera spp. 
Woodsia mollis 
Zexmenia palmeri 
Zinnia angustifolia 
Zinnia greggii 

Las epifitas vasculares suelen ser abundantes en las situaciones mas 
humedas, bien por el macroclima o bien por el microclima. Prevalecen entre 
ellas las orquidiceas y las bromeliaceas; se anotaron las siguientes: 

Anthurium scaizdens 
C atop sis compacta 

Catopsis pendula 
Cattle y a aurantiaca 

Epidendrum concolor 
Epidendrum nemorale 
Laelia autumnalis 
Laelia furfuracea 
Odontoglo s sum sp. 
Oncidium sp. 
Peperomia galioides 
Philodendron sp. 

Pleurothallis sp. 
Polypodium angustifolium 

Polypodium angustum 
Polypodium furfur aceum 
Polypodium madrense 
Tillandsia bourgaei 
Tillandsia macdougallii 
Tillandsia plumosa 
Tillandsia prodigiosa 
Tillandsia aff. rettigiana 
Tillandsia usneoides 
Tillandsia aff. violacea 

Las lianas gruesas no son caracteristicas de los pinares y encinares, pero 
trepadoras herbaceas o lefiosas delgadas existen y a veces pueden ser con- 
spicuas, por ejemplo: 

Bomarea sp. 
Canavalia villosa 

Clematis sp. 
Cyclanthera sp. 
Dioscorea spp. 
Ipomoea spp. 
Lonicera pilosa 
Minkelersia galactoides 
Parthenocissus quinquefolia 

Phaseolus strobilophorus 
Rhus radicans 
Rubus spp. 
Sicyos sp, 
Smilax domingensis 
Smilax moranensis 
Solanum appendiculatum 
Vitis bourgaeana 



El bosque de Finns hartwegii (Fig. 25), que vegeta usualmente a altitudes 
superiores a 3000 m, suele ser de tipo abierto y permite abundante desarrollo 
de grammeas amacolladas, como Festuca tolucensis, Muhlenbergia quadriden- 
tata, Calamagrostis tolucensis . Otras plantas frecuentes en esta 



Alchemilla vulcanica 
Bidens triplinervia var. 

C as til lej a c ryp tandra 

ryngium globosum 
Eupatorium pazcuarense 
Euphorbia campestris 
Festuca sp. 
Geraniiun vidcanicola 

Lupinus montanus 
Lupinus squamecaulis 
Luzula racemosa 
Penstemon campanidatiis 
Ribes ciliatum 
Senecio callosus 
Senecio toluccanus 
Stevia elongata 
Stevia lucida 

En la parte mas alta del Nevado de Colima, aproximadamente a 3900 m de 
altitud, se alcanza el limite de la vegetacion arborea. Por encima de esa cota, 
sobre substrato de arenas gruesas y poco compactas, frecuentemente pre- 
dominan las tres gramfneas amacolladas mas importantes del bosque de Pinus 
hartwegii, formando un zacatonal espaciado, en el que conviven tambien 
Arenaria oresbia, A. bryoides y Draba jorullensis. Algunas laderas pendientes 
y de arenas muy flojas carecen por completo de vegetacion o solamente estan 
colonizadas por escasas matas de Arenaria. En lugares rocosos de este piso 
alpino se observaron ademls: Alchemilla vulcanica, Gnaphalium vulcanicum, 
Jimiperus monticola f. compacta, Luzula racemosa, Pemettyaciliala, Polentilla 

richardii, Senecio toluccanus, Trisetum spicatum y 


Fig. 25. Pinar de Pinus hartwegii, hacia la cumbre del Nevado de Colima, Jal. (Fot. 





■ ■■■■"'::"; ' 

Fig. 26. El lfmite de la vegetacion arborea en el Volc&n de Colima, vista de la cumbre del 
Nevado. Al frente pueden observarse unas gramineas amacolladas y los vestigios de un pinar 
antiguo, parcialmente cubiertos por cenizas volcanicas. (Fot. McVaugh). 

Una composicion floristica especial se presenta en los encinares (gene- 
ralmente de Q. macrophylla o de Q. aristata), que viven a altitudes inferiores 
de 1000 m. Aunque en alguas loc alidades se ha observado una vegetacion 
heterogenea con aspecto de mezcla entre el encinar y el bosque tropical sub- 
deciduo o entre el primero y las comunidades de tipo sabadoide, lo comun es 
que el bosque de encino conserve bien su individualidad y no admita en su com- 
posicion muchos elementos lenosos propios de otras asociaciones. En el soto- 
bosque de la comunidad de Q. macrophylla, cerca de La Huerta, JaL, a 400 m 
sobre el nivel del mar se han encontrado representantes de los siguientes 











Dors tenia 
Hilar ia 
Rue Ilia 
S te via 
Triumfe tta 

Las comunidades secundarias que se desarrollan como consecuencia de la 
destruccion del bosque de encino y pino a menudo son de tipo herbaceo, do- 
minadas por gramfneas. Muchos de estos zacatales dan la impresion de ser 
estables, pero sin duda el pastoreo y los incendios favorecen su existencia, 
sobre todo en condiciones climaticas de mayor humedad. Estos zacatales se- 
cundarios suelen ser muy ricos en e species herbaceas y muchas de las que se 
enumeraron como propias de los bosques de pino y encino, y que abundan en los 
claros del bosque, encuentran un habitat favorable en estos zacatales. 

Comunidades de tipo arbustivo derivadas de encinares y pinares de 
altitudes inferiores a 2000 m suelen ser dominadas por Acacia fame siana yA. 
pennatula, u otras veces por Dodonaea viscosa. Hyptis albida, Verbesina 



sphaerocephala, V. greenmanii y Zexmenia greggii tambien pueden ser fre- 


ibilidad de Que alaunas areas seiialada 


bosques de pino o encino destruidos. 

Por encima de 2000 m los arbustos que mas se establecen en los desmon- 
tes, especialmente hacia las zonas humedas son: Senecio salignus y Baccharis 
heterophylla. Otros acompafiantes suelen ser: Mimosa aculeaticarpa , Cratae- 
us pubescens, Senecio stoechadiformis . 

Bosques bajos de Alnus spp. en algunos lugares constituyen un estado 
secesional intermedio entre los matorrales y la comunidad climax, pero quizas 
no todas las comunidades de Alnus deben interpretarse de esta manera, pues 
sobre las laderas del Nevado de Colima, a altitudes entre 3100 y 3300 m se 
localiza un bosque abierto de Alnus firmifolia, con el suelo cubierto por 

gramtneas amacolladas altas, principalmente Calamagrostis erectifolia y 
Festuca amplissima. 



Con este nombre describio Miranda (1947: 99) de la cuenca del Balsas una 
comunidad vegetal que "se desarrolla en el mismo piso altitudinal del encinar, 
pero ocupa sobre todo las barrancas, donde las condiciones de humedad en el 

suelo y en el aire son mas favorables. 

En Nueva Galicia se ha observado un tipo de bosque que tanto por su situa- 
cion ecologica, como por su composicion floristica resulta analogo al descrito 
por Miranda. Por consiguiente el nombre de bosque mesofilo de montana puede 
aplicarse sin muchas reservas a la comunidad que se describe mas adelante. 

Su distribucion geografica es discontinua, pues se presenta en forma de 
manchones limitados dentro de las areas generales del bosque de pino y encino 
de tipo mas htimedo. Su presencia no es del todo rara a lo largo de la vertiente 
pacifica de Mexico, ya que del norte de Sinaloa (Gentry, 1946a: 460) se describe 
una comunidad al menos floristicamente similar y las areas seiialadas por 
Leopold (1950: mapa) de la mitad meridional de Oaxaca como cubiertas por 

"cloud forest" sostienen el mismo tipo de bosque. 

Es pertinente enfatizar las semejanzas fisonomicas, ecologicas y floristi- 
cas entre el "bosque mesofilo de montana," propio de los declives pacificos de 
Mexico al oeste del Istmo de Tehuantepec, con el "bosque deciduo"o "bosque 
deciduo templado" (Miranda y Sharp, 1950; Miranda 1952:137; Rzedowski 1965: 
196), caracteristico de las vertientes atlanticas de Mexico, de las sierras de 
Chiapas y de Guatemala. La temporada seca mas prolongada y acentuada con- 
stituye un rasgo climatico del primero que representa con toda probabilidad un 
factor limitante para la existencia de plantas caracterfsticas delos segundos, 
como Liquidambar styraciflua, Fagus mexicana, Nyssa sylvatica, etc., pero 
desconocidas del occidente. Algunos otros elementos, sin embargo, por ejemplo 
Carpinus caroliniana, Ostrya virginiana,Tilia mexicana, Ternstroemia pringlei, 
Oreopanax xalapensis, Bocconia arborea, Cornus disciflora, Myrica mexicana, 
son comunes a ambas formaciones y diversos generos estan representados por 
e species vicariantes. 

Volviendo a hacer uso del mismo termino, los dos tipos de vegetacion 
podrfan interpretarse en realidad como vicariantes y derivados quizas de un 
antecesor comun mas ampliamente distribuido en otras epocas. 

El bosque mesofilo de montana suele ser una comunidad densa, dominada 
por arboles de 20 a 40 m de alto (Fig. 27), habitando las laderas, a menudomuy 
inclinadas de barrancas, cahones y otros sitios protegidos, a altitudes entre 
800 y 2400 m, en la mitad suroccidental de Jalisco y en zonas adyacentes de 
Nayarit, Colima y Michoacan. La composicion floristica en diferentes sitios y 
regiones no es necesariamente igual, y en una localidad determinada pueden 
encontrarse solo algunos de los siguientes arboles altos: 

Abies aff. religiosa Gymnanthes 

Alchornea latifolia Ilex brandegeana 

Carpinus caroliniana Juglans major var . gldbrata 

Celtis monoica Juglans olanchana var. 

Clethra spp. 


Clusia aff. salvinii Magnolia schiedeana 

Dendropanax arbor eus Matudaea trine r via 

Dipholis minutiflora Meliosma dentata 

Fraxinus uhdei Osmanthus americanus 




Ostrya virginiana 
Perrottetia longistylis 
Persea sp. 

Phoebe aff, ehrenbergii 
Finns pseitdostrobits 
Podo carpus aff. reichei 
Primus cortapico 
Primus rhamnoides 
Que reus acutifolia 
Quercus elliptica 

Que reus aff. ins ignis 
Quercus laxa 

Quercus planipocula 
Quercus salicifolia 
Quercus scytophylla 
Salix bonplandiana 
Tilia mexicana 
Tropins mexicana 
Zinoiviewia concinna 

Entre los arbustos altos y arboles bajos destacan: 

Ardisia compressa 
Ardisia venosa 
Ar thro sty lidium sp. 
Bocconia arborea 
Calliandra laevis 
Calyptranthes pallens var. 

Cestriun spp. 
Clianiaedorea sp. 
Cleyera integrifolia 
Conostegia sp. 
Cordia prunifolia 
Cornus disciflora 
Cornus excelsa 

Daphnopsis mexiae 

Desmanthodium fruticosum 
Eugenia crenularis 
Eugenia culminicola 
E up a to rium areola re 
Eupatorium collinum 
Eupa to rium tepicanum 
Fuchsia arborescens 
Fuchsia michoacanensis 
Hedyosmum mexicanum 

Hymenostephium micro cephalum 
Inga er to car pa 
Inga laurina 
Kohleria elegans 

L ipp ia umbella ta 

Miconia sp. 

Monnina aff. xalapensis 

Myrica mexicana 

Oreo panax echinops 

Oreopanax peltatus 

Oreo panax xalapensis 

Parathesis spp. 

Photinia oblongifolia 

Phyllonoma lalicuspis 
Piper uhdei 

R a pane a ferruginea 
Rhus alio phyllo ides 
Rondeletia aff. buddleioides 
Rumfordia floribwida 
Saurauia serrata 
Sebastiania jaliscensis 

Siparuna nicaraguensis 
Solanum brachystachys 
Stevia subpubescens 
Sty rax argenteus 
Styrax ramirezii 
Symplococarpon hintonii 
Symplocos prionophylla 

Ternstroemia pringlei 
Triumfetta sp. 

Turpinia occidentalis 

El desarrollo de eplfitas y de trepadoras puede ser notable, no asi de plan- 
tas herbaceas, siendo pocas las que encuentran condiciones adecuadas a la pro- 
funda sombra de los arboles y arbustos. De las epifitas pueden mencionarse: 

Anthurium fortinense 

Elaphoglossum spp. 
EpipJiyllum aff. anguliger 
Erythrodes querceticola 
Fuchsia decidua 
Fuchsia fidgens 

Heliocereus spec to sits 
Oncidium sp. 
Poly podium spp. 

Tillandsia schiedeana 
Tillandsia sp. 



-4 jt : * 

Fig. 27. Bosque mesofilo de montana, cerca de Jalcocot&n, Nay., con Quercus spp., 
Carpinus caroliniana, Ilex brandegeana, Ostrya virginiana. (Fot. McVaugh). 



Las trepadoras incluyen las siguientes: 

Ccuia valia sp. 

Celastriis pringlei 

Cle)natis sp. 

Lonicera pilosa 

Pa rtheno cis sits qainqiiefo lia 

Ph Hade Iphus mexicanus 

Philodendron tripartitum 

Rhus radicans 
Smilax moranensis 
Smilax pringlei 
Solandra nitida 

Syngonium sp. 
Vitis bourgaeana 
Vitis tiliifolia 

Entre los elementos herbaceos mas caracterfsticos del sotobosque se 
encuentran helechos de los generos Adiantum, Aspleniion, Botrychium, 
Cystopteris y Dryopteris, asi como la Aracea Arisaema macros pa thum. 



de la vegetacion de Mexico, gracias a su aspecto, a su ecologia y a su compo- 




entre 2500 y 3500 m sobre el nivel del mar, en el piso altitudinal inmediata- 
mente inferior al subalpino, y debido a esta analogia ecologica y floristica con 
la taiga Leopold (1950: 509) no vacilo en denominarlos "boreal forest." 

La realidad es, sin embargo, que no todos los bosques de oyamel de Me- 
xico dejan encuadrarse en esta interpretacion, pues en ciertas areas de la 
vertiente pacifica y en Chiapas se les encuentra a altitudes de 1700 m e in- 
clusive a 1500 m sobre el nivel del mar. Miranda (1952: 161) supone que estas 
aparentes anomalfas pueden deberse a que el clima de los lugares en que el 
bosque de Abies desciende fuera de sus limites usuales debe ser de conformi- 
dad mas frfo. Otra explicacion posible de este fenomeno seria la existenciade 
especies, variedades o ecotipos de Abies adaptados a condiciones de tempera- 
tura mas elevada, capaces de colonizar y competir con otras plantas en tales 
ambientes, o al menos de mantenerse en su posicion, si acaso pudiera tratarse 
de reliquias de epocas en que el clima era diferente. 

En Nueva Galicia parecen existir tres areas principales en las cuales el 
bosque de oyamel ocupa superficies de cierta importancia. Una de ellas se 
localiza en el estado de Michoacan, en las laderas del Cerro Tancitaro; otra 
ocupa los declives del macizo del Nevado de Colima; la tercera tiene la forma 
de un cinturon angosto y alargado que se extiende desde los alrededores de San 
Sebastian, en las partes altas de la cuenca del rio Ameca, hasta las montafias 
al sureste de Autlan. La ultima area representa en su mayor parte una faja de 
pinares y encinares humedos con machones a veces muy espaciados de bosque 

de oyamel. 

Pequefias areas aisladas se localizan ademis en diver sas localidades de 

Jalisco, Michoacan y probablemente de Nayarit. 

El bosque de Abies es una comunidad mesofila por excelencia y, dado el 
regimen climatico general de la zona bajo estudio, se restringe en Nueva 
Galicia a laderas protegidas de barrancas y habitats similares. A menudo sub- 
stituye el bosque mesofilo de montafia en las partes mas altas de los cahones y 
los dos tipos de vegetacion presentan a veces una transicion gradual con 
mezcla de elementos de ambas procedencias. 

Cuando puro, tiene el aspecto de un bosque denso, de 20 a 40 m de alto, 
poco tolerante a la compahia de arbustos y plantas herbaceas. En la mayor 
parte de los casos, sin embargo, bien por razones de topografia quebrada, o de 

i humana, o bien por otras causas, el bosque, aunque dominado por 
Abies, no es tan denso y con frecuencia incluye diver sos elementos arboreos, 

arbustivos y herbaceos. 

La especie mas frecuente de Abies, especialmente a altitudes superiores 

de 2500 m, es A. religiosa. En los bosques de oyameles que se desarrollan a 
menor elevacion las plantas suelen ser un poco diferentes y se han identi- 
ficado como A. religiosa var . emarginata y otras veces como A. guatemalensis 
var. jaliscatia. Las diferencias entre los ultimos dos taxa parecen ser de 
poca cuantia y, de no tratarse de una convergencia, deben ser muy cercanos. 

Entre las plantas arboreas presentes con mayor frecuencia en los bosques 
de Abies pueden citarse: 

♦ ** 




Abuts firmifolia 
Arbutus xalapensis 

Cupressus lindleyi 

Meliosma dentata 
Ostrya virgin iana 
Pinus hartwegii 

Pinus pseudoslrobus 

Podocarpus aff. reichei 
Quercus candicans 
Quercus caslanea 
Quercus crassifolia 
Quercus laurina 
Viburnum dispar 

De los arbustos merecen mencion: 

Archibaccharis hieracioides 
Archibaccharis Jiirtella 
Arctostaphylos arguta 

Arctostaphylos longifolia 
Baccharis heterophylla 
Berberis sp. 
Brickellia sp. 
Buddie ia parviflora 
Ceanothus caeruleus 
Celastrus pr ingle i 
Cornus disciflora 
Dahlia pinnata 
Eugenia culminicola 
Eupatorium areolar e 
Eupatoriwn niairetianum 
Fuchsia michoacanensis 
Fuchsia micro phylla 
Fuchsia thymifolia 
Garry a laurifolia 
Holodiscus argenteus 
Hymenostephium micro cephalum 
Monnina aff. xalapensis 
Monochaetum sp. 

Pernettya aff. ciliata 
Phenax hirtus 
Rapanea sp. 

Rhus alio phyllo ides 
Ribes ciliatum 

Rumfordia floribunda 
Salix oxylepis 

Salvia chapalensis 
Salvia cinnabarina 
Salvia elegans 
Sa Ivia gesne riflo ra 
Salvia iodantha 
Salvia longistyla 
Salvia mexicana 
Salvia purpurea 
Sarcococca conzattii 
Satureia macrostema 
Senecio albonervius 
Senecio angulifolius 
Senecio barba-joliannis 
Solanum cervantesii 
Solanum lentiim 
Stevia lucida 
Styrax raiiiirezii 
Symplioricarpos microphyllus 
Syniplocos prionophylla 
Ternstroemia pringlei 
Verbesina klattii 
Zanthoxylum sp. 


La descripcion de la vegetacion de Nueva Galicia quedariaincompleta si se 
dejaran de mencionar las comunidades vegetales ligadas al suelo permanente 
o temporalmente inundado, o con nivel freatico proximo a la superficie. 

Por su topografia y por su estructura geologica la region bajo e studio 
incluye un sinnumero de localidades con este tipo de habitat. Son de particular 
importancia muchos llanos mal drenados, en su mayorfa vestigios de antiguos 
lagos y lagunas, que estan siempre humedos o bien se encharcan en forma 
periodica. Estas £reas semipantanosas en Nueva Galicia alcanzan una super- 
ficie total de muchos cientos de kilometros cuadrados y constituyen un ele- 
mento importante en el paisaje, sobre todo en la parte central de Jalisco. 

Una asociacion vegetal semiacuatica arborea o arbustiva, ligada a las 
lagunas costeras, se describe en un inciso aparte bajo el nombre de manglar. 
Otras comunidades dominadas por arboles y arbustos son las que a menudo se 
desarrollan a la orilla de rios. Las £reas periodica o temporalmente inundadas 
por agua dulce, en cambio, se caracterizan por una vegetacion que, en su gran 

mayor fa, es de tipo herbaceo. 

Donde las condiciones permiten el desarrollo de vegetacion flotante, 

pueden encontrarse entre otras las siguientes especies: 

Azolla spp. 

Callitriclte heterophylla 
Ceratophyllum demersum 
Eichhornia azurea 
Eichhornia crassipes 
Lemna gibba 
Lemna perpusilla 
Lemna valdiviana 
Mars ilea fournieri 
Marsilea mexicana 
Najas guadalupensis 

Neptunia prostrata 

Nymphaea ampla 
Nymphoides humboldtiana 

Pistia str at totes 

P o tamo ge ton divers if olius 

Potamogeton nodosus 

Potamogeton pusillus 

Ruppia maritima 

Spirodela polyrhiza 
Zannichellia palustris 

Pistia parece ser mis frecuente en los lugares cercanos a la costa; 
Eichhornia crassipes, en cambio, abunda a tal grado en algunos lagos de las 
regiones mas elevadas, que llega a cubrir enormes superficies impidiendo la 

navegacion y la pesca. 

Unas cuantas especies de la familia de las Podostemon&ceas, incluyendo 

Oserya coulteriana, Marathrum elegans 9 y Tristicha hypnoides, pueden abundar 
pegadas a las piedras de algunos arroyos o rios permanente s de corriente 

ripida y escasa profundidad. 

Los lugares de aguas someras se ven generalmente habitados por plantas 
anfibias arraigadas, algunas de talla modesta, otras de 1 6 2 m de alto. Las 
observadas con mayor constancia fueron: 

Agrostis semiverticillata 
Ammonia auriculata 
Aster exilis 
Bacopa auriculata 
Bacopa monnieri 
Bacopa repens 
Bidens aurea 

Canna sp. 

Cuphea procumbens 

Cyperus albomarginatus 

Cyperus esculentus 

Cyperus giganteus 

Cyperus laevigatas 

Cyperus odoratus 




Cyperus semiochraceus 
Cype rus subnodos us 

Dichromena sp. 

Echinochloa colonum 
Echinochloa crus-galli vars 
Echinochloa holciformis 
Echinodorus andrieuxii 
Eleo charts caribaea 
Eleo charts densa 
Eleocharis dombeyana 
Eleo char is macrostachya 
Eleocharis montevidensis 
E leo charts quadrangula la 



E rio caulon e hrenbe rgianum 
Escobedia laevis 
Euphorbia paludicola 

uphrosyne partheniifolia 
Heteranthera limosa 
He te ranthe ra peduncularis 
Heteranthera reniformis 
Hydrochloa caroliniensis 
Hydro co ty le um be I la la 

Hydro cotyle verticillata var. 

Hymenachne ample xicaulis 
Isoetes mexicana 
J uncus balticus var. mexicanus 
J uncus effusus 
Juncus microcephalics 

Jussiaea bonariensis 

Jussiaea repens var. peploides 

Leersia hexandra 

Lilaea scilloides 

Lindernia anagallidea 

Lobelia cardinalis 

Luziola gracillima 

Ly thrum gracile 

Olivaea trie us pis 

Panicum hians 

Paspalum distichum 

P asp alum lividum 
Paspalum longicuspe 
Paspalum plicatuhun 

Paspalum pubiflorwn 
Paspalum virgatum 
Polygonum portoricense 
Polygonum punctatum 
Rota la dentifera 
Sacciolepis myuros 
Sagittaria latifolia 
Sagittaria sp. 
Scirpus olneyi 
Scirpus validus 
Slemodia bartsioides 
Tlialia geniculata 
Typha sp. 
Verbena lito rails 
Xyris jupicai 
Xyris mexicana 

En lugares cercanos a la costa, en donde puede haber mayor influencia de 

agua salina, se han observado tambien: 

Acrostichum danaeifolium 
Batis maritima 

Fimbristylis dichotoma 

Fimbristylis miliacea 
Sporobolus splendens 

De las pocas plantas lenosas que prosperan en lugares mal drenados y 
periodicamente encharcados destaca Mimosa pigra, misma que junto con 
Astiantlius viminalis, Salix chilensis, Pluchea odorata y Ficus spp. constituye 
la vegetacion caracteristica de las orillas de los rios en la zona baja. 

Hacia las regiones mas elevadas bosquecillos de Salix bonplandiana yS. 

chilensis, asf como matorrales de Baccharis glutinosa 


ocupan el nicho ecologico correspondiente. Taxodium mucronatum solo se ha 
observado en abundancia a lo largo de algunos afluentes del rio Lerma y en 
forma esporidica en otros sitios. Es notable la aparente ausencia completa de 
Plalanus en Nueva Galicia, puesto que arboles de este genero son muy carac- 
teristicos en los bosques riberenos de muchas partes de Mexico. 


Este nombre se aplica a un tipo de vegetacion caracteristico de las orillas 
de esteros, desembocaduras de rios y algunos otros habitats similares, que se 
localizan cerca del litoral y que se distinguen por un suelo de origen aluvial 

somera pero periodicamente inundado por aguas salobres o salinas, tranquilas, 
sin resultar afectado por un oleaje fuerte. 

Se le encuentra a lo largo de la costa de Nueva Galicia con mayor o menor 
frecuencia ocupando franjas discontinuas que rara vez exceden 2 km de ancho y 
se inter nan poco tierra adentro. 

El manglar es una comunidad sobresaliente por su fisonomia y compo- 
sicion floristica. En oeasiones alcanza la forma y la altura de un bosque, pero 
mis frecuentemente se presenta como una cubierta continua de 3 a 5 m de alto, 
apoyada sobre una marana de raices aereas lenosas (Fig. 28). Las hojas de 
sus componentes son persistentes, gruesas y algo suculentas. 

La comunidad carece por completo de elementos herbaceos y el numero de 
los arborescentes o arbustivos es muy limitado. La mayor parte del area 
cubierta por el manglar en la zona estudiada corresponde a un tapiz monotipico 
de Rhizophora mangle, a exclusion completa de otras plantas vascular es. Esta 
facies es la que penetra mis hacia el interior de las lagunas salobres; cerca 
de la orilla suelen unirsele Laguncularia racemosa, Conocarpus erecla y 
Avicennia nitida. La ultima especie puede ser dominante y exclusiva en algunas 
situaciones de muy escasa sumersion. 


Fig. 28. Manglar de Rhizophora mangle, cerca de Barra de Navidad, Jal. (Fot. Rzedowski). 




Otras plantas que se han encontrado conviviendo a veces en el manglar, 
pero mas bien hacia su periferie, son: 

Acacia cymbispina 
Achato carpus gracilis 
B ra va is ia in lege rrima 
Cissus rhombifolia 
Coccoloba barbadensis 
Entada polystachia 
Hibiscus tiliaceas 
Hippo ) n ane n lancine I la 

Mimosa pigra 
Phyllanthus elsiae 
P i the ce I lo b turn lance o la turn 
Pluchea odorata 
Prosopis juliflora 
Rauwolfia hirsuta 
Salix chilensis 
Strirfhanthus venetus 


This study comprises a preliminary description of the plant- communities 
of the Mexican States of Aguascalientes, Colima and Jalisco, and parts of 
Nayarit, Durango, Zacatecas, Guanajuato and Michoacan. The boundaries of 
the area coincide in a general way with those of the old Viceroyalty of Nueva 
Galicia (cf. McVaugh, 1961: 145 - 146; fig. 1). It is an area of about 125,000 
km2 ? the western edge of which is formed by the Pacific Ocean. We recognize, 
in accordance with the classification of Gutierrez Vazquez (1959), the follow- 
ing physiographic provinces in Nueva Galicia (see fig. 2, p. 3): 

1. Region of canyons. (Region de los Canoftes). The area occupied by the 
Rio Santiago and its affluents from the north and east, comprising a series of 
precipitous canyons alternating with ridges 700 to 1500 m above the rivers. 

2. The highland (Region de los Altos). The western edge of the Mexican 
plateau, here sloping off from northeast to southwest, at elevations ranging 
from about 2200 m to about 1600 m. 

3. The interior basins (Region de las Cuencas Centrales). A series of 
shallow lake- basins at elevations of from 1250 to 1600 m, mostly south and 
west of Lake Chapala. Some of the shallowest lakes are without exterior drain- 

4. Mountains of the Pacific slope (Region montaflosa y declives del Paci- 
fico). A heterogeneous region, mostly mountainous, representing in a general 
way the area of confluence of the principal mountain chains of western Mexico 
(Sierra Madre Occidental, Eje Volcanico Transversal, Sierra Madre del Sur). 
Elevations range from sea level to 4330 m. 

Volcanic rocks, often alternating with recent alluvial deposits, predomin- 
ate in Nueva Galicia. More than half the territory is drained by the Lerma - 
Santiago river system. The climate is characterized by the absence of a cold 
winter season, and by the alternation of pronounced wet (May - October) and 
dry (November - April) seasons. Average annual rainfall varies from about 
500 to more than 1500 mm. Depending upon elevation, exposure and other 
features of the site, the vegetation- types corresponding to varying amounts of 
precipitation range from grassland and arid shrubland to mesophytic forest. 

We distinguish 13 characteristic vegetation- types within the area of this 
study. Of these the largest in areal extent are the Tropical subdeciduous for- 
est {Bosque tropical subdeciduo), Tropical deciduous forest (Bosque tropical 
deciduo), Thorn forest (Bosque espinoso), Subtropical scrub (Matorral sub- 
tropical), Grassland (Zacatal), and Pine-oak forest (Bosque de pino y encino). 
These and the other types of lesser extent are characterized in the tabular 
summary that follows. 

The approximately 1400 species of vascular plants listed in the body of 
this paper are those that in our opinion are most characteristic of, abundant in, 
or dominant in, the different zones. The vascular flora as a whole is thought to 
include more than 6000 species. The floristic relationships of Nueva Galicia 

are as yet imperfectly known; the flora includes a strong Mexican- Central 
American element, as well as a considerable number of endemic species and 
species characteristic of the Trans-Mexican volcanic range. We have obtained 
the names listed in this work from a variety of sources, but chiefly from study 
of our own collections made in Nueva Galicia between 1949 and 1966. Taxonomic 
study of these collections is in progress, and some of our identifications of 
species are necessarily tentative. 





Vegetation- type 


extent in 












Palm forest 


0- 50 

25 - 27 


?600- 71000 

Tropical subdeci- 
duous forest 



22 - 27 


750- ?1600 

Tropical decidu- 
ous forest 

15 - 20 

0- 1600 

20 - 28 



Thorn forest 

2 - 3 

- 2000 

17 - 29 



Subtropical scrub 

15 - 20 


17 - 21 


500 - 900 

Savannah- like 



23 - 27? 


?700- ?1200 


15 - 20 


3 - 18 


350- ?800 

Crassicaule scent 



16 - 18 



Pine - oak forest 

25 - 30 


5 - 25 


400- ?1500 

Mesophytic moun- 
tain forest 



15 - 23? 


?1000- ?2000 

Fir forest 



7 - 21? 


?1000- ?1500 





5 - 29 


350- ?2000 




25 - 27 


?600- ?1000 




Soil preference 

Characteristic plants 

Sands, near the 

Orbignya cohune, Ficus spp. 

Brosimum alicastrum, Bumelia cartilaginea, Bursera arborea, 
Celtis monoica, Enterolobium cyclocarpum, Ficus spp., Hura 

Shallow, hillsides 

Amphipterygium spp., Bursera spp., Ceiba aesculifolia, Loncho- 
carpus spp., Lysiloma divaricata 


Acacia spp., Caesalpinia spp., Cercidium praecox, Haematoxylon 
brasiletto, Pithecellobium dulce, Prosopis laevigata, Ziziphus 


Shallow, hillsides 

Acacia pennatula, Eysenhardtia polystachya, Forestiera spp., 
Ipomoea spp., Opuntia fuliginosa 


Byrsonima crassifolia, Crescentia alata, Curatella americana 


Andropogon spp., Aristida spp., Bouteloua spp., Hilaria cench- 
roides, Muhlenbergia spp., Acacia tortuosa 


Opuntia guilanchi, Opuntia streptacantha, Mimosa biuncifera, 
Mimosa monancistra 


Pinus spp., Quercus spp., Arbutus spp. 

Shallow, hillsides 

Carpinus caroliniana, Clethra spp., Prunus spp., Quercus acuti- 
folia, Sty rax spp., Symplocos prionophylla 

Shallow, hillsides 

Abies spp., Alnus firmifolia, Meliosma dentata, Quercus laurina 



Saline, coastal 

Rhizophora mangle, Avicennia nitida 



Beard, J. S. 1953. The savanna vegetation of northern tropical America. Ecol. Monogr. 23: 

149 - 215 

Brand, D.D., et al. 1957-1958. Coastal study of southwest Mexico. Parte 1: 3, xii, 72, 140 pp., 
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mapas 1 - 28. 1958. Dept. Geogr. Univ. Texas, Austin. 

1960. Coalcomin and Motines del Oro. xxi, 403 pp., figs. 36. M. Nijhoff, The 


Davis, H. B. 1936. Life and work of Cyrus Guernsey Pringle. 756 pp. Univ. of Vermont, 

Duellman, W. E. 1965. A biogeographic account of the herpetofauna of Michoacln, Mexico. 
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Gadow, H. 1908. Through southern Mexico, xvi, 527 pp., mapa. London & New York. 

Garcia, E. 1964. Modificaciones al sistema de clasificacion clim&tica de Koppen. viii, 71 pp., 
gr&fs. 1-9, mapa. Mexico, D. F. 

Gentry, H. S. 1942. Rio Mayo plants, vii, 328 pp., 14ms. 1 - 29. Carnegie Inst. Wash. Publ. 
No. 527. 

1946a. Notes on the vegetation of Sierra Surotato in northern Sinaloa. Bull. 

Torrey Bot. Club 73: 451 - 462. 

1946b. Sierra Tacuichamona— a Sinaloa plant locale. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 73: 

356 - 362. 

1957. Los pastizales de Durango. 361 pp. Edic. Inst. Mex. Rec. Nat. Renov. 

Mexico, D.F. 

Gomez G., A. 1931. El Ceboruco. Mex. Forest. 9:186-192. 

Gutierrez Vlzquez, M. T. 1959. Geografia fisica de Jalisco. Tesis profesional. 133 pp. Fac. 
Filos. Letras, U.N.A.M. Mexico, D.F. 

Guzman H., G., y L. Vela Gllvez. 1960. Contribucion al conocimiento de la vegetacion del 
suroeste del estado de Zacatecas. Bol. Soc. Bot. Mex. 25: 46 - 60. 

Kerber, E. 1882a. Ein Ausflug in Mejico. Aus Allen Weltteilen 13: 103 - 111. 

1882b. Eine Besteigung des Vulkans von Colima in Mexico. Verh. Ges. Erdkunde 

Berlin 9: 237 - 246. 

Leavenworth, W. C. 1946. A preliminary study of the vegetation of the region between Cerro 
Tancitaro and the Rio Tepalcatepec. Amer. Midi. Nat. 36: 137 - 206. 

Leopold, A. S. 1950. Vegetation zones of Mexico. Ecology 31: 507 - 518. 

Loock, E. E. M. [?1950]. The pines of Mexico and British Honduras, x, 244 pp., mapas A - C. 
Union of S. Africa, Dept. For. Bui. No. 35. 

Lundell, C. L. 1937. The vegetation of Peten. ix, 244 pp., 14ms. 1 - 39. Carnegie Inst. Wash. 
Publ. No. 478. 

McVaugh, R. 1952a. Mexican botanical expedition of 1952. Asa Gray Bull. II. 1: 295 - 297, 
369 - 381. 

1952b. The Barranca of Guadalajara and its place in botanical literature. Asa 

Gray Bull. II. 1: 385 - 390. 

. 1961. Euphorbiaceae novae Novo-Galicianae. Brittonia 13: 145 - 205. 

McVaugh, R., y J. Rzedowski. 1965. Synopsis of the genus Bursera L. in western Mexico, 
with notes on the material of Bursera collected by Sesse & Mociho. Kew Bull. 18: 317 - 

382, 14ms. 1 - 6. 

Miranda, F. 1941. Estudios sobre la vegetacion de Mexico. I. La vegetacion de los cerros al 
sur de la Meseta de Anihuac - el cuajiotal. An. Inst. Biol. (Mex.) 12: 569 - 614. 



Miranda, F. 1947. Estudios sobre la vegetacion de Mexico. V. Rasgos de la vegetacion en la 
cuenca del rlo de las Balsas. Rev. Soc. Mex. Hist. Nat. 8: 95 - 114. 

1952. La vegetacion de Chiapas. Vol. 1. 334 pp. Ediciones del Gobierno del 

Estado. Tuxtla Gutierrez, 

1958. Estudios acerca de la vegetacion, en Beltrin, E. (ed.), Los recur sos 

naturales del Sureste y su aprovechamiento, 2: 215 - 271. Inst. Mex. Rec. Nat. Renov. 
Mexico, D.F. 

Miranda, F., y E. Hernandez X. 1963. Los tipos de vegetacion de Mexico y su clasificacion. 
Bol. Soc. Bot. Mex. 28: 29 - 179. 

Miranda, F., y A. J. Sharp. 1950. Characteristics of the vegetation in certain temperate re- 
gions of eastern Mexico. Ecology 31: 313 - 333. 

Midler, C. H. 1939. Relations of the vegetation and climatic types in Nuevo Leon, Mexico. 
Amer. Midi. Nat. 21: 687 - 729. 

Rzedowski, J. 1955. Notas sobre la flora y la vegetacion del estado de San Luis Potosl. II. 
Estudio de diferencias floristicas y ecologicas condicionadas por ciertos tipos de substrato 
geologico. Ciencia (Mex.) 15: 141 - 157. 

_. 1956. Notas sobre la flora y la vegetacion del estado de San Luis Potosi. III. 

Vegetacion de la region de Guadalc&zar. An. Inst. Biol. (Mex.) 27: 169 - 228. 

_. 1957. Vegetaci6n de las partes Iridas de los estados de San Luis Potosl y 

Zacatecas. Rev. Soc. Mex. Hist. Nat. 18: 49 - 101. 

1962. Contribuciones a la fitogeografia floristica e historica de Mexico. I. Al- 

gunas consideraciones acerca del elemento endemico en la flora mexicana. Bol. Soc. Bot. 
Mex. 27: 52 - 65. 

1965. Vegetacion del Estado de San Luis Potosi. Acta Cient. Potos. 5: 5 - 291. 

Rzedowski, J., y G. C. de Rzedowski. 1957. Notas sobre la flora y la vegetacion del estado de 
San Luis Potosi. V. La vegetacion a lo largo de la carretera San Luis Potosi - Rioverde. 
Acta Cient. Potos. 1: 7 - 68. 

Shreve, F. 1937. Lowland vegetation in Sinaloa. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 64: 605 - 613. 

1942. Grassland and related vegetation in northern Mexico. Madrono 6:190- 198. 

Turner, B. L. 1960. Phytogeographic reconnaissance: the western segment of the Michoacan 
coast, en Brand, D. D. et al. (1960), pp. 272 - 286. 


Los nombres incluidos en la siguiente lista corresponden a los taxa mencionados en este 
trabajo como elementos importantes de la vegetacion de Nueva Galicia. Las plantas citadas en 
el texto, que no se conocen como componentes de la flora silvestre de la region, estan incluidas 
en el indice alfabetico, pero no aparecen en la enumeracion sistemitica. Las que no han sido 
identificadas sino hasta genero, se encuentran referidas bajo el nombre de este, seguido por 
"sp." cuando se trata de una especie, 6 por "spp." cuando son varias. Los binomios en paren- 
tesis angulares, que siguen a los nombres aceptados en esta lista, son los que Standley utilizo 
para los mismos (6 aproximadamente los mismos) taxa en Trees and shrubs of Mexico (Contr. 
U.S. Nat. Herb. 23: 1-1721. 1920-26). 


Acrostichum danaeifoliwn Langsd. & Fisch. Ic. Fll. 5. pi. 1. 1810. 

Adiantam patensWilld. Sp. PI. 5: 439. 1810. 

Adiantum spp. 

Aspleniitm monanthesh. Mant. 1: 130. 1767. 

As pie nit un spp. 

Azolla filiculoides Lam. Encyc. 1: 343. 1783. 

Azolla mexicana Presl, Abh. Bohm. Ges. Wiss. 5, pt. 3: 150. 1845. 

Bommeria spp. 

Botrychiam virginianum var . meridionale Butters, Ehodora 19: 213. 1917. 

Cheilanthes angustifolia HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 1: 21. 1816. 

Cheilanthes farinosa (Forsk.) Kaulf. Enum. Fil. 212. 1824. 

Cheilanthes kaulfus sit Kunze , Linnaea 13: 145. 1839. 

Cheilanthes lendigera (Cav.) Sw. Syn. Fil. 128. 1806. 

Cheilanthes myriophyllaDesv . Mag. Gesell. Nat. Fr. Berlin 5: 328. 1811. 

Cheilanthes pyrarnidalis Fee, Mem. Foug. 7: 38. 1857. 

Cystopteris fragilis (L.) Bernh. Neu. Jour. Bot. Schrad. 1(2): 26. 1806. 

Dryopteris patula (Sw.) Underw. Our Nat. Ferns ed. 4. 117. 1893. 

Dryopteris spp. 

Elaphoglossam spp. 

Isoetes mexicana Underw. Bot. Gaz. 13: 93. 1888. 

Marsilea fournieri C.Chr. Ind. Fil. 418. 1906. 

Marsilea mexicana A. Br. Monatsber. Akad. Berlin 1870: 747. 1871. 
Notholaena aurea (Poir.) Desv. Mem. Soc. Linn. Paris 6: 219. 1827. 
Notholaena brachypus (Kunze) J. Sm. Ferns Brit. & For. 172. 1866. 
Notholaena sinuata (Sw.) Kaulf. Enum. Fil. 135. 1824. 
Pellaeaternifolia (Cav.) Link, Fil. Sp. Hort. Bot. Berol. 59. 1841. 
Pellaea spp. 

Polypodium anguslifolium Sw. Prodr. Veg. Ind. Occ. 130. 1788. 
Polypodium angustum (Willd.) Liebm. Vid. Selsk. Skr. 5, pt. 1: 186. 1849. 
Polypodium furfuraceam Schlecht. & Cham. Linnaea 5: 607. 1830. 
Polypodium madrense J. Sm. in Seem. Bot. Voy. Herald 338. 1854. 
Polypodium thyssanolepis A. Br. ex Klotzsch, Linnaea 20: 392. 1847. 

Polypodium spp. 

Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn, in Decken, Reisen Ost-Afr. 3, pt. 3: 11. 1879 

Selaginella spp. 

Woodsia mollis (Kaulf.) J. Sm. Jour. Bot. 4: 191. 1841. 



Zamia sp. 



Podocarpus aff. reichei Buchh. & Gray, Jour. Arnold Arb. 29: 131. 1948. 


Cupressus UndleyiKl. ex Endl. Syn. Conif. 59. 1847. [C. bentharnii Endl.J. 
Juniperus deppeana Steud. Norn. ed. 2. 835. 1840. [j. Diexicana Spreng., quoad nom.; J. pacJiy- 

phloea Torr.J. 
Juniperus flaccida Schlecht. Linnaea 12: 495. 1838. 
Juniperus monticola f. com pacta Martinez, Anal. Inst. Biol. (Mex.) 17: 85. 1946. 


Abies gua/en/alensis var . jaliscana Martinez, Anal. Inst. Biol. (Mex.) 19: 73. 1948. 

Abies religiosa (HBK.) Schlecht. & Cham. Linnaea 5: 77. 1830. 

Abies religiosa var. emarginala Loock & Martfnez, Anal. Inst. Biol. (Mex.) 19: 59. 1948. 

Pinus ayacahuite Schlecht. Linnea 12: 492. 1838. 

Pinus cembroides Zucc. Abh. Akad. Wiss. Munchen 1: 3 92. 1832. 

Finns chihnahuana Engelm. in Wisliz. Tour North. Mex. 103. 1848. 

Pinus douglasiana Martinez, Madrono 7: 4. 1943. 

Pinus hartwegii Lindl. Bot. Reg. 25: Misc. 62. 1839. 

Pinus leiophylla Schlecht. & Cham. Linnaea 6: 354. 1831. 

Pinus lumholtzii Rob. & Fern. Proc. Am. Acad. 30: 122. 1895. 

Pinus michoacana Martinez, Anal. Inst. Biol. (Mex.) 15: 1. 1944. 

Pinus montezumae Lamb. Descr. Genus Pinus. ed. 3 (8vo,), 1: 39. 1832. 

Pinus oocarpa Schiede, Linnaea 12: 491. 1838. 

Pinus pseudostrobus Lindl. Bot. Reg. 25: misc. 63. 1839. 

Taxodium rnucronatum Ten. Ann. Sci. Nat. III. 19: 355. 1853. 



Typlia sp. 


Potamogeton diversifolius Raf. Med. Rep. Hex. 2, 5: 354. 1808. 
Potaniogeton nodosus Poir. Encyc. Suppl. 4: 535. 1816. 
Potamogeton pusillus L. Sp. PL 127. 1753. 
Ruppia maritima L. Sp. PL 127. 1753. 
Zannichellia palustris L. Sp. PL 969. 1753. 


Najas guadalupensis (Spreng.) Morong, Mem. Torrey Club 3, pt. 2: 60. 1893 


Lilaea scilloides (Poir.) Hauman, Fac. Filos. Letr. Buenos Aires Inst. Invest. Geogr. Publ. 10 
26. 1925. 


Echinodorus andrieuxii (Hook. & Arn.) Small, N. Am. Flora 17, pt. 1: 46. 1909. 
Sagittaria latifolia Willd. Sp. PL 4: 409. 1806. 

Sagittaria sp. 


Aegopogon tenellus (Cav.) Trin. Gram. Unifl. 164. 1824. 

Agrostis semiverticiltota (Forsk.) C. Chr. Dansk. Bot. Arkiv. 4, pt. 3: 12. 1922 

Andropogon barbinodis Lag. Gen. & Sp. Nov. 3. 1816. 

Andropogon brevifolius Sw. Prodr. Veg. Ind. Occ. 26. 1788. 

Andropogon condylotrichus Hochst. ex Steud. Syn. PL Glum. 1: 377. 1854. 


Andropogon hirtiflorus (Nees) Kunth, Rev. Gram. 1: suppl. 39. 1830. 

Andropogon hirtiflorus v&r.feensis (Fourn.) Hack, in DC. Monog. Phan. 6: 372. 1889. 

Andropogon myosurus Presi, Rel. Haenk. 1: 337. 1830. 

Aristida adscensionis L. Sp. PI. 82. 1753. 

Aristida divaricata Humb. & Bonpl. in Willd. Enum. PL 99. 1809. 

Aristida jorullens is Kunth, Rev. Gram. 1: 62. 1829. 

Aristida aff. orizabensis Fourn. Mex. PI. 2: 78. 1886. 

Aristida schiedeana Trin. & Rupr. Mem. Acad. St. Petersb. VI. Sci. Nat. 3, pt. 1: 120. 1840. 

Aristida aff. ternipes Cav. Ic. 5:46. 1799. 

Ar thro sty lidium longifoliuni (Fourn.) Camus, Bambus. 68. 1913. 

Ar thro sty didium racemiflorum Steud. Syn. PL Glum. 1: 336. 1854. 

Bouteloua aristidoides (HBK.) Griseb. Fl. Brit. W. Ind. 537. 1864. 

Bouteloua barbata Lag. Var. Cienc. 2, pt. 4: 141. 1805. 

Bouteloua chondrosioides (HBK.) Benth. in S. Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. 18: 179. 1883. 

Bouteloua curtipendula (Michx.) Torr. in Emory, Notes Mil. Reconn. 154. 1848. 

Bouteloua filiformis (Fourn.) Griffiths, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 14: 413. 1912. 

Bouteloua glandulosa (Cerv.) Swallen, N. Am. Flora 17: 621. 1939. 

Bouteloua gracilis (HBK.) Lag. ex Steud. Nom. ed. 2. 1: 219. 1840. 

Bouteloua hirsuta Lag. Var. Cienc. 2, pt. 4: 141. 1805. 

Bouteloua radicosa (Fourn.) Griffiths, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 14:411. 1912. 

Bouteloua repens (HBK.) Scribn. & Merr. Bull. U. S. Dept. Agr. Div. Agrost. 24: 26. 1901. 

Bouteloua scorpioides Lag. Gen. & Sp. Nov. 5. 1816. 

Bouteloua simplex Lag. Var. Cienc. 2, pt. 4: 141. 1805. 

Brachypodium mexicanum (R. & S.) Link, Hort. Berol. 1: 41. 1833. 

Bromus spp. 

Buchloe dactyloides (Nutt.) Engelm. Trans. St. Louis Acad. 1: 432. 1859. 

Calamagrostis erectifolia Hitchc. N. Am. Flora 17: 507. 1937. 

Calamagrostis tolucensis (HBK.) Trin. in Steud. Nom. ed. 2. 1: 251. 1840. 

Cathes tecum erectum Vasey & Hack. Bull. Torrey Club 11: 37. 1884. 

Chloris virgata Sw. Fl. Ind. Occ. 1: 203. 1797. 

Chusquea sp. 

Ctenium plmnosum (Hitchc.) Swallen, N. Am. Flora 17: 602. 1939. 

Diectomis fastigiata (Sw.) HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 1: 193. 1816. 

Distichlis spicata (L.) Greene, Bull. Calif. Acad. 2: 415. 1887. 

Echinochloa colonum (L.) Link, Hort. Berol. 2: 209. 1833. 

Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv. Ess. Agrost. 53, 161. 1812. 

Echinochloa holciformis (HBK.) Chase, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 24: 155. 1911. 

Enneapogon desvauxii Beauv. Ess. Agrost. 82, 161. pi. 16, fig. 11. 1812. 

Eragrostis bahiensis Schrad. in Schult. Mant. 2: 318. 1824. 

Eragrostis cilimrensis (All.) Vign. Malpighia 18: 386. 1904. 

Eragrostis maypurensis (HBK.) Steud. Syn. PL Glum. 1: 276. 1854. 

Eragrostis obtusiflora Scribn. U.S. Dept. Agr. Div. Agrost. Bull. 8: 10. 1897. 

Festuca amplissima Rupr. Bull. Acad. Brux. 9, pt. 2: 236. 1842. 

Festuca tolucensis HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 1: 153. 1816. 

Hackelochloa granulans (L.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. 776. 1891. 

Heteropogon contortus (L.) Beauv. ex R. & S. Syst. Veg. 2: 836. 1817. 

Heteropogon melanocarpus (Ell.) Benth. Jour. Linn. Soc. Bot. 19: 71. 1881. 

Hilaria cenchroides HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 1: 117. 1816. 

Hilaria ciliata (Scribn.) Nash, N. Am. Flora 17: 136. 1912. 

Hilaria spp. 

Hydrochloa caroliniensis Beauv. Ess. Agrost. 135, 165, 182. pi. 3, fig. 18, pi. 24, fig. 4. 1812. 

Hymenachne amplexicaidis (Rudge) Nees, Agrost. Bras. 276. 1829. 

Lasiacis divaricata (L.) Hitchc. Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 15: 16. 1910. 

Lasiacis procerrima (Hack.) Hitchc. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 24: 145. 1911. 

Lasiacis ruscifolia (HBK.) Hitchc. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 24: 145. 1911. 

Lasiacis sorghoidea (Desv.) Hitchc. & Chase, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 18: 338. 1917. 

Leersia hexandra Sw. Prodr. Veg. Ind. Occ. 21. 1788. 

Leptochloa dubia (HBK.) Nees, Syll. PL Ratisb. 1:4. 1824. 

Luziola gracillima Prod. Bot. Archiv. Mez 1: 241. 1922. 

Lycurus phleoides HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 1: 142. 1816. 

Microchloa kunthii Desv. Opusc. 75. 1831. 

Midilenbergia dumosa Scribn. in Vasey, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 3: 71. 1892. 

Muhlenbergia grandis Vasey, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 1: 283. 1893. 

Muhlenbergia leptoura (Piper) Hitchc. N. Am. Flora 17: 468. 1935. 

Muhlenbergia macroura (HBK.) Hitchc. N. Am. Flora 17: 468. 1935. 


Muhlenbergia quad r identata (HBK.) Kunth, Rev. Gram. 1: 64. 1829. 
Muhlenbergia re pens (Presl) Hitchc. in Jepson, Fl. Calif. 1: 111. 1912. 
Muhlenbergia rigixla (HBK.) Kunth, Rev. Gram. 1: 63. 1829. 
Muhlenbergia robusta (Fourn.) Hitchc. N. Am. Flora 17; 462. 1935. 
Muhlenbergia speciosa Vasey, Bull. Torrey Club 13: 231. 1886. 
Muhlenbergia stricta (Presl) Kunth, Rev. Gram. 1: suppl. 16. 1830. 
Muhlenbergia tenuifolia (HBK.) Kunth, Rev. Gram. 1; 63. 1829. 
Olyra latifolia L. Syst. Nat. ed. 10. 2: 1261. 1759. 
Opizia stolonifera Presl, Rel. Haenk. 1: 293. 1830. 
Oplismenus burmattnii (Retz.) Beauv. Ess. Agrost. 54. 1812. 

Oplis)nenus hirtellus (L.) Beauv. Ess. Agrost. 54, 168. 1812. 

Oplismenus rariflorus Presl, Rel. Haenk. 1: 320. 1839. 

Panicion albomaculatum Scribn. U.S. Dept. Agr. Div. Agrost. Circ. 19: 2. 1900. 

Panicu))/ bulbosum HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 1; 99. 1816. 

Panicum hians Ell. Sk. Bot. S.C. & Ga. 1: 118. 1816. 

Panicum trichoides Sw, Prodr. Veg. Ind. Occ. 24. 1788. 

Paspalum distichum L. Syst. Nat. ed. 10. 2: 855. 1759. 

Paspalum lividum Trin. in Schlecht. Linnaea 26: 383. 1854. 

Paspalum longicuspe Nash, N. Am. Flora 17: 172. 1912. 

Paspalum multicaule Poir. in Lam. Encyc. Suppl. 4: 309. 1816. 

Paspalum notation Fluegge, Monog. Pasp. 106. 1810. 

Paspalum plicatulum Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 1:45. 1803. 

Paspalum pubiflorum Rupr. ex Fourn. Mex. PI. 2: 11. 1886. 

Paspalum virgatum L. Syst. Nat. ed. 10. 2: 855. 1759. 

Pennisetum setosum (Sw.) Rich, in Pers. Syn. PI. 1: 72. 1805. 

Pentarrhaphis polymorpha (Fourn.) Griffiths, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 14: 357. 1912. 

Piptochaetium fimbriatum (HBK.) Hitchc. Jour. Wash. Acad. 23: 453. 1933. 

Rhynchelytrum roseum (Nees) Stapf & Hubb. ex Bews, World Grasses 223. 1929. 

Sacciolepis myuros (Lam.) Chase, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 21: 7. 1908. 

Setaria genie ula ta (Lam.) Beauv. Ess. Agrost. 51, 169, 178. 1812. 

Setariopsis latiglumis (Vasey) Scribn. in Millsp. Field Mus. Publ. Bot. 1: 289. 1896. 

Sorghastrum incompletum (Presl) Nash, N. Am. Flora 17: 130. 1912. 

Sporobolus pyramidatus (Lam.) Hitchc. U.S. Dept. Agr. Misc. Publ. 243: 84. 1936. 

Sporobolus splendens Swallen, Bol. Soc. Bot. Mex. 23: 35. 1958. 

Stipa eminens Cav. Ic. 5: 42. 1799. 

Trachypogon montufari (HBK.) Nees, Agrost. Bras. 342. 1829. 

Trachypogon secundus (Presl) Scribn. U.S. Dept. Agr. Div. Agrost. Circ. 32: 1. 1901. 

Tripogon spicatus (Nees) Ekman, Ark. Bot. 11, pt. 4: 36. 1912. 

Tripsacum lanceolatum Rupr. ex Fourn. Mex. PI. 2: 68. 1886. 

Tripsacum spp. 

Trisetum spicatum (L.) Richt. PI. Eur. 1; 59. 1890. 

Trisetum virletii Fourn. Mex. PL 2: 108. 1886. 

Tristachya avenacea (Presl) Scribn. & Merr. U.S. Dept. Agr. Div. Agrost. Bull. 24: 23. 1901 
Zeugltes mexicana (Kunth) Steud. Norn. ed. 2. 2: 798. 1841. 

Zeugites smilacifolia (Scribn.) Hitchc. Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 17: 369. 1913. 
Zeugltes spp. 


Bulbostylis capillaris (L.) C. B. Clarke in Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 6: 652. 1893. 

Bulbostylis juncoides (Vahl) Kukenth. in Osten, Anal. Mus. Hist. Nat. Montevideo II. 3:187. 1931. 

Bulbostylis aff. vestita (Kunth) C.B. Clarke, in Urb. Symb. Antill. 2: 87. 1900. 

Carex polys tachya Sw. ex Wahl. Kongl. Akad. Handl. 24: 149. 1803. 

Carex turbinata Liebm. Danske Vid. Selsk. Skr. 5, pt. 2: 265. 1850. 

Cyperus albomarginatus Mart. & Schrad. ex Nees in Mart. Fl. Bras. 2, pt. 1: 9. 1842. 

Cyperus apiculatus Liebm. Vid. Selsk. Skr. 5, pt. 2: 220. 1850. 

Cyperus esculentus L. Sp. PI. 45. 1753. 

Cyperus flames (Vahl) Nees, Linnaea 19: 698. 1847. 

Cyperus gigante us Vahl, Enum. 2: 364. 1806. 

Cyperus hermaphroditus (Jacq.) Standi. Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 18: 88. 1916. 

Cyperus laevigatas L. Mant. 2: 179. 1771. 

Cyperus manimae HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 1: 209. 1816. 

Cyperus mutisii (HBK.) Griseb. Fl. Brit. W. Ind. 567. 1864. 

Cyperus odoratus L. Sp. PL 46. 1753. 

Cyperus orbicephalus (Beetle) Koyama & McVaugh, Bull. Torrey Club 90: 229. 1963. 


Cyperus semiochraceus Boeckel. Flora 61: 29. 1878. 

Cyperus seslerioides HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 1: 209. 1816. 

Cyperus spectabilis Link, Hort. Berol. 1: 318. 1827. 

Cyperus subnodosus Nees & Mey. Nov. Act. Acad. Nat. Curios. 19, suppl. 1: 59. 1843. 

Dichromena sp. 

Eleocharis caribaea (Rottb.) Blake, Rhodora 20: 24. 1918. 

Eleocharis densa Benth. PI. Hartw. 27. 1840. 

Eleocharis dombeyana Kunth, Enum. PI. 2: 14 5. 1837. 

Eleocharis macrostachya Britton in Small, Fl. S.E. U.S. 184, 1327. 1903. 

Eleocharis montevidensis Kunth, Enum. PI. 2: 144. 1837. 

Eleocharis quadrangulata (Michx.) R. & S. Syst. Veg. 2: 155. 1817. 

Fimbristylis dichotoma (L.) Vahl, Enum. 2: 287. 1806. 

Fimbristylis miliacea (L.) Vahl, Enum. 2: 287. 1806. 

Kyllinga odorata Vahl, Enum. 2: 382. 1806. 

Scirpus americanus Pers. Syn. PI. 1: 68. 1805. 

Scirpus olneyi A. Gray, Boston Jour. Nat. Hist. 5: 238. 184 5. 

Scirpus validus Vahl, Enum. 2: 268. 1806. 


Acrocomia mexicana Karw. ex Mart. Hist. Nat. Palm. 3: 285. 1845. 

Brahea dulcis (HBK.) Mart. Hist. Nat. Palm. 3: 244. 1838. 

Chamaedorea pochutlensis Liebm. in Mart. Hist. Nat. Palm. 3: 308. 1849. 

Cocos nucifera L. Sp. PI. 1188. 1753. 

Cryosophila nana (HBK.) Blume, Rumphia 2: 53. 1836. 

Orbignya cohune (Mart.) Standi. Trop. Woods 30: 3. 1932 [Altalea cohnne Mart.]. 

Sabal pumos (HBK.) Burret, Repert. Sp. Nov. 32: 101. 1933. 

Saba! rosei (O.F. Cook) Becc. Webbia 2; 83. 1907 [Diodes rosei O.F. Cook]. 


Anthurium foriinense Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 25: 366. 1898. 

Antkurium scandens (Aubl.) Engl, in Mart. Fl. Bras. 3, pt. 2: 78. 1878 

Anthurium spp. 

Arisaema macro spathum Benth. PL Hartw. 52. 1840. 

Monstera deliciosa Liebm. Dansk. Vid. Medd. Forh. 19. 1849-50. 

Philodendron polytovnum Schott, Bonplandia 7: 164. 1859. 

Philodendron radiatum Schott, Oesterr. Bot. Wochenbl. 3: 378. 1853. 

Philodendron tripartitnm (Jacq.) Schott, Melet. 1: 19. 1832. 

Pliilodendron spp. 

Pistia stratiotes L. Sp. PL 963. 1753. 

Syngonium aff. podophyllum Schott, Prodr. Syst. Aroid. 68. 1856. 

Syngoniwn sp. 

Xanthosoma sp. 


Lermta gibba L. Sp. PL 970. 1753. 
Lemna perpusilla Torr. FL N.Y. 2: 245. 1843. 
Lemna valdiviana Philippi, Linnaea33: 239. 1864. 
Spirodela polyrhiza (L.) Schleid. Linnaea 13: 392. 1839. 


Xyris jupicai L. Rich. Act. Soc. Hist. Nat. Paris 1: 106. 1792. 
Xyris mexicana S. Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. 25: 163. 1890. 


Eriocaulon benthamii Kunth, Enum. PL 3: 545. 1841. 

Eriocaulon ehrenbergianum Kl. ex Koern. in Mart. Fl. Bras. 3, pt. 1: 491. 1863 


Aechmea bracteata (Sw.) Griseb. Fl. Brit. W. Ind. 592. 1864 
Bromelia karatas L. Sp. PL 285. 1753. 
Bromelia spp. 

Catopsis compacta Mez, Bull. Herb. Boiss. II. 3: 140. 1903. 


Catopsis pendula Baker, Handb. Bromel. 155. 1889. 

Pitcairnia karwinskyana Schult. f. in R. & S. Syst. Veg. 7: 1239. 1830. 

rillandsia achyrostachys var. stenolepis L.B. Smith, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 29: 505. 1951 

Tillandsia balbisiana Schult. in R. & S. Syst. Veg. 7: 1212. 1830. 

Til lands ia bourgaei Baker, Jour. Bot. Brit. & For. 25: 278. 1887. 

Tillandsia caput - medusae E. Morr. Belg. Hortic. 30: 90. 1880. 

rillandsia ionantha Planch. Fl. Serres 10: 101. pL 1006. 1855. 

Tillandsia junce a (Ruiz & Pav.) Poir. in Lam. Encyc. Suppl. 5: 309. 1817. 

Tillamlsia macdougallii L.B. Smith, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 29: 277. 1949. 

Tillandsia plumosa Baker, Jour. Bot. Brit. & For. 26: 13. 1888. 

Tillandsia prodigiosa (Lem.) Baker, Handb. Bromel. 186. 1889. 

Tillandsia. recurvata L. Sp. PL ed. 2. 410. 1762. 

Tillandsia re Uigiana Mez, Repert. Sp. Nov. 14: 249. 1916. 

Tillandsia schiedeana Steud. Norn. ed. 2. 2: 688. 1841. 

Tillandsia tenuifolia L. Sp. PL ed. 2. 410. 1762. 

Tillandsia usneoides L. Sp. PL ed. 2. 411. 1762. 

Tillandsia violacea Baker, Jour. Bot. Brit. & For. 25: 279. 1887. 


Connnelina coelestis Willd. Enum. Hort. Berol. 1: 69. 1809. 

Connnelina coelestis var. bourgeaui C. B. Clarke in DC. Monog. Phan. 3: 153. 1881 

Commelina dianthifolia Delile in Redoute, Liliac. 7: pi. 390. 1813. 

Connnelina scabra Benth. PL Hartw. 26. 1839. 

Connnelina spp. 

Pliaeospliaerion sp. 

Tradescanlia crassifolia Cav. Ic. 1: 54. 1791. 

Tripogandra amplexicaulis (Kl.) Woods. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 29: 152. 1942. 


Eichhornia azuvea (Sw.) Kunth, Enum. PL 4: 129. 1843. 

Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms in DC. Monog. Phan. 4: 527. 1883. 

Heteranlhera limosa (Sw.) Willd. Ges. Nat. Freunde Berlin II. 3: 439. 1801. 

Heteranthera peduncularis Benth. PL Hartw. 25. 1840. 

HelcrantUera reuiforniis Ruiz & Pav. Fl. Peruv. 1: 43. 1798. 


Juncus balticus var . mexicanus (Willd.) Buchenau, Pflanzenreich IV. 36 [Heft 25j: 145. 1906 
Juncus effusus L. Sp. PL 326. 1753. 

Juncus microcephalia HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 1: 327. 1816. 
Luzula racemosa Desv. Jour. Bot. 1: 162. 1808. 


Allium kunthii G. Don, Mem. Wern. Soc. 6: 82. 1827. 

Bessera elegans Schult. f. Linnaea 4: 121. 1829. 

Calockortus barbatus (HBK.) Painter, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 13: 348. 1911. 

Dasylirion parryanum Trel. Proc. Am. Philos. Soc. 50:432. 1911. 

Dasylirion spp. 

Echeandia spp. 

Milla hi flora Cav. Ic. 2: 76. 1793. 

Nolina ivatsonii (Baker) Hemsl. Biol. Centr. Am. Bot. 3: 372. 1884. 

Nothoscordum bivalve (L.) Britton, in Britton & Brown, 111. Flora 1:415. 18 96. 

Sniilax doniingcnsis Willd. Sp. PL 4: 783. 1806. 

Smilax moranensis Mart. & Gal. Bull. Acad. Brux. 9, pt. 2: 389. 1842. 

Sniilax pringlei Greenm. Proc. Am. Acad. 34: 567. 1899. 

Smilax spinosa Mill. Gard. Diet. ed. 8. no. 8. 1768. [S. niexicana Griseb.J. 

Yucca decipiens Trel. Rep. Missouri Bot. Gard. 18: 228. 1907. 


Agave filij 'era Salm-Dyck, Hort. Dyck. 309. 1834. 

Agave aff. pacifica Trel. Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 23: 118. 1920. 
Agave spp. 

Boniarea spp. 


Hypoxis decumbens L. PL Jam. Pugill. 11. 1759. 

Polianthe s graminifolia Rose, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 8: 11. 1903. 

Prochnyanthes viridescens S. Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. 22: 457. 1887 


Dioscorea spp. 


Nemastylis tenuis (Herb.) Baker, Handb. Irid. 112. 1892. 
Sisyrinchium spp. 


Heliconia spp. 


Cost us spp. 


Canna sp. 


Calathea sp. 

Maranta arundinacea L. Sp. PL 2. 1753. 

Thalia geniculate. L. Sp. PL 3. 1753. 


Bletia gracilis Lodd. Bot. Cab. 20: pi. 1977. 1833. 

Cattleya aurantiaca (Batem.) P.N. Don, Flor. Jour. 185. 1840. 

Epidendrum barkeriola (Reichb. f.) L.O. Wms. Ceiba 2: 160. 1951. 

Epidendrum chinense (Lindl.) Ames, Sched. Orch. 7:4. 1924. 

Epidendrum concolor LI. & Lex. Nov. Veg. Descr. Orch. Opusc. 2: 25. 1825. 

Epidendrum nemorale Lindl. in Hook. Jour. Bot. 3: 82. 1840. 

Erycina echinata (HBK.) Lindl. Fol. Orch. Erycina p. 1. 1853. 

Erythrodes querceticola (Lindl.) Ames, Orch. 5: 29. 1915. 

Habenaria clypeata Lindl. Gen. & Sp. Orch. PL 311. 1835. 

Habenaria entomantha (LI. & Lex.) Lindl. Gen. & Sp. Orch. PL 311. 1835. 

Laelia autumnalis (LI. & Lex.) Lindl. Gen. & Sp. Orch. PL 115. 1831. 

Laelia furfuracea Lindl. Bot. Reg. 25: pi. 26. 1839. 

Laelia saivyeri L.O. Wms. Am. Orch. Soc. Bull. 11: 329. 1943. 

Malaxis spp. 

Odontoglossum spp. 

Oncidium liebmannii Reichb. f. ex Kranzl. Pflanzenr. IV. 50 [Heft 80]: 276. 1922 

Oncidium spp. 

Pleurothallis spp. 

Spiranthes aurayitiuca (LI. & Lex.) Hemsl. Biol. Centr. Am. Bot. 3: 300. 1884. 

Spiranthes rnichuacana (LI. & Lex.) Hemsl. Biol. Centr. Am. Bot. 3: 301. 1884. 



Peperomiu galioides HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 1: 71. 1816. 
Peperomia umbilicata Ruiz & Pav. FL Per. 1: 30. 1798. 

Peperomiu spp. 

Piper brachypus Trel. Am. Jour. Bot. 8: 215. 1921. 

Piper jalapense (Miq.) C. DC. in DC. Prodr. 16, pt. 1: 277. 1869 

Piper jaliscanum S. Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. 26: 145. 1891. 

Piper tuberculatum Jacq. Ic. PL Rar. 2: 2. 1786. 

Piper uhdei C. DC. in DC. Prodr. 16, pt. 1: 248. 1869. 

Piper umbellatum L. Sp. PL 30. 1753. 

Piper spp. 



Hedyosmum mexicanum Cordemoy, Adansonia 3: 307. 1862-63 [II. artocarpus SolmsJ 


Salix bonplandiana HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 2: 20. 1817. 

Salix chile nsis Molina, Sagg. Storia Nat. Chil. 169. 1782 [S. humboldtiana Willd.] 
Salix oxylepis C. Schneid. Bot. Gaz. 65: 34. 1918. 
Salix taxifolia HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 2: 18. 1817. 


Myrica n/exicatia Willd. Enum. PL 2: 1011. 1809. 


Juglans major var. glabrata Manning, Jour. Arnold Arb. 38: 140. 1957. [J. pyriformis Liebm., 

pro parte J. 
Juglans olanchana var. standleyi Manning, Jour. Arnold Arb. 38: 147. 1957. 


Batis maritima L. Syst. Nat. ed. 10. 1380. 1759. 


Alnus arguta (Schlecht.) Spach, Ann. Sci. Nat. II. 15: 205. 1841. 

Alnus firmifolia Fern. Proc. Am. Acad. 43: 61. 1907. 

Alnus jorullensis HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 2: 27. 1817. 

Carpinus carolinianGWalt. Fl. Carol. 236. 1788. 

Ostrya virginiana (Mill.) K. Koch, Dendr. 2, pt. 2: 6. 1873 [O. gtuzte male nsis (Winkl.) Rose 


Que rats aculifoUa Nee, Anal. Ci. Nat. 3: 267. 1801. 
Quercus aristata Hook. & Arn. Bot. Beech. Voy. 444. 1841. 
Quercus candicans Nee, Anal. Ci. Nat. 3: 277. 1801. 
Quercus castaneaMe, Anal. Ci. Nat. 3: 276. 1801. 

Quercus coccolobifolia Trel. Mem. Am. Acad. 20: 136. 1924. 

Quercus c ras sifolia Humb. & Bonpl. PL Aequin. 2:49. 1809. 

Quercus depvessipes Trel. Mem. Am. Acad. 20: 90. 1924. 

Quercus eduardi Trel. Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 23: 189. 1922. 

Quercus elliptica Nee, Anal. Ci. Nat. 3: 278. 1801. 

Quercus gentryiC. H. Mull. Am. Midi. Nat. 27: 474. 1942. 

Quercus glaucoides Mart. & Gal. Bull. Acad. Brux. 10, pt. 1: 209. 1843. 

Quercus grisea Liebm. Overs. Dansk. Vid. Selsk. Forhandl. 1854: 171. 1854. 

Quercus aff. iusignis Mart. & Gal. Bull. Acad. Brux. 10, pt. 2: 219. 1843. 

Quercus laurina Rumb. & Bonpl. PL Aequin. 2: 32. 1809. 

Quercus laxa Liebm. Overs. Dansk. Vid. Selsk. Forhandl. 1854: 181. 1854. 

Quercus H/acropJiyliaNee, Anal. Ci. Nat. 3: 274. 1801. 

Quercus mexicana Humb. & Bonpl. PL Aequin. 2: 35. 1809. 

Quercus obtusata Humb. & Bonpl. PL Aequin. 2: 26. 1809. 

Quercus planipocula Trel. Mem. Am. Acad. 20: 136. 1924. 

Quercus potosina Trel. Mem. Nat. Acad. 20: 84. 1924. 

Quercus rugosaNee, Anal. Ci. Nat. 3: 275. 1801. 

Quercus salicifoliaNee, Anal. Ci. Nat. 3: 265. 1801. 

Quercus scytophylla Liebm. Overs. Dansk. Vid. Selsk. Forh. 1854: 180. 1854. 


Myrlocarpa longipes Liebm. Dansk. Vid. Selsk. Skrivt. 5, pt. 2: 306. 1851 

Phenax liirtus (Sw.)Wedd. in DC. Prodr. 16, pt. 1: 235. 1869. 

Pouzolzla palmer?, S. Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. 22: 453. 1887. 

Trema micrantha (L.) Blume, Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd. Bat. 2: 58. 1853. 

Urera baccifera (L.) Gaud, in Freyc. Voy. Bot. 497. 1826. 

Urera caracasana (Jacq.) Griseb. Fl. Brit. W. Ind. 154. 18 59. 



Celtis iguanaea (Jacq.) Sarg. Silv. N. Am. 7: 64. 1895. 

Celtis monoica Hemsl. Biol. Centr. Am. Bot. 3: 139. 1883. 

Celtis pallida Torr. in Emory, U.S. & Mex. Bound. Surv. 2, pt. 1: 203. 1859 


Brosimum alicastrum Sw. Prodr. Veg. Ind. Occ. 12. 1788. 

Castilla elastica Cerv. Gac. Lit. Mex. SuppL 2 Jul. 1794. 

Cecropia obtusifolia Bertol. Fl. Guat. 439. 1840. [C. mexicana Hemsl. J. 

Coussapoa aff . purpiisii Standi. Field. Mus. Publ. Bot. 8: 6. 1930. 

Dorstenia drakena L. Sp. PL ed. 2. 176. 1762. 

Dorstenia spp. 

Ficus cotinifolia HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 2: 49. 1817. 

Ficus glabrata HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 2: 47. 1817. [F. segoviae Miq.J. 

Ficus glance scens (Liebm.) Miq. Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd. Bat. 3: 300. 1867. 

Ficus involuta (Liebm.) Miq. Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd. Bat. 3: 298. 1867. 

Ficus lentiginosa Vahl, Enum. PL 2: 183. 1806. 

Ficus mexicana Miq. Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd. Bat. 3: 299. 1867. 

Ficus padifolki HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 2: 47. 1817. 

Ficus petiolaris HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 2: 49. 1817. 

Tropins mexicana (Liebm.) Bureau in DC. Prodr. 17: 253. 1873. 

Tropins racemosa (L.) Urb. Symb. Antill. 4: 195. 1903. 


Plioradendron commutatwm Trel. Gen. Phorad. 104. 1916. 

Struthanthits ■ail.grahamii (Benth.) Standi. Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 20: 212. 1919. 

Struthanthus venetus (HBK.) Blume ex Schult. Syst. Veg. 7: 1731. 1830. 


Agonandra racemosa (DC.) Standi. Jour. Wash. Acad. 10: 506. 1920 


Ximenia americana L. Sp. PL 1193. 1753. 
Ximenia parviflora Benth. PL Hartw. 7. 1839. 


A r is to lochia spp. 


Antigonon leptopus Hook. & Arn. Bot. Beech. Voy. 308. 1838. 

Antigonon spp. 

Coccoloba barbadensis Jacq. Enum. PL Carib. 37. 1760. [C. liebmanni o C. jurgenseni?\. 

Coccoloba ftoribunda (Benth.) Lindau, Bot. Jahrb. 13: 217. 1890. 

Coccoloba liebmannii Lindau, Bot. Jahrb. 13: 189. 1890. 

Podopterus mexicanus Humb. & Bonpl. PL Aequin. 2: pi. 107. 1812. 

Polygonum portoricense Meissn. ex Small, Mem. Dept. Bot. Columbia Coll. 1: 46. 1895. 

Polygonum pwictatum Ell. Sk. Bot. S.C. & Ga. 1: 455. 1817. 

Ruprechtia fusca Fern. Proc. Am. Acad. 33: 86. 1897. 

Ruprechtia pallida Standi. Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 23: 250. 1922. 


Chenopodium graveolens Lag. & Rodr. Anal. Ci. Nat. 5: 70. 1802. 



Froelichia interrupta (L.) Moq. in DC. Prodr. 13, pt. 2: 421. 1849. 
Gomphrena decumbens Jacq. Hort. Schoenbr. 4: 41. 1804. 
Iresine schaffneri S. Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. 21. 437. 1886. 
Lagrezia monosperma (Rose) Standi. Jour. Wash. Acad. 5: 393. 1915 


All Ionia choisyi Standi. Field Mus. Publ. Bot. 8: 310. 1931 

Boerhaavia spp. 

Pisonia aculeata L. Sp. PI. 1026. 1753. 

Salpianthus sp. 


Achatocarpus gracilis H. Walt. Pflanzenreich IV. 83 [Heft 39j: 137. 1909. 
Agdestis clematidea DC. Syst. 1: 543. 1817. 

Rivina humilis L. Sp. PI. 121. 1753. 


Talinum paniculatwn (Jacq.) Gaertn. Fruct. & Sem. 2: 219. 1791 


Areuaria bryoides Willd. ex Schlecht. Ges. Naturf. Freund. Berlin Mag. 7: 201. 1813. 
Arenaria lanuginosa (Michx.) Rohrb. in Mart. Fl. Bras. 14, pt. 2: 274. 1872. 
Aroiaria oresbia Greenm. Zoe 5: 184. 1904. 
Dry inarm spp. 

Slellaria cuspidata Willd. ex Schlecht. Ges. Naturf. Freund. Berlin Mag. 7: 196. 1813. 


Nymphaea atupla (Salisb.) DC. Syst. 2: 54. 1821. 


Ceratophyllum demersum L. Sp. PL 992. 1753. 


Clematis dioica L. Syst. Nat. ed. 10. 1084. 1759. 

Clematis spp. 

Ranunculus macranthus Scheele, Linnaea 21: 585. 1848. 
Ranunculus petiolaris HBK. ex DC. Syst. Nat. 1: 287. 1817. 
Tkalictrum pringlei S. Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. 25: 141. 1890 


Berberis spp. 


Hyperbaena ilicifolia Standi. Proc. BioL Soc. Wash. 37: 43. 1924 (syn.//. denticulata Standi, op 
cit. 44). 

Magnolia schiedeana Schlecht. Bot. Zeit. 1864: 144. 1864 


Aunona longiflora S. Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. 22: 397. 1887. 
Annona sp. 

Oxandva lanceolata subsp. macrocarpa R. E. Fr. Ark. Bot. II. 3: 433. 1956 

Sipavuna nicaraguensis Hemsl. Biol. Centr. Am. Bot. 3: 69. 1882. 


Licaria cervantesii (HBK.) Kosterm. Rec. Trav. Bot.N£erl. 34: 587. 1937 [Misanteca jurgensenu 

Litsea glance scens HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 2: 168. 1817. 
Nectandra perdubia Lundell, Lloydia4:47. 1941. 
Per sea sp. 


Phoebe arsenii C. K. Allen, Jour. Arnold Arb. 26: 312. 1945. 
Phoebe aff. ehrenbergii Mez, Jahrb. Bot. Gart. Berlin 5: 201. 1889 

Gyro carpus americanus Jacq. Stirp. Amer. 282. 1763. 

Bocconia arborea S. Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. 25: 141. 1890. 

Draba jorullensis HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 5: 78. 1821. 


Camparis asperifolia Presl, Rel. Haenk. 2: 86. 1836. 

Capparis inccma HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 5: 94. 1821. 

Capparis verrucosa Jacq. Stirp. Amer. 159. 1763. 

Capparis spp. 

Crataeva tapia L. Sp. PL 444. 1753. 

Forchhammeria pallida Liebm. Nat. For. Kjoeb. Vid. Medd. 1853: 94. 1854. 

Forchhammeria sessilifolia Standi. Jour. Wash. Acad. 14: 272. 1924. 

Morisonia americayia L. Sp. PL 503. 1753. 


Marathrum elegans van Royen, Med. Herb. Rijksuniv. Utrecht 107: 77, 131. 1951. 
Oserya coidterimia Tul. Ann. Sci. Nat. HI. 11: 105. 1849. 
Tristicha hypnoides (St. Hil.) Spreng. Syst. Veg. 4, pt. 2: 10. 1827. 


Philadelphns aff. mexicanus Schlecht. Linnaea 13: 418. 1839. 

Phyllonoma laticuspis (Turcz.) Engl, in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 3, pt. 2a: 87. 1890 

Ribes ciliatum Humb. & Bonpl. ex R. & S. Syst. Veg. 5: 500. 1819. 


Matudaea trinervia Lundell, Lloydia 3: 210. 1940. 


Acaena elongata L. Mant. 200. 1771. 

Alchemilla aphamides L. f. Suppl. PL 129. 1781. 

Alchemilla pro cumbens Rose, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 10: 96. 1906. 

Alchemilla sibbaldiifolia HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 6: 225. 1824. 

Alchemilla vidcanica Schlecht. & Cham. Linnaea 5: 573. 1830. 

Cercocarpus macrophyllus C. Schneid. Handb. Laubh. 1: 530. 1905. 

Couepia polyandra (HBK.) Rose, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 5: 196. 1899. 

Cowania mexicana D. Don, Trans. Linn. Soc. Bot. 14: 575. 1825. 

Crataegus mexicana DC. in DC. Prodr. 2: 629. 1825. 

Crataegus pubescens (HBK.) Steud. Nom. ed. 2. 433. 1841. 

Hirtella. racemosa Lam. Encyc. 3: 133. 1789. 

Holodiscus argenteus (L.f.) Maxim. Acta Hort. Petrop. 6: 254. 1879. [Sericotheca fissa (Lindl.) 

Photinia oblongifolia Standi. Field Mus. Publ. Bot. 4: 210. 1929. 
Potentilla richardii Lehm. Delect. Sem. Hort. Hamb. 1849: 6. 1849. 
Primus cortapico Kerber ex Koehne, Bot. Jahrb. 52: 307. 1915. 
Primus rhamnoides Koehne, Bot. Jahrb. 52: 283. 1915. 
Prunus serotina Ehrh. Beitr. 3: 20. 1788 [P. virens (Woot. & Standi.) Standi.; P. capuli Cav.]. 

Rubus spp. 


Rourea glabra HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 7: 41. 1824. 



Acacia acatlensis Benth. Loncl. Jour. Bot. 1: 513. 1842. 

Acacia angustissima (Mill.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. 3, pt. 2: 47. 1898. 

Acacia cymbispim Sprague & Riley, Kew Bull. 1923: 394. 1923. [Acacia cochliacantha Willd.]. 

Acacia fame siana (L.) Willd. Sp. PL 4: 1083. 1806. 

Acacia harlwegii Benth. PI. Hartw. 13. 1839. 

Acacia hindsii Benth. Lond. Jour. Bot. 1: 504. 1842. 

Acacia langlassei (Britt. & Rose) Bullock, Kew Bull. 1939: 2. 1939. 

Acacia macilenta Rose, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 8: 31. 1903. 

Acacia pennatula (Schlecht. &Cham.) Benth. Lond. Jour. Bot. 1: 390. 1842. 

Acacia tortuosa (L.) Willd. Sp. PI. 4: 1083. 1806. 

Aesciiynotuene amorphoides (S. Wats.) Rob. Proc. Am. Acad. 29: 315. 1894. 
AeschynoDiene spp. 

Albizzia tomentosa (Micheli) Standi. Jour. Wash. Acad. 13: 6. 1923. 
Apoplanesia paniculata Presl, Symb. Bot. 1: 63. 1831. 
Astragalus erooides Hook. & Arn. Bot. Beech. Voy. 417. 1840. 

Astragalus guatetualeus is var. brevidentalus (Hemsl.) Barneby, Mem. N.Y. Bot. Gard. 13: 154. 

Astragalus hartwegii Benth. PL Hartw. 10. 1839. 
Astragalus hypoleucus Schauer, Linnaea 20: 747. 1847. 

Astragalus mollissimus var . irolanus (Jones) Barneby, Mem. N.Y. Bot. Gard. 13: 741. 1964. 

Ateleia standleyana Mohlenbr. Webbia 17: 179. 1962. 

Batchinia pauletia Pers. Syn. PL 1: 455. 1805. 

Bavhinia pringlei S. Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. 25: 147. 1890. 

Bauhinia subrotundifolia Cav. Ic. 5:4. 1799. 

Bauhinia ungulata L. Sp. PL 374. 1753. 

Caesalpinia cacalaco Humb. & Bonpl. PL Aequin. 2: 173. 1817. 

Caesalpinia coriaria (Jacq.) Willd. Sp. PL 2: 532. 1799. 

Caesalpinia eriostacJiys Benth. in Seem. Voy. Herald. 88. 1853. 

Caesalpinia platyloba S. Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. 21: 425. 1886. 

Calliandra eriophylla Benth. Lond. Jour. Bot. 3: 105. 1844. 

Calliandra houstoniana (Mill.) Standi. Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 23: 386. 1922. 

Calliandra laevis Rose, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 5: 194. 1899. 

Calliandra palmeri S. Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. 22: 410. 1887. 

Canavalia acuminata Rose, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 1: 322. 1895. 

Canavalia uillosa Benth. Ann. Wien. Mus. 2: 135. 1837. 

Cassia atomaria L. Mant. 68. 1767. 

Cassia biflora L. Sp. PL 378. 1753. 

Cassia emarghiata L. Sp. PL 376. 1753. 

Cassia flexuosa L. Sp. PL 379. 1753. 

Cassia hispidula Vahl, Eclog. 3: 10. 1807. 

Cassia leptadenia Greenm. Proc. Am. Acad. 41: 238. 1905. 

Cassia nicaraguensis Benth. Trans. Linn. Soc. Bot. 27: 552. 1871. 

Cassia oxyphylla Kunth, Mimos. PL Legum. 129. 1823. 

Cassia sk in neri Benth. Trans. Linn. Soc. Bot. 27: 542. 1871. 

Cassia slandleyi (Britt. & Rose) Standi. Field Mus. Publ. Bot. 18: 518. 1937. 

Cassia wislizeni A. Gray, PL Wright. 1: 60. 1852. 

Cevcidiiun praecox (Ruiz & Pav.) Harms, Bot. Jahrb. 42: 91. 1908. [C . plurif olio latum MicheliJ. 

Conzallia multiflora (Rob.) Standi. Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 23: 427. 1922. 

Coursetia mollis Rob. & Greenm. Proc. Am. Acad. 29: 384. 1894. 

Cracca aletes Standi. & Steyerm. Fieldiana Bot. 24, pt. 5: 190. 1946. 

Crolalaria filifolia Rose, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 5: 136. 1897. 

Crotalaria sagittalis L. Sp. PL 714. 1753. 

Cynometra oaxacana T. S. Brandg. Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 6: 180. 1915. 
Dalea peclinata Kunth, Mimos. PL Legum. 169. 1819 [Parosela pectinata (Kunth) Rose]. 
Dalea tubevculata Lag. Gen. & Sp. Nov. 23. 1816 [Parosela tuberculata (Lag.) RoseJ. 
Dalea spp. 

Desmodium cordistipulum Hemsl. Biol. Centr. Am. Bot. 1: 277. 1880. 

Desmodiuru jaliscanum S. Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. 22: 406. 1887 [Meibomia jaliscana (S. Wats.) 

Desmodium occidental (Morton) Standi. Field Mus. Publ. Bot. 11: 161. 1936. 

Desmodium plicatum Schlecht. & Cham. Linnaea 5: 585. 1830 [Meibomia plicata (Schlecht. & 

Cham.) Kuntze]. 
Des)nodium spp. 


Diphysa suberosa S. Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. 22: 405. 1887. 

Diphysa sp. 

Entada polystachia (L.) DC. Mem. Legum. 12. 1825. 

Enterolobium cyclocarpum (Jacq.) Griseb. Fl. Brit. W. Ind. 226. 1860. 

Eriosema diffusum (HBK.) G. Don, Gen. Hist. 2: 347. 1832. 

Eriosema spp. 

Erythrina lanata Rose, U.S. Dept. Agr. N. Am. Fauna 14: 81. 1899. 

Erythrina spp. 

Eysenhardtia polys tachya (Ort.) Sarg. Silv. N.Am. 3: 29. 1892. 

Gliricidia septum (Jacq.) Steud. Nom. ed. 2. 1: 688. 1841. 

Haematoxylon brasiletto Karst. FL Columb. 2: 27. 1862-69. 

Hymenaea courbaril L. Sp. PL 1192. 1753. 

Inga eriocarpa Benth. Lond. Jour. Bot. 4: 615. 1845. 

Inga laurina (Sw.) Willd. Sp. PL 4: 1018. 1806. 

Inga oophylla Riley, Kew Bull. 1923: 401. 1923. 

Krameria secundiflora DC. in DC. Prodr. 1: 341. 1824. 

Leucaena escidenta (DC.) Benth. Trans. Linn. Soc. 30: 442. 1875. 

Leucaena glauca (L). Benth. in Hook. Jour. Bot. 4: 416. 1842. 

Lonchocarpus constrictus Pittier, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 20: 79. 1917. 

Lonchocarpus eriocarinalis Micheli, Mem. Soc. Phys. Hist. Nat. Geneve 34: 267. 1903. 

Lonchocarpus lanceolatus Benth. Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Bot. 4: suppl. 92. 1860. 

Lotus oroboides (HBK.) Ottley ex Kearn. & Peeb. Jour. Wash. Acad. 29: 483. 1939. 

Lotus repens (G. Don) Standi. & Steyerm. Fieldiana Bot. 24, pt. 5: 286. 1946. 

Lupinus montanus HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 6: 477. 1824. 

Lupinus squamecaulis C. P. Smith, Sp. Lupin. 67. 1938. 

Lysiloma acapulcensis (Kunth) Benth. Lond. Jour. Bot. 3: 83. 1844. 

Lysiloma divaricata (Jacq.) Macbr. Contr. Gray Herb. II. 59: 6. 1919. 

Lysiloma tergemina Benth. Trans. Linn. Soc. Bot. 30: 534. 1875. 

Mimosa aculeaticarpa Ort. Dec. 134. 1800. 

Mimosa biuncifera Benth. PL Hartw. 12. 1839. 

Mimosa monancistra Benth. PL Hartw. 12. 1839. 

Mimosa pigra L. Cent. PL 1: 13. 1755. 

Minkelersia galactoides Mart. & Gal. Bull. Acad. Brux. 10, pt. 2: 200. 1843. 

Neptunia pro strata (Lam.) Baill. Bull. Soc. Linn. Paris 1: 356. 1883. 

Nissolia fruticosa Jacq. Enum. PL Carib. 27. 1760 [N. nelsoni Rose]. 

Nissolia spp. 

PJmseolus heterophyllus Willd. Enum. PL Hort. Berol. 2: 753. 1809. 

Phaseolus strobilophorus (Rob.) Morton, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 29: 85. 1944. [Ramirezella 
strobilopJiora (Rob.) Rose]. 

Phaseolus spp. 

Piptadenia constricta (Micheli & Rose) Macbr. Contr. Gray Herb. II. 59: 18. 1919. 

Pithecellobium acatlense Benth. Trans. Linn. Soc. Bot. 30: 593. 1875. 
Pithecellobium didce (Roxb.) Benth. Lond. Jour. Bot. 3: 199. 1844. 
Pithecellobium lanceolatum (Willd.) Benth. Lond. Jour. Bot. 5: 105. 1846. 
Pithecellobium leptophyllum (Lag.) Daveau, Bull. Soc. Bot. France 59: 635. 1912. 
Platymiscium trifoliolatum Benth. Jour. Linn. Soc. Bot. 4: suppl. 82. 1860. 
Poeppigia procera Presl, Symb. Bot. 1: 16. 1830. 
Prosopis jtdiflora (Sw.) DC. in DC. Prodr. 2: 447. 1825. 
Prosopis laevigata (Willd.) M.C. Johnst. Brittonia 14: 78. 1962 [P. juliflora (Sw.) DC.]. 

Rhynchosia spp. 

Stylosanthes aff. subsericea Blake, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 33: 50. 1920. 

Swartzia ochnacea DC. Mem. Legum. 405. 1826 [Tounatea simplex (Sw.) Taub.j. 

Tephrosia saxicola C. E. Wood, Rhodora 51: 327. 1949. 

Tephrosia submontana (Rose) Riley, Kew Bull. 1923: 341. 1923. 

Zomia diphylla (L.) Pers. Syn. PL 2: 318. 1807, sens. lat. 


Geranium deltoideum Hanks & Small, N. Am. Flora 25: 18. 1907. 

Geranium seemannii Peyr. Linnaea30: 66. 1859. 

Geranium vidcanicola Hanks & Small, N. Am. Flora 25: 12. 1907. 


Oxalis hentandesii DC. in DC. Prodr. 1: 695. 1824. 
Oxalis spp. 



Erythroxylon mexicanum HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 5: 178. 1822. 
ErytJiroxylon pallidum Rose, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 8: 314. 1905. 

Guaiacum coulteri A. Gray, Mem. Am. Acad. II. 5: 312. 1855 

Kallstroemia spp. 


Amyris syl Ivatica Jacq. Stirp. Amer. 107. 1763, 

Esenbeckla berlandieri Baill. Adansonia 10: 151. 1871.. 

Galipea sp. 

Monnievia trifolia L. Syst. Nat. ed. 10. 1153. 1759. 

Ptelea trifoliate L. Sp. PI. 118. 1753. 

Zanthoxylum arbo re scens Rose, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 5: 112. 1897 

Zanthoxylum fagara (L.) Sarg. Gard. & For. 3: 186. 1890. 

Zanthoxylum sp. 


Alvaradoa amorphoides Liebm. Nat. For. Kjoebn. Vid. Medd. 1853: 100. 1854 
Picramnia antidesma Sw. Prodr. Veg. Ind. Occ. 27. 1788. 
Quassia amara L. Sp. PL ed. 2. 553. 1762. 

Recchia mexicana DC. Syst. 1: 411. 1817. 


Bursera arborea (Rose) Riley, Kew Bull. 1923: 167. 1923 [Elaphrium simaruba (L.) RoseJ. 

Bursera bipmnata (DC.) Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 1: 44. 1881. [Elaphrium bipinnatum (DC.) Schlecht.J. 

Bursera cilronella McV. & Rzed. Kew Bull. 18: 337. 1965. 

Bursera confusa (Rose) Engl, in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. ed. 2. 19a: 426. 1931 [Elaph- 
rium odoratum (Brandg.) Rose]. 

Bursera copallifera (DC.) Bullock, Kew Bull. 1936: 357. 1936 [Elaphrium jorulleuse HBK. J. 

Bursera denticulata McV. & Rzed. Kew Bull. 18: 365. 1965. 

Bursera excelsa (HBK.) Engl, in DC. Monog. Phan. 4: 57. 1883 [Elaphrium excelsum HBK. J. 

Bursera excelsa var . favonialis McV. & Rzed. Kew Bull. 18: 346. 1965. 

Bursera fagaroides (HBK.) Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 1:44. 1881 [Elaphrium fagaroides HBK. J. 

Bursera fagaro ides var. elongala McV. & Rzed. Kew Bull. 18: 371. 1965. 

Bursera fagaroides var , purpusii (Brandg.) McV. & Rzed. Kew Bull. 18: 374. 1965 [Elaphrium 
odoratum (Brandg.) RoseJ. 

Bursera grandifolia (Schlecht.) Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 1:44. 1881 [Elaphrium grandifolium Schlecht.J. 
Bursera heteresthes Bullock, Kew Bull. 1937: 454. 1937. 
Bursera instabilis McV. & Rzed. Kew Bull. 18: 358. 1965. 

Bursera kerberi Engl, in DC. Monog. Phan. 4: 41. 1883 [Elaphrium kerberi (Engl.) RoseJ. 
Bursera multijuga Engl, in DC. Monog. Phan. 4: 42. 1883 [Elaphrium multijugum (Engl.) RoseJ. 
Bursera occulta McV. & Rzed. Kew Bull. 18: 3 76. 1965. 

Bursera palmeri S. Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. 22: 402. 1887 [Elaphrium excelsu»i HBK. J. 
Bursera penicillata (DC.) Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 1: 44. 1881 [Elaphrium penicillatum DC. J. 
Bursera sarcopoda P. G. Wilson, Kew Bull. 13: 156. 1958. [Icica serrata DC. J. 
Bursera schlech tend alii Engl, in DC. Monog. Phan. 4: 41. 1883. [Elaphrium simplicifolimn 

Bursera aff. simaruba (L.) Sarg. Gard. & For. 3: 260. 1890 [Elaphrium simaruba (L.) RoseJ. 
Bursera trimera Bullock, Kew Bull. 1936: 379. 1936. 


Cedrela sp. 

Guarea excelsa HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 7: 227. 1825. 
Swietenia humilis Zucc. Abh. Akad. Muenchen 2: 355. ; 
Trichilia colimana C. DC. Bot. Gaz. 19: 40. 1894. 
Trichilia havanensis Jacq. Enum. PL Carib. 20. 1760. 
Trichilia hirta L. Syst. Nat. ed. 10. 1020. 1759. 
Trichilia palmeri C. DC. Bot. Gaz. 19: 39. 1894. 
Trichilia trifolia L. Syst. Nat. ed. 10. 1020. 1759. 



Bunchosia palmer i S. Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. 22: 401. 1887. 
Byrsonima crassifolia (L.) HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 5: 149. 1822. 
Gaudichaudia subverticillata Rose, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 8: 49. 1903. 

Heteropteris laurifolia (L.) Juss. Ann. Sci. Nat. II. Bot. 13: 276. 1840 [Banisteria laurifolia L.J. 
Heteropteris palmeri Rose, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 1: 311. 1895. [Banisteria palmeri (Rose) C. 
B. Rob.]. 

Lasiocarpus sp. 

Malpighia mexicana Juss. Ann. Sci. Nat. II. 13: 337. 1840. 

Malpighia ovata Rose, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 1: 310. 1895. 


Monnina wrightii A. Gray, PI. Wright. 2: 31. 1853. 
Monniria xalapensis HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 5: 414. 1823. 
Polygala angustifolia HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 5: 405. 1823. 
Polygala glochidiata HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 5: 400. 1823. 
Polygala gracillima S. Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. 22: 398. 1887. 
Polygala longicaidis HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 5: 396. 1823. 

Polygala spp. 

Securidaca diversifolia (L.) Blake, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 23: 594. 1923. 


Acalypha cincta Muell. Arg. Linnaea 34: 20. 1865. 

Acalypha filipes (S. Wats.) McV. Brittonia 13: 149. 1961 [Corythea filipes S. W 7 ats.; A. cory- 

loides Rosej. 
Acalypha langiana Muell. Arg. Linnaea 34: 159. 1865. 
Acalypha ostryaefolia Ridd. Syn. Fl. W. St. 33. 1835. 
Acalypha schiedeana Schlecht. Linnaea 7: 384. 1832. 
Acalypha vagans Cav. Anal. Ci. Nat. 2: 139. 1800. 
Alchornea latifolia Sw. Prodr. Veg. Ind. Occ. 98. 1788. 
Bernardia gentryana Croizat, Jour. Arnold Arb. 24: 165. 1943. 
Bernardia mexicana (Hook. &Arn.) Muell. Arg. Linnaea 34: 171. 1865. 
Celaenodendron mexicanum Standi. Contr. Dudley Herb. 1: 76. 1927. 
Cnidoscolus tepiquensis (Cost. & Gall.) McV. Bull. Torrey Club 71: 466. 1944 [Jatrophatubidosa 

Muell. Arg.]. 
Cnidoscolus tubulosus (Muell. Arg.) I. M. Johnst. Contr. Gray Herb. II. 68: 86. 1923 [Jatropha 

tubulosa Muell. Arg.]. 
Cnidoscolus spp. 

Croton adspersus Benth. PI. Hartw. 51. 1840. 
Croton alamosanus Rose, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 1: 111. 1891. 
Croton ciliaio -glandulife rus Ort. Dec. 51. 1797 \C. ciliato-glandulosus Orteg.]. 
Croton draco Schlecht. Linnaea 6: 360. 1831. 
Croton flavescens Greenm. Proc. Am. Acad. 39: 81. 1903. 
Croton fragilis HBK. Nov. Gen & Sp. 2: 75. 1817. 
Croton incanus HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 2: 73. 1817. 
Croton morifolius Willd. Sp. PL 4: 535. 1805. 
Croton pseudoniveus Lundell, Phytologia 1: 449. 1940. 
Croton reflex if otitis HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 2: 68. 1817. 
Croton repens Schlecht. Linnaea 19: 237. 1847. 

Croton sitberosus HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 2: 86. 1817. [incl. C. cladotrichus Muell. Arg.]. 
Dalembertia populifolia Baill. Etud. Gen. Euphorb. 246. 1858. 
Drypetes lateriflora (Sw.) Krug & Urb. Bot. Jahrb. 15: 357. 1892. 
Euphorbia biformis S. Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. 18: 151. 1883. 
Euphorbia canipestris Cham. & Schlecht. Linnaea 5: 84. 1830. 
Euphorbia colletioides Benth. Bot. Voy. Sulph. 163. 1844. 
Euphorbia dentata Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 2: 211. 1803. 
Euphorbia fulva Stapf, Kew Bull. 1907: 294. 1907. 
Euphorbia graminea Jacq. Sel. Stirp. Am. 151. 1763. 
Euphorbia heterophylla L. Sp. PI. 453. 1753. 
Euphorbia hirta L. Sp. PI. 454. 1753. 
Euphorbia humayensis Brandg. Zoe 5: 208. 1905. 
Euphorbia hyssopifolw L. Syst. Nat. ed. 10. 2: 1048. 1759. 
Euphorbia indivisa (Engelm.) Tidestr. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 48: 40. 193 5. 


Euphorbia paludicola McVaugh, Brittonia 13: 184. 1961. 

Euphorbia potosina Fern. Proc. Am. Acad. 36: 495. 1901. 

Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. ex Klotzsch, Allg. Gartenz. 2: 27. 1834. 

EupJiorbia s elite chtendalii Boiss. Cent. Euphorb. 18. 1860. 

EupJiorbia sphaerorhiza Benth. PI. Hartw. 8. 1839. 

Euphorbia sticlospora Engelm. in Emory, U.S. & Mex. Bound. Surv. 2, pt. 1: 187. 1859. 

Euphorbia subreniformis S. Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. 21: 439. 1886. 

Euphorbia thymifolia L. Sp. PI. 454. 1753. 

Garcia nutans Rohr, Skrivt. Naturh. Selsk. (Kjoebenhavn) 2: 217. 1792. 

Gymnanthes actinostenioides Muell. Arg. Linnaea 32: 103. 1863. 

Hippomane n/ancinella L. Sp. PI. 1191. 1753. 

Ultra polyandra Baill. Etud. Gen Euphorb. 543. 1858. 

Jatropha cordata (Ort.) Muell. Arg. in DC. Prodr. 15, pt. 2: 1078. 1866. 

Jatropha aureus var. rufus McV. Bull. Torrey Club 72: 284. 1945. 

Jatropha dioica Sesse ex Cerv. Gac. Lit. Mex. 3: suppl.4. 1794 [J. spathulata (Ort.) Muell. Arg. J 

Jatropha peltata Sesse in Cerv. Gac. Lit. Mex. 3: suppl. 3. 1794 [J. platypkylla Muell. Arg.j. 

Jatropha syuipetala Standi. & Blake, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 33: 118. 1920. 

Manihot caudata Greenm. Proc. Am. Acad. 39: 82. 1903. 

Manihot tomatophylla Standi. Am. Midi. Nat. 36: 178. 1946. 

Margaritaria nobilis L.f. Suppl. 428. 1781 [Phyllanthus nobilis (L.f.) Muell. Arg. J. 

Pedilanthus calcaratus Schlecht. Linnaea 19: 155. 184 7 \P. aphyllus Boiss. J. 

Pedilanthus pal uteri Millsp. Field Mus. Publ. Bot. 2: 364. 1913. 

Phyllanthus acuminatus Vahl, Symb. Bot. 2: 95. 1791. 

Phyllanthus elsiae Urb. Repert. Sp. Nov. 15: 405. 1919 [P. acidus (L.) Skeels, pro parte]. 

Phyllanthus micrandrtcs Muell. Arg. Linnaea 32: 27. 1863. 

Phyllanthus mocinianus Baill. Adansonia 1: 35. 1860. 

Sapium pedicellatum Huber, Bull. Herb. Boiss. II. 6: 352. 1906. 

Sebasticuiia corniculata (Vahl) Muell. Arg. in DC. Prodr. 15, pt. 2: 1168. 1866. 

Sebasl'uuiia jatisceusis McVaugh, Brittonia 13: 200. 1961. 

Callitriche helerophylla Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. 1:3. 1814. 

Sarcococca conzattii (Standi.) I. M. Johnst. Jour. Arnold Arb. 20: 240. 1939. 


Coriaria thymifolia Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd. Sp. PL 4: 819. 1805. 


Amphiplerygium glaucum Hemsl. & Rose, Ann. Bot. 17: 444. 1903. 
Amphipterygium spp. 


Astronium graveo lens Jacq. Enum. PL Carib. 23. 1760. [A. conzattii Blake]. 
Comoclodia englerimm Loes. Bull. Herb. Boiss. 3: 615. 1895. 
Cofuocladia spp. 

Cyrtocarpa procera HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 7: 20. 1825. 
Pistacia mexicana HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 7: 22. 1825. 
Pseudosmodingium perniciosum (HBK.) Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 1: 420. 1881. 

Rhus alio pi i yllo ides Standi. Field Mus. Publ. Bot. 4: 220. 1929. [R. trilobata T.&G., pro parte] 

Rhus radicans L. Sp. PL 266. 1753. 

Spondias purpurea L. Sp. PL ed. 2. 613. 1762 [S. mombin L.J. 

Ilex brandegeana Loes. Nov. Act. Acad. Caes. Leop. Carol. 78: 148. 1901. 


Celastrus pringlei Rose, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 5: 195. 1899. 
Perrottetia longistylis Rose, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 5: 110. 1897 
Schaefferia frutescens Jacq. Enum. PL Carib. 33. 1760. 


Wimmeria confusa Hemsl. Diagn. PL Mex. 6. 1878. 

Wimmeria persicifolia Radlk. Sitzungsb. Math. Phys. Akad. Wiss. Miinchen 8: 379. 1878. 

Zinowiewia concinna Lundell, Bull. Torrey Club 65: 470. 1938. 


Hippocratea volubilis L. Sp. PL 1191. 1753 [H. utilis Rose, H % rovirosae Standi., H. elliptica 

HBK., H. acutiflora DC. J. 


Turpinia occidentalis (Sw.) G. Don, Gen. Hist. 2: 3. 1832 


Cardiospermum sp. 

Cupania glabra Sw. Prodr. Veg. Ind. Occ. 61. 1788. 

Dodonaea viscosa Jacq. Enum. PL Carib. 19. 1760. 

Exothea copalillo (Schlecht.) Radlk. in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 3, pt. 5: 358. 1895. 

Paullinia fusee seen s HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 5: 93. 1821. 

Paullinia sessiliflora Radlk. Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 1: 317. 1895. 

Paullinia tomentosa Jacq. Enum. PL Carib. 37. 1760. 

Sapindus saponaria L. Sp. PL 367. 1753. 

Serjania spp. 

Thouinia acuminata S. Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. 25: 14 5. 1890. 

Thouinidium decandrum (Humb. & Bonpl.) Radkl. Sitzungsber. Akad. Wiss. Miinchen 8:284. 1878. 

Meliosma dentata (Liebm.) Urb. Bericht. Deutsch. Bot. Ges. 13: 212. 1895 


Ceanothus caeruleus Lag. Gen. & Sp. Nov. 11. 1816. 

Colubrina triflora Brongn. ex G. Don, Gen. Hist. 2: 36. 1832 [C. glomerata (Benth.) Hemsl.], 

Gouania polygama (Jacq.) Urb. Symb. An till. 4: 378. 1910. 

Gouania stipularis DC. in DC. Prodr. 2: 39. 1825. 

Karwinskia humboldtiana (R. & S.) Zucc. Abh. Akad. Wiss. Munchen 2: 351. 1832. 

Rhamnus mucronata Schlecht. Linnaea 15: 465. 1841. 

Sageretia elegans (HBK.) Brongn. Mem. Rhamn. 53. Jul. 1826. 

Ziziphus amole (Sesse & Moc.) M.C. Johnst. Am. Jour. Bot. 50; 1021. 1963. [Zizyphus sonoren- 

sis S. Wats.]. 
Ziziphus mexicana Rose, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 1: 315. 1895. 


Ampelocissus acapulcensis (HBK.) Planch, in DC. Monog. Phan. 5: 403. 1887. 

Cissies rhombifolia Vahl, Eclog. 1: 11. 1796. 

Parthenocissus quinque folia. (L.) Planch, in DC. Monog. Phan. 5: 448. 1887. 

Vilis bourgaeana Planch, in DC. Monog. Phan. 5: 368. 1887. 

Vilis tiliifolia Humb. & Bonpl. ex R. & S. Syst. Veg. 5: 320. 1819. 


Belotia mexicana (DC.) K. Schum. in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 3, pt. 6: 28. 1890 

Helio carpus cf. occidentalis Rose, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 5: 127. 1897. 

Heliocarpas pallidas Rose, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 5: 128. 1897. 

Heliocarpus terebinthaceas (DC.) Hochr. Ann. Cons. Jard. Bot. Geneve 18-19: 125. 1914. 

Helio carpus spp. 

Luehea Candida (DC.) Mart. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 1: 102. 1824. 

Muntingia calabura L. Sp. PL 509. 1753. 

Tilia mexicana Schlecht. Linnaea 11: 377. 1837. 

Triumfetta bre wipes S. Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. 22: 400. 1887. 

Triumfetta paniculata Hook. & Arn. Bot. Beech. Voy. 279. 1838. 

Triumfetta polyandra DC. in DC. Prodr. 1: 508. 1825. 

Triumfetta spp. 



Bogenhardia crispa (L.) Kearney, Leafl. West. Bot. 7: 120, 1954. 

Krioxylum palmeri Rose, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 13: 308. 1911. 

Hibiscus hifurcatus Cav. Monad. Diss. 146. 1787. 

Hibiscus tiliaceus L. Sp. PL 694. 1753. 

Kosteletzkya paniculata Benth. PL Hartw. 285. 1848. 

Malvaviscus arboreus Cav. Monad. Diss. 131. 1780. 

Pavonia palmeri (Baker) Schery, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 29: 230. 1942 

RobinsoneJla sp. 

Sida linifolia Juss. ex Cav. Monad. Diss. 1: 14. 1785. 

Sida urens L. Syst. Nat. ed. 10. 1145. 1759. 


Bernoullia flammea Oliv. in Hook. Ic. PL 12: 62. pi. 1169, 1170. 1873. 

Bombax ellipticum HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 5: 299. 1821. 

Bombax palmeri S. Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. 22: 399. 1887. 

Ceiba aesculifolia (HBK.) Britt. & Baker, Jour. Bot. Brit. & For. 34: 175. 1896. 

Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn. Fruct. & Sem. 2: 244. 1791. 


Ayenia glabra S. Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. 22: 399. 1887. 

Ayenia jal is cana S. Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. 26: 133. 1891. 

Ayenia pringlei Cristobal, Op. Lillo. 4: 77. 1960. 

Byttneria catalpifolia Jacq. PL Hort. Schonbr. 1: pi. 46. 1797. [Buettneria]. 

Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. Encycl. 3: 52. 1789. 

Helicteres guazumifolia HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 5: 304. 1821. 

Pkysodium corymbosum Presl, Rel. Haenk. 2: 150. 1836. 

Saurauia serrata DC. M£m. Soc. Phys. Hist. Nat. Geneve 1: 420. 1822 [incl. S. reticulata Rose J. 


Curatella americana L. Syst. Nat. ed. 10. 1079. 1759. 
Telracera volubilis L. Sp. PL 533. 1753. 


Ouratea mexicana (Humb. & Bonpl.) Engl, in Mart. Fl. Bras. 12, pt. 2: 312. 1876 


Cleyeva integrifolia (Benth.) Planch, ex Hemsl. BioL Centr. Am. Bot. 1: 93. 1879 [Eurya mexi- 
cana (Turcz.) Syzsz.J. 

Symplococarpon hintonii (Bullock) Airy Shaw, in Hook. Ic. 34: /;/. 3342. 1937. 

Ternslroemia pringlei (Rose) Standi. Field Mus. Publ. Bot. 4: 234. 1929[Tao)iabo pri)igleiRose\. 


Calophyllum brasiliense var. rekoi (Standi.) Standi. Trop. Woods 30: 7. 1932. [C. rekoi Standi.]. 
Clusia aff. salvinii Donn. Sm. Bot. Gaz. 35: 1. 1903. 
Hypericum spp. 

Fouquieria formosa HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 6: 83. 1823. 


Helianthemum glomeratum (Lag.) DC. in DC. Prodr. 1: 269. 1824 [Halimium glomeratum (Lag.) 



Bixa ore liana L. Sp. PL 512. 1753. 



Amove uxia palmatifida DC . in DC. Prodr. 2: 638. 1825. 

Cochlospevmum vitifolium (Willd.) Spreng. Syst. Veg. 2:596. 1825 [Maximilianea vitifolia (Willd.) 

Krug &Urb.]. 


Hybanthus aff. mexicanus Ging. in DC. Prodr. 1: 312. 1824. 
Hybanthus sevvulatus Standi. Jour. Wash. Acad. 17: 312. 1927. 
Hybanthus y ucatanensis Millsp. Field Mus. Publ. Bot. 1:404. 1898. 
Hybanthns spp. 


Caseavia avguta HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 5: 364. 1821. 

Caseavia dolichophylla Standi. Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 23: 846. 1923. 

Caseavia pvinglei Briq. Ann. Cons. Jard. Bot. Geneve 2: 67. 1898. 

Xylosma flexaosum (HBK.) Hemsl. Biol. Centr. Am. Bot. 1: 57. 1879 [Myvoxylon flexaosum 

(HBK.) Kuntze]. 
Xylosma uelutinum (Tul.) Tr. & Karst. in Karst. Fl. Columb. 1: 123. 1858. [Myvoxylon veluti- 

num (Tul.) Warb.]. 


Tuvneva pumilea L. Syst. Nat. ed. 10. 965. 1759. 
Tuvneva sp. 


Passiflova spp. 


Cavica mexicana (A. DC.) L. Wms. Fieldiana Bot. 29:368. 1961. [Leucopremna mexicana (A.DC .) 



Begonia gvacilis HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 7: 184. 1825. 
Begonia monopteva Link & Otto, Ic. PL Rar. 27. pl m 14. 1828. 
Begonia ovnithocavpa Standi. Field Mus. Publ. Bot. 4: 238. 1929. 
Begonia spp. 


Acanthoce veus occklentalis Britt. & Rose, Cactaceae 2: 125. 1920. 

Cephaloceveus sp. 

Echinofossido cactus sp. 

Epiphyllum aff. anguliger (Lem.) Don ex Loud. Encyc. PL ed. 3. 1380. 1855. 

Fevocactus melocactifovmis (DC.) Britt. & Rose, Cactaceae 3: 138. 1922. 

Helioceveus speciosiis (Cav.) Britt. & Rose, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 12: 434. 1909. 

Lemaiveoceveus spp. 

Mammillavia spp. 

Mitvoceveus militavis (Audot) Bravo, in Buxb. Entwickl. Trib. Pachycer. 54. 1961 [Pachyceveus 

chvysomalliis (Lem.) Britt. &Rosej. 
My vtillo cactus geometvizans (Mart.) Console, Boll. Ort. Bot. Palermo 1: 10. 1897. 
No pa lea sp. 

Opiintia duvangensis Britt. & Rose, Smiths. Misc. Coll. 50: 518. 1908. 
Opuntia faliginosa Griffiths, Rep. Missouri Bot. Gard. 19: 262. 1908. 
Opuntia guilanchi Griffiths, Rep. Missouri Bot. Gard. 19: 265. 1908. 
Opuntia leucotvicha DC. Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. (Paris) 17: 119. 1828. 
Opuntia vobusta Wendl. ex Pfeiff. Enum. Cact. 165. 1837. 
Opuntia stveptacantha Lem. Cact. Hort. Monv. 62. 1839. 

Pachyceveus pecten-aboviginum (Engelm.) Britt. & Rose, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 12: 422. 1909. 
Peveskiopsis zii.votundifolia (DC.) Britt. & Rose, Smiths. Misc. Coll. 50: 333. 1907. 
Seleniceveus vagans (K. Brandg.) Britt. & Rose, Cactaceae 2: 205. 1920. 



Daphuopsis mexiae Nevl. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 46: 295. 1959. 


Ammarmia auriculata Willd. Hort. Berol. 1: 7. 1803. 

Cuphea hookeriana Walp. Rep. Bot. 2: 107. 1843 [Parsonsia hookeriana (Walp.) Standi.]. 
Cuphea jorullensis HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 6: 208. 182S[Parsonsia jorullensis (HBK.) Standi.]. 
Cuphea llavea Lex. in LI. & Lex. Nov. Veg.Descr.l: 20. 1824. [Parsonsia Have a (Lex.) Standi.]. 
Cuphea lobophora Koehne in Mart. Fl. Bras. 13, pt. 2: 235. 1877 [Parsonsia lobopliora (Koehne) 

Cuphea procumbens Cav. Ic. 4: 55. 1797. 
Cuphea spp. 

Lythrum gracile Benth. PL Hartw. 7. 1839. 

Rotala dentifera (A. Gray) Koehne, Bot. Jahrb. 1: 161. 1880. 

Rhizophora mangle L. Sp. PL 443. 1753. 


Combre turn far ino sum HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 6: 110. 1823. 

Combreliun laxum Jacq. Enum. PL Carib. 19. 1760. [C. mexicanum Humb. & BonpL j 

Conocarpus erecta L. Sp. PL 176. 1753. 

Laguncularia racemosa (L.) Gaertn. f. Fruct. & Sem. 3: 209. 1807. 


Calyptranthes pallens var. mexicana (Lundell) McVaugh, Fieldiana Bot. 29: 409. 1963. 

Eugenia acapulcensis Steud. Norn. ed. 2. 1: 601. 1840. 

Eugenia cremdaris Lundell, Wrightia 3: 12. 1961. 

Eugenia culminicola McVaugh, Fieldiana Bot. 29: 43 7. 1963. 

Eugenia michoacanensis Lundell, Wrightia 3: 16. 1961. 

Eugenia pleurocarpa Standi. Field. Mus. Publ. Bot. 4: 243. 1929. 

Eugenia rekoi Standi. Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 23: 1044. 1924. 

Eugenia salamensis Donn. Sm. Bot. Gaz. 27: 333. 1899 [E. oaxacana Standi., E . tomentulo sa 

Psidium guajava L. Sp. PL 470. 1753. 
Psidium sartorianum (Berg) Ndzu. in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 3, pt. 7: 69. 1893. 


Conostegia xalapensis (Humb. & BonpL) D. Don, ex DC. in DC. Prodr. 3: 175. 1828 
Conostegia sp. 

Heterocentron mexicanum Hook. & Am. Bot. Beech. Voy. 290. 1838. 
Miconia albicans (Sw.) Triana, Trans. Linn. Soc. Bot. 28: 116. 1871. 

Miconia spp. 
Monochaetu))i spp. 

Pterolepis punrila (DC.) Cogn. in Mart. FL Bras. 14, pt. 3: 263. 1885. 


Fuchsia arborescens Sims, Bot. Mag. pi, 2620. 1826. 
Fuchsia decidua Standi. Field Mus. Publ. Bot. 4: 248. 1929. 
Fuchsia fulgens DC. in DC. Prodr. 3: 39. 1828. 

Fuchsia michoacanensis Sesse & Moc. PL Nov. Hisp. 58. 1888. [F. chiapensis Brandg.; F 
minutiflora Hemsl. p.p.]. 

Fuchsia microphyUa HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 6: 103. 1823. 

Fuchsia pringlei Rob. & Seat. Proc. Am. Acad. 28: 106. 1893. 

Fuchsia thymifolia HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 6: 104. 1823. 

Jussiaea bonariensis Micheli, Flora 57: 303. 1874. 

Jussiaea repens var. peploides (HBK.) Griseb. Cat. PL Cub. 107. 1866. 

Semeiandra grandiflora Hook. & Arn. Bot. Beech. Voy. 291. 1838. 


Aralia sp. 


Dendro panax arbor eus (L.) Dec. & Planch. Rev. Hortic. IV. 3: 107. 1854. [Gilibertia arborea 

(L.) Marchalj. 
Oreopanax echinops (Schlecht. & Cham.) Dec. & Planch. Rev. Hortic. IV. 3: 108. 1854. 
Oreopanax peltatus Linden ex Regel, Gartenflora 11: 170. 1862. [O. salvinii Hemsl.J. 
Oreopanax xalapensis (HBK.) Dec. & Planch. Rev. Hortic. IV. 3: 108. 1854. 


Coidterophytum laxum Rob. Proc. Am. Acad. 27: 169. 1892. 

Donnellsmithia peucedanoules (HBK.) Math. & Const. Bull. Torrey Club 68: 122. 1941. 

Eryngium beecheyanum Hook. & Arn. Bot. Beech. Voy. 294. 1838. 

Eryngium deppeanum Schlecht. & Cham. Linnaea 5: 207. 1830. 

Eryngium globosum Hemsl. in Hook. Ic. pL2765, 2. 1903. 

Eryngium gracile Delar. f. Eryng. 54. 1808. 

Eryngium heterophyllum Engelm. in Wisliz. Tour North. Mex. 106. 1848. 

Hydro cotyle umbellata L. Sp. PI. 234. 1753. 

Hydro co tyle verticillata var. triradiata (A. Rich.) Fern. Rhodora 41: 437. 1939. 

Micropleura renifolia Lag. Obs. Umbell. 15. 1826. 

Neogoezia aff. planipetala (Hemsl.) Hemsl. Kew Bull. 1894: 355. 1894. 


Cornus disciflora DC. in DC. Prodr. 4: 273. 1830. 
Comus excelsa HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 430. 1820. 
Garrya laurifolia Benth. PL Hartw. 14. 1839. 
Garrya ovata Benth. PL Hartw. 14. 1839. 


Clethra rosei Britton, N. Am. Flora 29: 6. 1914. 

Clethra spp. 


Arbutus gland ulos a Mart. & Gal. Bull. Acad. Brux. 9, pt. 1: 533. 1842. 

Arbutus xalapensis HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 279. 1819. 

Arctostaphylos angustifolia (Klotzsch) Hemsl. Biol. Centr. Am. Bot. 2: 278. 1881. 

Arctostaphylos arguta (Zucc.) DC. in DC. Prodr. 7: 585. 1839. 

Arctostaphylos longifoli-a Benth. PL Hartw. 44. 1840. 

Arctostaphylos polifolia HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 277. 1819. 

Arctostaphylos pungens HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 278. 1819. 

Be f aria mexicana Benth. PL Hartw. 15. 1839. 

Pernettya ciliata (Schlecht. & Cham.) Small, N. Am. Flora 29: 82. 1914. 

Vaccinium gerniniflorum HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 267. 1819. 

Vaccinium stenophyllum Steud. Nom. ed. 2. 2: 740. 1841. 


Jacquinia aurantiaca Ait. Hort. Kew. ed. 2. 2: 6. 1811. 
Jacquinia pungens A. Gray, Mem. Am. Acad. II. 5: 325. 1855. 


Ardisia compressa HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 245. 1819. \lcacorea compressa (HBK.) Standi.]. 
Ardisia revoluta HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 246. 1819 ]fcacorea revoluta (HBK.) Standi.]. 

Ardisia venosa Mast. Bot. Gaz. 18: 205. 1893. 

Parathesis spp. 

Rapanea ferruginea (Ruiz & Pav.) Mez, in Urb. Symb. Antill. 2: 429. 1901. 

Rapanea sp. 

Plumbago pulchella Boiss. in DC. Prodr. 12: 692. 1848. 


Bumelia cartilaginea Cronq. Jour. Arnold Arb. 26: 462. 1945. 

Bamelia persimilis subsp. subsessiliflora (Hemsl.) Cronq. Jour. Arnold Arb. 26: 450. 1945. 

Dipholis yninutiflora Pittier, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 13: 464. 1912. 


Mastichodendron angustifolium (Standi.) Cronq. Lloydia 9: 251. 1946. [Side roxy Ion cnigustifolium 

Mastichodendron capiri (A.DC.) Cronq. Lloydia 9: 249. 1946 [Sideroxylon capiri (A. DC.) Pi ttier]. 
Pouteria campechiana v&r.palmeri (Fern.) Baehni, Candollea 9:400. 1942 [Lucuma palmer i 



Sty rax argenteus Presl, Rel. Haenk. 2: 60. 183 6. 

Sty rax ratnirezii Greenm. Proc. Am. Acad. 34: 20. 1899. 

Symplocos prionophylla Hemsl. Biol. Centr. Am. Bot. 2: 302. 1881. 


Forestiera phillyreoides (Benth.) Torr. in Emory, U.S. & Mex. Bound. Surv. 2, pt. 1: 167. 1859 
Forest/era towentosa S. Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. 25: 157. 1890. 
Fraxinus uhdei (Wenzig) Lingelsh. Bot. Jahrb. 40: 221. 1907. 
Osmanthus americanus (L.) A. Gray, Syn. FL N. Am. 2, pt. 1: 78. 1878. 


Buddie ia cordata HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 2: 348. 1817. 
Buddleia pavviflora HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 2: 353. 1817. 
Buddleia scordioides HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 2: 345. 1817. 
Cynoctonuni mitreola (L.) Britton, Mem. Torrey Club 5: 258. 1894. 
Spigelia scabrella Benth. PL Hartw. 4 5. 1840. 
Spigelia spp. 

Strychnos brachistantka Standi. Field Mus. Publ. Bot. 12: 412. 1936. 

Strychnos panamensis Seem. Bot. Voy. Herald 166. 1854. [S. tepicensis Standi.] 


Centaurium spp. 

Nymplioides humboldtianum (HBK.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. 2: 429. 1891. 
Schullesia aff. guianensis (Aubl.) Malme, Arkiv. Bot. 3, pt. 12: 9. 1904. 


Haplophyton cimicidum A. DC. in DC. Prodr. 8: 412. 1844. 

Macrosiphonia hypoleuca (Benth.) MuelL Arg. Linnaea 30: 452. 1860. 

Mande villa foliosa (Muell. Arg.) Hemsl. Biol. Centr. Am. Bot. 2: 316. 1881. 

Mandevilla sub sagittata (Ruiz & Pa v.) Woods. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 19: 69. 1932 [Eckites 
spp. J. 

Plunieria rubra L. Sp. PI. 209. 1753. 

Rauwolfia kirsuta Jacq. Enum. PL Carib. 14. 1760 [R.canescens L.J. 

Stemmadenia tomentosa var. palmeri (Rose & Standi.) Woods. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 15:354 
1928. [S. palmeri Rose & Standi.]. 

Tabernaemontana antygdalifolia Jacq. Enum. PL Carib. 14. 1760. 

The vet ia ovata (Cav.) A. DC. in DC. Prodr. 8: 344. 1844. 

Thevetia peruviana (Pers.) K. Schum. in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 4, pt. 2: 159. 1895. 

The vetia plume riifolia Benth. Bot. Voy. Sulph. 124. 1845. 


Ascle/rias linaria Cav. Ic. 1:42. 1791. 
Marsdenia spp. 


Dichondra argentea Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd. Hort. Berol. 2:81. 1806. 

E vol mil us alsinoides L. Sp. PL ed. 2. 392. 1762. 

E volvulus pro stratus Rob. Proc. Am. Acad. 29: 320. 1894. 

E volvulus rotundifolius (S. Wats.) Hall. f. Bot. Jahrb. 16: 530. 1893. 

Evolvulus sericeus Sw. Prodr. Veg. Ind. Occ. 55. 1788. 

Exogonium bracteatum (Cav.) Choisy ex G. Don, Gen. Hist. 4: 264. 1838. 

Ipomoea costellata Torr. in Emory, U.S. & Mex. Bound. Surv. 2, pt. 1: 14 9. 1859. 


Ipomoea intrapilosa Rose, Gard. & For. 7: 367. 1894. 

Ipomoea murucoides R. & S. Syst. Veg. 4: 248. 1819. 

Ipomoea stans Cav. Ic. 3: 26. 1794. 

Ipomoea ivolcottiana Rose, Gard. & For. 7: 367. 1894. 

Ipomoea spp. 

Quamoclit spp. 


Loeselia amplectens (Hook. & Arn.) Benth. in DC. Prodr. 9: 320. 1845. 

Loeselia coendea (Cav.) G. Don, Gen. Hist. 4: 248. 1837. 

Loeselia mexicana (Lam.) Brand, Pflanzenreich IV. 250 [Heft 27]: 174. 1907. 


Cordia alliodora (Ruiz & Pav.) Oken, Allg. Naturges., Bot. 2, pt. 2: 1098. 1841. 

Cordia cana Mart. & Gal. Bull. Acad. Brux. 11, pt. 2: 331. 1844. 

Cordia dentata Poir. in Lam. Encyc. 7: 48. 1806 [C. alba (Jacq.) R. & S.]. 

Cordia. elaeagnoides DC. in DC. Prodr. 9: 474. 1845. 

Cordia globosa (Jacq.) HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 76. 1819. 

Cordia inermis (Mill.) I. M. Johnston, Jour. Arnold Arb. 30: 95. 1949. 

Cordia oaxacana DC. in DC. Prodr. 9: 497. 1845. 

Cordia pringlei Rob. Proc. Am. Acad. 26: 169. 1891. 

Cordia prunifolia I. M. Johnst. Jour. Arnold Arb. 21: 353. 1940. 

Cordia seleriana Fern. Proc. Am. Acad. 36. 498. 1901. 

Cordia sonorae Rose, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 1: 106. 1891. 

Cynoglossum pringlei Greenm. Proc. Am. Acad. 40: 30. 1904. 

Lasiarrlienum strigosum (HBK.) I. M. Johnst. Contr. Gray Herb. II. 70: 15. 1924. 

Macromeria exserta D. Don, Edinb. N. Phil. Jour. 13: 239. 1832. 

Macromeria longiflora D. Don, Edinb. N. Phil. Jour. 13: 239. 1832. 


Aloysia ligustrina (Lag.) Small, Fl. S.E. U.S. 1013, 1337. 1903. [Lippia ligastrina (Lag.) Brit- 
Avicennia nitida Jacq. Enum. PI. Carib. 25. 1760. 
Bouchea prismatica (L.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. 2: 502. 1891. 

Bouchea prismatica var. brevirostra Grenzebach, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 13: 80. 1926. 
Lantana achyranthifolia Desf. Cat. PI. Paris ed. 3. 392. 1829. 
Lantana camara L. Sp. PI. 627, 1753, sens. lat. 
Lantana frutilla Moldenke, Phytologia 1: 419. 1940. 
Lantana spp. 

Lippia umbellata Cav. Ic. 2: 75. 1793. 
Priva mexicana (L.) Pers. Syn. PI. 2: 139. 1807. 
Verbena Carolina L. Syst. Nat. ed. 10. 852. 1759. 
Verbena litoralis HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 2: 276. 1818. 
Vitex hemsleyi Briq. Bull. Herb. Boiss. 4: 347. 1896. 
Vitex mollis HBK. Nov. Gen, & Sp. 2: 245. 1817. 
Vitex pyramidata Rob. Proc. Am. Acad. 29: 321. 1894. 


Asterohyptis stellulata (Benth.) Epling, Bull. Torrey Club 60: 17. 1933 [Hyptis stellulata Benth.] 

Cunila spp. 

Hyptis albida HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 2: 319. 1817. 

Hyptis rhytidea Benth. PI. Hartw. 21. 1839. 

Salvia chapalensis Briq. Ann. Cons. Jard. Bot. Geneve 2: 145. 1898. 

Salvia cinnabarina Mart. &Gal. Bull. Acad. Brux. 11, pt. 2: 63. 1844. 

Salvia elegans Vahl, Enum. 1: 238, 362. 1805. 

Salvia gesneriflo r a Lindl. & Paxt. Flower Gard. 2: 49. 1851. 

Salvia guadalajarens is Briq. Ann. Cons. Jard. Bot. Geneve 2: 132. 1898. 

Salvia hyptoides Mart. &Gal. Bull. Acad. Brux. 11, pt. 2: 74. 1844. 

Salvia iodantha Fern. Proc. Am. Acad. 35: 547. 1900. 

Salvia lasiocephala Hook. & Arn. Bot. Beech. Voy. 306. 1838. 

Salvia lavanduloides HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 2: 287. 1817. 

Salvia longistyla Benth. Lab. Gen. & Sp. 295. 1833. 

Salvia mexicana L. Sp. PL 25. 1753. 


Salvia polystachia Cav. Ic. 1: 17. pi. 27. 1791. 

Salvia purpurea Cav. Ic. 2: 52. 1793. 

Salvia rcflexaHornem. Enum. PI. Hort. Hafn. 1: 34. 1807. 

Salvia thyrsiflora Benth. Bot. Voy. Sulph. 151. 1844. 

Salvia xalapensis Benth. in DC. Prodr. 12: 308. 1848. 

Satureia macrostema (Benth.) Briq. in Engl. & Prantl. Nat. Pf lanzenf am . 4, pt. 3a: 302. 1897 

[Clinopodium macrostemum (Benth.) Kuntze; C. laevigatum Standi.]. 
Sphacele pine to rum Standi. Field. Mus. Publ. Bot. 4: 257. 1929. 
Stachys coccinea Jacq. Hort. Schoenbr. 3: 18. 1798. 


Bouchetia anomala (Miers) Britt & Rusby, Trans. N.Y. Acad. 7: 12. 1887. 
Oestrum spp. 

Margaranthus solamceus Schlecht. Ind. Sem. Hort. Halens. 1. pi 1. 1838. 

Solandra nitida Zucc. in Roem. Coll. Bot. 128. 1809 [Swartzia nitida (Zucc.) Standi. J 

Solanum append iculatum Dunal, Sol. Syn. 5. 1816. 

Solarium bicolor R, & S. Syst. Veg. 4: 661. 1819. 

Solanum brachystachys Dunal in DC. Prodi'. 13, pt. 1: 128. 1852. 

Solanum cervantesii Lag. Gen. & Sp. Nov. 10. 1816. 

Solanum lentum Cav. Ic. 4: 4. 1797. 

Solanum nudum HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 33. 1818. 

Solanum spp. 


Agalinis pedimcularis (Benth.) Pennell, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 81: 182. 1929. 
Bacopa auriculata (Rob.) Greenm. Field Mus. Publ. Bot. 2: 262. 1907. 
Bacopa monnieri (L.) Pennell, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 98: 96. 1946. 

Bacopa repens (Cham. & Schlecht.) Wettst. in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 4, pt. 3b: 76 

Buchnera obliqua Benth. in DC. Prodr. 10: 498. 1846. 
Buchnera pusilla HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 2: 340. 1818. 
Castilleja cryptandra Eastw. Proc. Am. Acad. 44: 578. 1909. 

Castilleja tenuiflora Benth. PI. Hartw. 22. 1839. 

Castilleja tenuifolia Mart. & Gal. Bull. Acad. Brux. 12, pt. 2: 30. 1845. 

Escohedia laevis Cham. & Schlecht. Linnaea 5: 108. 1830. 

Lamourouxia multifida HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 2: 339. 1818. 

Lamourouxia viscosa HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 2: 338. 1818. 

Lindernia anagallidea (Michx.) Pennell, Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. Monog. 1: 152. 1935. 

Penstemon campanulatus (Cav.) Willd. Sp. PI. 3: 228. 1800. 

Penstemon kunthii G. Don, in Loud. Hort. Brit. 243. 1830. 
Penstemon spp. 

Russelia tepicensis Rob. Proc. Am. Acad. 35: 321. 1900. 
Seymeria virgata (HBK.) Benth. in DC. Prodr. 10: 511. 1846. 
Sibtliorpia pichinchensis HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 2: 390. 1818. 
Stemodia bartsioides Benth. Bot. 1470. 1831. 


Adeuocalymma calderonii (Standi.) Seibert, Carneg. Inst. Wash. Publ. 522:428. 1940. 
Astianthus viminalis (HBK.) Baill. Hist. PI. 10:44. 1888. 
Cresceidia alata HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 158. 1819. 

Cybistax donnell-smithii (Rose) Seibert, Carneg. Inst. Wash. Publ. 522:392. 1940. \Tabebuia 
doiniell-sniitJiii Rose 

Cydista aequiuoctialis (L.) Miers, Proc. Hort. Soc. London 3: 191. 1863. 

Doxantha unguis-cati (L.) Rend. Mitt. Deutsch. Dendr. Ges. 1913: 262. 1913. [Bignonia unguis- 
cati L.J. 

Cod))/auia aesculifolia (HBK.) Standi. Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 23: 1319. 1926. 

Petasio}ua patelliferum (Schlecht.) Miers, Proc. Hort. Soc. Lond. 3: 195. 1863. 

Pithecoctenium echinatum (Jacq.) K. Schum. in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 4, pt. 3b: 218 

Saldanhaea seemanniana Ktze. Rev. Gen. 2: 480. 1891 [Distictis rovirosaua Donn. Sm.J. 
Tabebuia palmeri Rose, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 1: 109. 1891. 
Tabebuia peutaphylla (L.) Hemsl. Biol. Centr. Am. Bot. 2: 495. 1882. 
Tecoma slans (L.) HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 144. 1818. 


Pinguicula moranensis HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 2: 266 (Quarto ed.). 1818. 


Aphelandra spp. 

Barleria micans Nees in Benth. Bot. Voy. Sulph. 146. 1844. 

Bravaisia integerrima (Spreng.) Standi. Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 23: 1335. 1926. 

Dyschoriste decumbens (A. Gray) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. 2: 486. 1891. 

Dyschoriste hirsutissima (Nees) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. 2: 486. 1891. 

Elytraria squamosa (Jacq.) Lindau, Anal. Inst. Fis.-Geog. Costa Rica 8: 299. 1895 

Henry a spp. 

Hygrophila pringlei Greenm. Proc. Am. Acad. 41: 248. 1905. 

Jacobinia roseana Leonard, Jour. Wash. Acad. 32: 342. 1942. 

Jacobin ia spp. 

Odontonema sp. 

Ruellia aff. albiflora Fern. Proc. Am. Acad. 33: 92. 1897. 

R lie Ilia, bourgaei Hemsl. Diagn. PI. Mex. 35. 1879. 

Ruellia jaliscana Standi. Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 23: 1334. 1926. 

Ruellia spp. 

Stenandrium sp. 

Tetramerium spp. 


Achimenes spp. 

Drymonia sp. 

Kohleria elegans (Decne.) Loes. Bull. Herb. Boiss. 7: 574. 1899 


Borreria spp. 

Bouvardia longiflora (Cav.) HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 386. 1820. 
Bouvardia midtiflora (Cav.) Schult. in R. & S. Syst. Veg. 3: 118. 1818. 
Bouvardia tennifolia Standi. N. Am. Flora 32: 104. 1921. 
Bouvardia ternifolia (Cav.) Schlecht. Linnaea 26: 98. 1853. 
Chiococca alba (L.) Hitchc. Rep. Missouri Bot. Gard. 4: 94. 1893. 
Coccocypselum hirsutum Bartl. in DC. Prodr. 4: 396. 1830. 
Crasea spp. 

Diodia spp. 

Exostema caribaeimi (Jacq.) R. & S. Syst. Veg. 5: 19. 1819. 

Galium spp. 

Hamelia versicolor A. Gray in S. Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. 21: 416. 1886. 

Hamelia xorullensis HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 414. 1820. 

Hintonia latiflora (DC.) Bullock in Hook. Ic. pi. 3295: 4. 1935. [Coidarea pterosperma (S.Wats.) 

Hintonia standleyana Bullock in Hook, 3295:6. 1935 [Coutarea latiflora Moc. &Sesse; DC .J. 
Posoqueri-a lalifolia (Lam.) R. & S. Syst. Veg. 5: 227. 1819. 
Psychotria spp. 

Randia armata (Sw.) DC. in DC. Prodr. 4: 387. 1830. 
Randia cinerea (Fern.) Standi. Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 23: 1375. 1926. 
Randia aff. mitis L. Sp. PL 1192. 1753. 
Randia ivatsonii Rob. Proc. Am. Acad. 29: 317. 1894. 
Randia spp. 
Rondeletia aff. huddle wide s Benth. PL Hartw. 69. 1840. 


Lonicera pilosa HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 427. 1820. 
Symphoricarpos niicrophyllus HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 424. 1820. 
Viburnum dispar Morton, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 26: 353. 1933. 
Viburnum elation Benth. PL Hartw. 59. 1840. 

Valeriana ceratophylla HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 333. 1819 


Valeriana densiflora Benth. PL Hartw. 39. 1839. 
Valeriana urticifolia HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 330. 1819. 


Cyclanthera spp. 

Seckiopsis triqiietra (Ser.) Naud. Ann. Sci. Nat. V. 6: 24. 1866. 

Sicyos spp. 


Lobelia cardinalis L. Sp. PL 930. 1753. 

Lobelia jaliscensis McVaugh, Am. Midi. Nat. 24: 697. 1940. 

Lobelia lax iflo ra HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 311. 1819. 


Ageratella palmeri (A. Gray) Rob. Proc. Am. Acad. 41: 272. 1905. 

Agevatum corymbosum Zuccag. ex Pers. Syn. PL 2: 402. 1807. 

Ageratum salicifolium Hemsl. Biol. Centr. Am. Bot. 2: 83. 1881. 

Archibaccharis hieracioides (Blake) Blake, Jour. Wash. Acad. 17: 60. 1927. 

Archibaccharis hirtella (DC.) Heering, Jahrb. Hamb. Wiss. Anst. 21: Beih. 3: 41. 1904. 

Archibaccharis serratifolia (HBK.) Blake, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 26: 236. 1930. [A. mucronata 

(HBK.) Blake]. 
Aster exilis Ell. Sk. Bot. S.C. & Ga. 2: 344. 1824. 

Astranthium condimentum DeJong, Mich. State Univ. Mus. Biol. Ser. 2: 519. 1965. 
Astranthium xylopodiun Larsen, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 20: 31. 1933. 
Baccharis glutinosa Pers. Syn. PL 2: 425. 1807. 
Baccharis heterophylla HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 4: 62. 1820. 
Baccharis polosina A. Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. 15: 33. 1879. 
Baccharis ramiflora A. Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. 15: 33. 1879. 
Baccharis ramulosa (DC.) A. Gray, Mem. Am. Acad. II. 5: 301. 1855. 
Baccharis thesioides HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 4: 61. 1820. 
BaccJiaris trinervis (Lam.) Pers. Syn. PL 2: 423. 1807. 
Bahia absinthifolia Benth. PL Hartw. 18. 1839. 
Bidens aitrea (Ait.) Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 59: 313. 1915. 

Bidens Iriplinervia var. macrantha (Wedd.) Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 80: 383. 1925. 
Bidens spp. 

Bolanosa coulteri A. Gray, PL Wright. 1: 82. 1852. 

Brickellia lanata (DC.) A. Gray, PL Wright. 1: 84. 1852 [Coleosanthus lanalus (DC.) KuntzeJ. 
Brickellia oliganlhes (Less.) A. Gray, PL Wright. 1: 84. 1852. 

Brickellia spinulosa (A. Gray) A. Gray, PL Wright. 1:84. 1852 [Coleosanthus spimdosus (A.Gray) 

Brickellia veronicifolia (HBK.) A. Gray, PL Wright. 1: 85. 1852 [Coleosaidhus veronicaefolius 

(HBK.) KuntzeJ. 
Brickellia spp. 

Cacalia eriocarpa S. F. Blake, Jour. Wash. Acad. 19: 129. 1929. 
Cacalia palmeri Greene, Pittonia 1: 219. 1888. 
Cacalia sessilifolia Hook. & Am. Bot. Beech. Voy. 436. 1841. 
Cacalia sinuata Cerv. in Llave & Lex. Nov. Veg. Desc. 1: 29. 1824. 
Cacalia spp. 

Calea palmeri A. Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. 22: 430. 1887. 

Calea peduncularis HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 4: 295. 1820. 

Calea urticifolia (Mill.) DC. in DC. Prodr. 5: 674. 1836. 

Carphochaete graham i A. Gray, PL Wright. 1: 89. 1852. 

Cosmos caruifolius Benth. Bot. Voy. Sulph. 117. 1844. 

Cosmos crithmifolius HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 4: 242. 1820. 

Cosmos exiguus A. Gray in S. Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. 22: 429. 1887. 

Dahlia coccinea Cav. Ic. 3: 33. 1795. 

Dahlia pimiala Cav. Ic. 1: 57. 1791. 

Desmantkodium fruticosum Greenm. Proc. Am. Acad. 40: 37. 1904. 

Dyssodia cancellata (Less.) A. Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. 19: 38. 1883. 

Dyssodia papposa (Vent.) Hitchc. Trans. St. Louis Acad. 5: 503. 1891. 

Dyssodia setifolia (Lag.) Rob. Proc. Am. Acad. 49: 508. 1913. 

Elephaniopus mollis HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 4: 26. 1820. 

Erigeron karvinskianus DC. in DC. Prodr. 5: 285, 1836. 


E riger on spp. 

Eupatorium areolare DC. in DC. Prodr. 5: 169. 1836. 

Eupatorium bertholdii var. stenophyllum Rob. Proc. Am. Acad. 35: 331. 1900. 

Eupatorium brevipes DC. in DC. Prodr. 5: 168. 1836. 

Eupatorium calaminthifolium HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 4: 129. 1820. 

Eupatorium collinum DC. in DC. Prodr. 5: 164. 1836. 

Eupatorium mairetianum DC. in DC. Prodr. 5: 167. 1836. 

Eupatorium pazcuarense HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 4: 123. 1820. 

Eupatorium quadrangulare DC. in DC. Prodr. 5: 150. 1836. 

Eupatorium tepicanum (Hook. & Arn.) Hemsl. Biol. Centr. Am. Bot. 2: 101. 1881. 

Euphrosyne partheniifolia DC . in DC. Prodr. 5; 530. 1836. 

Flore s Una pedata (Cav.) Cass. Diet. Sci. Nat. 17: 155. 1820. 

Franseria sp. 

Gnaphalium vulcanicum I.M. Johnst. Contr. Gray Herb. II. 68. 100. 1923. 

Gnaphalium spp. 

Grindelia oxylepis Greene, Pittonia 4: 42. 1899. 

Guardiola mexicana Humb. & Bonpl. PL Aequin. 1: 144. 1808. 

Gymnosperyna glutinosum (Spreng.) Less. Syn. Gen. Comp. 194. 1832. 

Haplopappus venetus (HBK.) Blake, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 23: 1492. 1926 [Aplopappus venetus], 

Heliopsis procumbens Hemsl. Biol. Centr. Am. Bot. 2: 156. 1881. 

Heterosperma pimiatum Cav. Ic. 3: 34. 1796. 

Hieracium abscissum Less. Linnaea 5: 132. 1830. 

Hieracium fendleri Sch. Bip. Bonplandia 9: 173. 1861. 

Hymenostephium micro cephalum (Less.) Blake, Contr. Gray Herb. II. 54: 8. 1918. 

lostepham heterophylla (Cav.) Hemsl. Biol. Centr. Am. Bot. 2: 168. 1881. 

Jaegeria hirta (Lag.) Less. Syn. Gen. Comp. 223. 1832. 

Jaegeria macrocephala Less. Syn. Gen. Comp. 223. 1832. 

Lagascea decipiens Hemsl. Diagn. PL Mex. 33. 1879 [Nocca decipiens (Hemsl.) Kuntzej. 

Liabum caducifolium Rob. & Bartl. Proc. Am. Acad. 43: 59. 1907. 

Liabum glabrum var. hypoleucum Greenm. Proc. Am. Acad. 32: 294. 1897. 

Liabum pringlei Rob. & Greenm. Proc. Am. Acad. 32: 49. 1896. 

Melampodium niontanum Benth. PL Hartw. 64. 1840. 

Melampodium sericeum Lag. Gen. & Sp. Nov. 32. 1816. 

Melampodium spp. 

Mexianthus mexicanus Rob. Contr. Gray Herb. II. 80: 5. 1928. 

Montanoa myriocephala Rob. & Greenm. Proc. Am. Acad. 34: 511. 1899. 

Monlanoa pyramidata Sch. Bip. ex C. Koch, Wochenschr. Gaertn. 7: 408. 1864. 

Notoptera tequilana (A. Gray) Blake, Jour. Bot. Brit. & For. 53: 228. 1915. 

Olivaea tricuspis Sch. Bip. ex Benth. in Hook. Ic. PL pi. 1103. 1872. 

Onoseris onoseroides (HBK.) Rob. Proc. Am. Acad. 49: 514. 1913. 

Ophryosporus sp. 

Oxypappus seemannii (Sch. Bip.) Blake, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 26: 261. 1930. 

Parlhenium bipinnatifidum (Ort.) Rollins, Contr. Gray Herb. II. 172: 57. 1950. 

ParUienium incanum HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 4: 260. 1820. 

Pedis dicholoma Klatt, Leopoldina 20: 92. 1884. 

Pedis prostrata Cav. Ic. 4: 12. 1797. 

Perezia ivislizenii A. Gray, Mem. Am. Acad. II. 4: 111. 1849. 

Perymenium buphthalmoides DC. in DC. Prodr. 5: 609. 1836. 

Perymenium mendezii DC. in DC. Prodr. 5: 608. 1836. 

Perymenium parvifolium A. Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. 15: 36. 1879. 

Perymenium rosei Rob. & Greenm. Proc. Am. Acad. 34: 523. 1899. 

Perymenium suhsquarrosum Rob. & Greenm. Proc. Am. Acad. 34: 524. 1899. 

Pinaropappus roseus (Less.) Less. Syn. Gen. Comp. 143. 1832. 

Piptothrix jaliscensis Rob. Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 31: 268. 1904. 

Piqueria trinervia Cav. Ic. 3: 19. 1795. 

Pluchea odorata (L.) Cass. Diet. Sci. Nat. 42: 3. 1826. 

Podachaenium eminens (Lag.) Sch. Bip. Flora 44: 557. 1861. 

Podophania disseda (Hook. & Arn.) Rob. Proc. Am. Acad. 47: 192. 1911. 

Polymnia maculata Cav. Ic. 3: 14. 1794. 

Porophyllum nutans Rob. & Greenm. Proc. Am. Acad. 32: 31. 1896. 

Porophyllum pundatum (Mill.) Blake, Contr. Gray Herb. II. 52: 58. 1917. 

Porophyllum viridiflorum (HBK.) DC. in DC. Prodr. 5: 648. 1836. 

Rumfordia floribwida DC. in DC. Prodr. 5: 550. 1836. 

Sanvitalia ocymoides DC. in DC. Prodr. 5: 628. 1836. 

Sanvitalia procumbens Lam. Jour. Hist. Nat. (Paris) 2: 176. 1792. 


Schkuhria anthemoidea var. wislizeni (A. Gray) Heiser, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 32: 273. 1945. 

Senecio albonervius Greenm. Monog. Senecio 1: 26. 1901. 

Senecio angulifolius DC. in DC. Prodr. 6: 431. 183 7. 
Senecio barba-joharmis DC. in DC. Prodr. 6: 430. 1837. 

Senecio callosus Sen. Bip. Flora 28: 4 98. 1845. 

Senecio guadalajarensis Rob. Proc. Am. Acad. 26: 166. 1891. 

Senecio salignus DC. in DC. Prodr. 6: 430. 1837. 

Senecio stoechadiformis DC. in DC. Prodr. 6: 429. 1837. 

Senecio toluccanus DC. in DC. Prodr. 6: 428. 1837. 

Steuia alatipes Rob. Proc. Am. Acad. 43: 28. 1907. 

Stevia elongata HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 4: 144. 1820. 

S te via glandulos a Hook. & Am. Bot. Beechey Voy. 296. 1840. 

Stevialncida Lag. Gen. & Sp. Nov. 28. 1816. 

Stevia micrantha Lag. Gen. & Sp. Nov. 27. 1816. 

Stevia purpurea Pers. Syn. PI. 2: 402. 1807. 

Stevia serrata Cav. Ic. 4: 33. 1797. 

Stevia subpubescens Lag. Gen. & Sp. Nov. 28. 1816. 

Stevia viscida HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 4: 140. 1820. 

Tagetes elongata Willd. Sp. PI. 3: 2127. 1804. 

Tageles luclda Cav. Ic. 3: 33. 1794. 

Tagetes micrantha Cav. Ic. 4: 31. 1797. 

Tageles subulata LI. & Lex. Nov. Veg. Descr. 1: 31. 1824. 

Tageles spp. 

Tragoceros flavicomum DC. in DC. Prodr. 5: 533. 1836. 

Tragoceros schiedeanus Less. Linnaea 9: 269. 1834. 

Tragoceros zinnioides HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 4: 248. 1820. 

Trixis angustifoUa DC. in DC. Prodr. 7: 69. 1838. 

Trixis longifolia D. Don, Trans. Linn. Soc. 16: 191. 1830. 

Verbesina crocata (Cav.) DC. in DC. Prodr. 5: 617. 1836. 

Verbesina greenmanii Urb. Symb. Antill. 5: 265. 1907. 

Verbesi)ia klattii Rob. & Greenm. Proc. Am. Acad. 34: 538. 1899. 

Verbesina liebmannii Sen. Bip. ex Klatt, Leopoldina 23: 144. 1887. 

Verbesina serrata Cav. Ic. 3: 7. 1795. 

Verbesina sphaerocephala A. Gray in S. Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. 22: 428. 1887. 

Vernon ia mucronata Blake, Contr. Gray Herb. II. 52: 19. 1917. 

Veruouia pallens Sen. Bip. Pollichia 18-19: 161. 1861. 

Vernonia palmeri Rose, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 1: 101. 1891. 

Viguiera angustifoUa (Hook. & Arn.) Blake, Proc. Am. Acad. 51: 518. 1916. 

Viguiera linearis (Cav.) Sen. Bip. ex Hemsl. Biol. Centr. Am. Bot. 2: 178. 1881. 

Viguiera pachycephala (DC.) Hemsl. Biol. Centr. Am. Bot. 2: 178. 1881. 

Viguiera pringlei Rob. & Greenm. Proc. Am. Acad. 29: 387. 1894. 

Viguiera quinqueradmta (Cav.) A.Gray in S. Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. 22: 426. 1887. 

Viguiera tenuis A. Gray in S. Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. 22: 426. 1887. 

Viguiera spp. 

Zaluzania augusta (Lag.) Sen. Bip. Flora 44: 562. 1861. 

Zexmenia ceanolhifolia (Willd.) Sen. Bip. in Seem. Bot. Voy. Herald 305. 1856. 

Zexmenia greggh » A. Gray, PI. Wright. 1: 113. 1852. 

Zexmenia macrocephala (Hook. & Arn.) Hemsl. Biol. Centr. Am. Bot. 2: 173. 1881. [Z.ghies- 

breghtii A. Gray J. 
Zexmenia palmeri Greenm. in W. W. Jones, Proc. Am. Acad. 41: 149. 1905. 
Zinnia angustifoUa HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 4: 197. 1820. 
Zinnia greggii Rob. & Greenm. Proc. Am. Acad. 32: 16. 1896. 
Zinnia maritima HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 4: 197. 1820. 
Zinnia peruviana (L.) L. Syst. Nat. ed. 10. 1221. 1759. 


Abies 11, 73, 81; guatemalensis var. jal- 
iscana 73, 86; religiosa 69, 73, 86, 
var. emarginata 73, 86 

Acacia 11, 13, 38, 40, 81; acatlensis 26, 
96; angustissima 28, 96; cochliacantha 
96; cymbispina 27, 32, 33,42,78,96; 
farnesiana 14, 29, 33, 38-40, 42, 50, 
51, 67, 96; hartwegii 48, 96; hindsii 
21, 29, 96; langlassei 19, 96; macil- 
enta 26, 96; pennatula 11, 29, 37-40, 

67, 81, 96; tortuosa 11, 40, 46, 48-51, 
54, 81, 96 

Acaena elongata 63, 95 

Acalypha 28, 51; cincta 20, 21, 28, 99; 
coryloides 99; filipes 28, 99; langiana 
28, 99; ostryaefolia 39, 99; schiedeana 
20, 99; vagans 28, 64, 99 

Acanthaceae 109 

Acanthocereus 34, occidentalis 14, 33, 

Achatocarpus gracilis 32, 42, 78, 94 
Achimenes 20, 67, 109 
Acrocomia mexicana 21, 89 
Acrostichum danaeifolium 76, 85 
Adenocalymma calderonii 28, 108 
Adiantum 8, 20, 63, 72, 85; patens 64, 85 
Aechmea bracteata 21, 89 
Aegopogon tenellus 64, 86 
Aeschynomene 67, 96; amorphoides 28, 

42, 96 
Agalinis peduncular is 64, 108 
Agave 28,90; filifera 46, 90; pacifica 38, 

Agdestis clematidea 21, 94 
Ageratella palmeri 64, 110 
Ageratum corymbosum 42, 48, 

salicifolium 42, 64, 110 
Agonandra racemosa 26, 38, 93 
Agrostis semiverticillata 75, 86 
Albizzia tomentosa 26, 96 
Alchemilla aphanoides 63, 95; procum- 

bens 63, 95; sibbaldiifolia 63, 95; 

vulcanica 66, 95 
Alchornea latifolia 69, 99 
Alismataceae 86 
Allionia choisyi 39, 54, 94 
Allium kunthii 48, 90 
Alnus 55; arguta 62, 92; firmifolia 11, 

68, 74, 81, 92; jorullensis 62, 92 

Aloysia ligustrina 54, 107 
Alvaradoa amorphoides 29, 98 
Amaranthaceae 93 
Amaryllidaceae 90 
Ammania auriculata 75, 104 
Amoreuxia 67; palmatifida 103 
Ampelocissus acapulcensis 28, 101 
Amphipterygium 11, 26, 100; glaucum 

33, 42, 81, 100 
Amyris sylvatica 20, 98 

54, 110; 

Anacardiaceae 100 

Andropogon 11, 39, 81; barbinodis 51, 86; 

brevifolius 42, 86; condylotrichus 52, 

86; hirtiflorus 42, 52, 87; hirtiflorus 

var. feensis 47, 87; myosurus 64, 87 
Annona 13, 94; longiflora 37, 38, 94 
Annonaceae 94 
Anthurium 20, 21, 89; fortinense 21, 70, 

89; scandens 65, 89 
Antigonon 21, 29, 93; leptopus 93 
Aphelandra 20, 109 
Aplopappus venetus 111 
Apocynaceae 106 

Apoplanesia paniculata 19, 27, 33, 96 
Aquifoliaceae 100 
Araceae 89 
Aralia 19, 104 
Araliaceae 104 
Arbutus 11, 81; glandulosa 62, 105; xala- 

pensis 62, 74, 105 
Archibaccharis hieracioides 74, 110; 

hirtella 63, 74, 110; mucronata 110; 

serratifolia 63, 110 
Arctostaphylos angustifolia 62, 105; 

arguta 74, 105; longifolia 74, 105; 

polifolia 62, 105; pungens 62, 105 
Ardisia compressa 19, 70, 105; revoluta 

13, 19, 21, 105; venosa 70, 105 
Arenaria bryoides 66, 94; lanuginosa 63, 

94, oresbia 66, 94 
Arisaema 20, macrospathum 72, 89 
Aristida 11, 39, 81; adscensionis 39, 42, 

51, 54, 87; divaricata 47, 51, 87; 

jorullensis 42, 87; orizabensis 42, 87; 

schiedeana 47, 87; ternipes 42, 87 
Aristolochia 29, 93 

Aristolochiaceae 93 

Arthrostylidium 20, 70; longifolium 62, 
87, racemrflorum 62, 87 

Asclepiadaceae 106 

Asclepias linaria 46, 106 

Asplenium 8, 72, 85; monanthes 63, 85 

Aster exilis 75, 110 

Asterophyptis stellulata 38, 107 

Astianthus viminalis 76, 108 

Astragalus ervoides 64, 96; guatemalen- 
sis var. brevidentatus 64, 96; hart- 
wegii 48, 96; hypoleucus 48, 96; mol- 
lissimus 48, 51, var. irolanus 96 

Astranthium condimentum 64, 110; 
xylopodum 64, 110 

Astronium conzattii 100; graveolens 17, 
19, 26, 100 

Ateleia standleyana 27, 96 

Attalea cohune 89 

Avicennia nitida 11, 77, 81, 107 

Ayenia39, 42; glabra 28, 102; jaliscana 

38, 102; pringlei 28, 102 
Azolla 75, filiculoides 85, mexicana 85 




Baccharis glutinosa 76, 110; hcterophylla 
63, 68, 74, 110; potosina 64, 110; rami- 
flora 54, 110; ramulosa 46, 50, 110; 
thesioides 62, 110; trinervis 21, 110 

Bacopa auriculata 75, 108, mourner i 75, 
108; repens 75, 108 

Bahia absinthifolia 54, 110 

Banisteria laurifolia 99; palmeri 99 
Barleria micans 20, 109 
Batidaceae 92 

Batis maritima 76, 92 

Bauhinia 21, pauletia 33, 96; pringlei28, 

96; subrotundifolia 19, 96; ungulata 21, 


Befaria mexicana 62, 105 

Begonia 20, 103; gracilis 64, 103; monop- 

tera 64, 103; ornithocarpa 64, 103 
Begoniaceae 103 

Belotia mexicana 19, 101 

Berberidaceae 94 

Berberis 63, 74. 94 

Bernardia gentry ana 20, 99; mexicana 20, 

Bernoullia flammea 19, 102 

Besscra elegans 48, 64, 90 

Betulaceae 92 

Bidens 48, 64, 110; aurea 75, 110; trip- 

linervia var. macrantha 66, 110 
Bignonia unguis-cati 108 
Bignoniaceae 108 
Bixa orellana 21, 102 
Bixaceac 102 
Bletia gracilis 64, 91 
Bocconia arborea 69, 70, 95 
Boerhaavia 54, 94 

Bogenhardia crispa 39, 102 
Bolanosa coulter i 39, 110 

Bomarea 65, 90 

Bombacaceae 102 

Bombax ellipticum 19, 26, 102; palmeri 

27, 102 

Bommeria 8, 64, 85 

Boraginaceae 107 

Borreria 42. 109 

Botrychium 72; virginianum var. merid- 

ionale 85 
Bouchea prismatica 54, 107, var. brevi- 

rostra 39, 107 
Bouchetia anomala 48, 108 
Bouteloua 11, 81; aristidoides 54, 87; bar- 

bata 39. 87; chondrosioides 47, 51. 

54, 87; curtipendula 39, 47, 52, 54, 87; 

filiformis 39, 42, 47, 50, 87; glandu- 

losa 42, 87; gracilis 46, 47, 50, 52, 

54, 87; hirsuta 47. 50. 52,64, 87; radi- 

cosa 47, 51, 52, 87; repens 28, 42, 87; 

scorpio ides 47, 87; simplex 48, 51, 

Bouvardia longiflora 64, 109; multiflora 

38, 109; tenuifolia 64, 109; ternifolia 

39, 46, 109 

Br achy podium mexicanum 63, 87 

Brahea dulcis 13, 89 

Bravaisia integerrima 13, 78, 109 

Brayulinea densa 51, 93 

Brickellia 62, 63, 74, 110; lanata 38, 64, 
110; oliganthes 42, 110; spinulosa46, 
110; veronicifolia 46, 50, 54, 110 

Bromelia 34, 89; karatas 14, 20, 28, 89 

Bromeliaceae 89 
Bromus 63, 87 

Brosimum 16, 19, 22; alicastrum 11, 13, 

17, 18, 81, 93 

Buchloe dactyloides 47, 51, 87 
Buchncra 51, obliqua 64, 108; pusilla42. 

Buddleia cordata 62, 106; parviflora 62. 

74, 106; scordioides 46, 106 
Buettneria 102 
Bulbostylis capillaris 43,48, 88; junco ides 

48, 64, 88; vestita 43, 88 

Bumelia cartilaginea 11, 17, 19, 81, 105; 

persimilis subsp. subsessiliflora 33, 
Bunchosia palmeri 20, 21, 27, 38, 99 

Bur sera 11, 25, 26, 33,35,62,81; arborea 

11, 19, 81, 98; bipinnata 27, 38, 39, 98; 

citronella 27,98; confusa 27,98; copal - 

lifera 27 , 37 , 98; denticulata 27 , 98; ex- 

celsa 19,98, var. favonialis 26, 98; fa- 

garoides 25,38, 39, 40, 42,46, 98, var. 

elongata 26, 98, var. purpusii 26, 98; 

grand if olia 19, 26, 98; heteresthes 27, 
98; instabilis 32, 98; kerberi 26, 98; 

multijuga 26,35,37, 39, 40, 98; occulta 
27, 98; palmeri 37, 40, 42, 98; penicil- 
lata 26, 35, 37, 98; sarcopoda 27, 98; 
schlechtendalii 28, 38, 98; simaruba 13, 
19, 27, 98; trimera 25, 27, 98 

Burseraceae 98 

Buxaceae 100 

Byrsonima 43, 61; crassifolia 11, 41, 42. 
81, 99 

Byttneria catalpifolia 21, 102 

Cacalia 67, 110; eriocarpa 63, 110; pal- 
meri 64, 110; sessilifolia 64, 110; sinu- 
ata 48, 51, 64, 110 

Cactaceae 103 

Caesalpinia 11,67,81; cacalaco 33,42,96; 
coriaria 27, 32, 33, 42,96; eriostachys 
27, 33, 96; platyloba 21, 27, 33, 96 

Calamagrostis erectifolia 68,87; tolucen- 
sis 66, 87 

Calathea 20, 91 

Calea palmeri 64, 110; peduncular is 64, 

110; urticifolia 39, 62, 110 
Calliandra 67; eriophylla 46,54,96; hous- 

toniana 62, 96; laevis 70, 96; palmeri 

62, 96 

Callitrichaceae 100 
Callitriche heterophylla 75, 100 
Calochortus barbatus 48, 64, 90 

Calophyllum brasiliense var. rekoi 19. 
102; rekoi 102 

Calyptranthes pallens var. mexicana 70, 

Campanulaceae 110 



Canavalia 72; acuminata 21, 96; villosa 

65, 96 
Canna 75, 91 
Cannaceae 91 
Capparidaceae 95 
Capparis 33, 95; asperifolia 33, 95; in- 

cana 26, 33, 38, 95; verrucosa 26, 28, 

Caprifoliaceae 109 
Cardiospermum 39, 101 
Carex polystachya 64,88; turbinata 64, 88 

Carica mexicana 19, 27, 103 

Caricaceae 103 

Carphochaete grahami 64, 110 

Carpinus caroliniana 11, 69, 71, 81, 92 

Caryophyllaceae 94 

Casearia arguta 21,103; dolichophylla 21, 

28, 103; pringlei 28, 29, 103 
Cassia atomaria 21, 27, 96; biflora 20, 
96; emarginata 27, 29, 96; flexuosa 43, 

96; hispidula 43, 96; leptadenia 43, 96; 
nicaraguensis 21, 96; oxyphylla 14, 96; 
skinneri 27, 42, 96; standleyi 43, 96; 

wislizeni 54, 96 

Castilla elastica 21, 93 

Castilleja cryptandra 66, 108; tenuiflora 

64, 108; tenuifolia 64, 108 

Cathestecum 39; erectum 28, 52, 87 

Catopsis compacta 65, 89; pendula 65, 90 

Cattleya aurantiaca 65, 91 

Ceanothus caeruleus 63, 74, 101 

Cecropia mexicana 93; obtusifolia 21, 93 

Cedrela 16, 19, 98 

Ceiba 39; aesculifolia 11, 19, 26, 35, 37, 

40, 81, 102; pentandra 17, 102 
Celaenodendron mexicanum 19, 99 
Celastraceae 100 
Celastrus pringlei 72, 74, 100 
Celtis 32, 34; iguanaea 14, 29, 33, 93; 

monoica 11, 19, 69, 81, 93; pallida 34, 

38, 52, 54, 93 
Centaur ium 43, 106 
Cephalocereus 27, 103 
Ceratophyllaceae 94 
Ceratophyllum demersum 75, 94 
Cercidium plurifoliolatum 96; praecoxll, 

33, 81, 96 
Cercocarpus macrophyllus 62, 95 
Cestrum 63, 70, 108 

Chamaedorea 70; pochutlensis 20, 27, 89 
Cheilanthes 8, angustifolia 64, 85; farin- 

osa 64, 85; kaulfussii 39, 85; lendigera 

64, 85; myriophylla 39, 85; pyramid- 

alis 64, 85 
Chenopodiaceae 93 
Chenopodium graveolens 54, 93 

Chiococca alba 28, 109 
Chloranthaceae 92 

Chloris virgata 54, 87 

Chusquea 62, 87 

Cissus rhombifolia 78, 101 

Cistaceae 102 

Clematis 65, 72, 94; dioica 21, 94 

Clethra 11, 62, 69, 81, 105; rosei 42, 105 

Clethraceae 105 

Cleyera integrifolia 70, 102 

Clinopodium laevigatum 108; macro ste- 
rnum 108 

Clusia salvinii 69, 102 

Cnidoscolus 19, 99; tepiquensis 22, 27, 
99; tubulosus 14, 19, 22, 27, 99 

Coccocypselum hirsutum 43, 109 

Coccoloba barbadensis 13, 19, 78, 93; 
floribunda 13, 19, 93; jurgenseni 93; 
liebmannii 42, 93 

Cochlospermaceae 103 

Cochlospermum vitifolium 22, 27, 103 

Cocos nucifera 13, 89 

Coleosanthus lanatus 110; spinulosus 110; 

veronicaefolius 110 
Colubrina glomerata 101; triflora 13, 20, 

27, 38, 101 
Combretaceae 104 


104; mexicanum 104 

Commelina 20, 90; coelestis 64, 90, var. 
bourgeaui 90; dianthifolia 64, 90; scab- 

ra 48, 51, 90 
Commelinaceae 90 
Comocladia 19, 100; engleriana 26, 100 

Compos itae 110 

Connaraceae 95 

Conocarpus erecta 77, 104 

Conostegia 70, 104; xalapensis 22, 42,104 

Convolvulaceae 106 

Conzattia multiflora 19, 27, 96 

Cordia alba 107; alliodora 13, 19, 22, 27, 
107; cana 28, 38, 107; dentata 33, 107 
elaeagnoides 19, 33, 107; globosa 38 
107; inermis 38; 107; oaxacana 38,107 
pringlei 42, 107; prunifolia 70, 107 
seleriana 19, 27, 107; sonorae 27, 107 

Coriaria thymifolia 63, 100 

Coriariaceae 100 

Cornaceae 105 

Cornus disciflora 63, 69, 70, 74, 105; ex- 
celsa 70, 105 

Corythea filipes 99 

Cosmos carvifolius 63, 110; crithmifolius 

63, 110; exiguus 64, 110 
Costus 20, 91 
Couepia polyandra 19, 95 
Coulterophytum laxum 63, 105 
Coursetia mollis 28, 96 
Coussapoa purpusii 19, 93 
Coutarea latiflora 109; pterosperma 109 
Cowania mexicana 46, 95 
Cracca aletes 20, 96 
Crataegus mexicana 63, 95; pubescens68, 

Crataeva tapia 27, 33, 95 
Crescentia alata 11, 33, 41, 81, 108; cuj- 

ete 41 
Crotalaria filifolia 64, 96; sagittalis 43, 

Croton adspersus 38, 99; alamosanus 32, 
99; ciliato-glanduliferus 29, 38, 99; 
ciliato-glandulosus 99; cladotrichus 99; 



draco 19, 99; flavescens 28, 38, 99; 
fragilis 28, 99; incanus 38, 99; mori- 
folius 38,99; pseudoniveus 28, 99; re- 
flexifolius 22, 99; rcpens 43, 62, 99; 
suberosus 28, 99 

Cruciferae 95 

Crusea 48, 64, 109 

Cryosophila nana 20, 89 

Ctenium plumosum 43, 87 

Cucurbitaceae 110 
Cunila 62, 107 

Cupania glabra 13, 19, 101 

Cuphea 67, 104; hooker iana 43, 104; jor- 

ullensis 64, 104; llavea 43, 64, 104; 

lobophora 43, 104; procumbens 75, 104 
Cupressaceae 86 
Cupressus 55, 56; benthamii 86; lindleyi 

62, 74, 86 

Curatella 43, 61; americana 11, 41, 42, 
81, 102 

Cybistax 16; donnell-smithii 19, 108 
Cycadaceae 85 

Cyclanthera 65, 110 

Cydista aequinoctialis 21, 108 

Cynoctonum mitreola 43, 106 

Cynoglossum pringlei 63, 107 

Cynometra oaxacana 20, 96 

Cyperaceae 88 

Cyperus albomarginatus 75, 88; apiculatus 

64,88; esculentus 75,88; flavus 64, 88; 
giganteus 75, 88; hermaphroditus 64, 
88; laevigatus 75, 88; manimae 64, 88; 
mutisii 64, 88; odoratus 75, 88; orbi- 
cephalus 64,88; semiochraceus 76, 89; 
seslerioides 48, 51, 64, 89; spectabilis 
48, 64, 89; subnodosus 76, 89 

Cyrtocarpa procera 22, 26, 100 

Cystopteris 72; fragilis 85 

Dahlia coccinea 64, 110; pinnata 63, 74 


Dalea 48, 96; pectinata 64,96; tuberculata 

39, 46, 96 
Dalembertia populifolia 28, 99 
Daphnopsis mexiae 70, 104 
Dasylirion 62, 90; parryanum 46, 90 
Dendropanax arboreus 13, 19, 69, 105 
Dosmanthodium fruticosum 62, 70, 110 
Desmodium 20, 28, 39,67, 96; cordistipu- 

lum 64,96; jaliscanum 62,96; occiden- 

tale 64, 96; plicatum 62, 96 
Dichondra argentea 48, 51, 106 
Dichromena 76, 89 
Diectomis fastigiata 43, 87 
Dilleniaceac 102 
Diodia 43, 109 
Dioscorea 29, 39, 65, 91 
Dioscoreaceae 91 

Dipholis minutiflora 19, 69, 105 
Diphysa 42, 67, 97; suberosa 28, 33, 97 
Distichlis spicata 52, 87 

Distichtis rovirosana 108 
Dodonaea viscosa 42, 46, 67, 101 
Donnellsmithia peucedanoides 64, 105 

Dorstenia 20, 67, 93; drakena 27, 93 

Doxantha unguis-cati 28, 108 

Draba jorullensis 66, 95 

Dry mar ia 63, 94 

Drymonia 21, 109 

Dryopteris 8, 72, 85; patula 64, 85 

Drypetes lateriflora 19, 99 

Dyschoriste decumbens 48, 109; hirsutis- 

sima 28, 109 
Dyssodia cancellata 54, 110; papposa 48, 

54, 110; setifolia 54, 110 

Echeandia 48, 90 

Echinochloa colonum 76, 87; crus-galli 

76, 87; holciformis 76, 87 
Echinodorus andrieuxii 76, 86 

Echinofossulocactus 46, 103 
Echites 106 

Eichhornia azurea 75,90; crassipes 75,90 
Elaphoglossum 70, 85 

Elaphrium bipinnatum 98; excelsum 98; 

fagaroides 98; grandifolium 98; jorul- 

lense 98; kerberi 98; multijugum 98; 

odoratum 98; penicillatum 98; sima- 

ruba 98; simplicifolium 98 
Eleocharis caribaea 76, 89; densa 76, 89; 

dombeyana 76, 89; macrostachya 76, 89; 

montevidensis 76, 89; quadrangulata 76, 


Elephantopus mollis 43, 110 
Elytraria squamosa 28, 43, 109 
Enneapogon desvauxii 54, 87 
Entada polystachia 21, 28, 78, 97 
Enterolobium 16; cyclocarpum 11, 13, 16, 
17, 19, 27, 81, 97 

Epidendrum barker iola 21, 91; chinense 
21, 91; concolor 65, 91; nemorale 65, 

Epiphyllum anguliger 70, 103 

Eragrostis 39, 51; bahiensis 76, 87; cili- 
anensis 54, 87; may pur ens is 43, 87; 
obtusiflora 52, 87 

Ericaceae 105 

Erigeron 111; karvinskianus 64, 110 

Eriocaulaceae 89 

Eriocaulon benthamii 76, 89; ehrenber- 

gianum 76, 89 

Eriosema 97; diffusum 64, 97 

Erioxylum palmeri 27, 102 

E rye ina echinata 21, 91 

Eryngium beecheyanum 64, 105; deppean- 

um 63, 105; globosum 63, 66, 105; gra- 
cile 63, 105; heterophyllum 48, 105 
Erythrina 67, 97; lanata 27, 97 

Erythrodes querceticola 70, 91 
Erythroxylaceae 98 

Erythroxylon 33; mexicanum 28, 98; pal- 
lidum 28, 98 

Escobedia laevis 76, 108 
Esenbeckia berlandieri 19, 98 

Eugenia acapulcensis 14, 104; crenularis 
70, 104; culminicola 70, 74, 104; mi- 
choacanensis 19, 104; oaxacana 104; 
pleurocarpa 28, 104; rekoi 19, 104; 



salamensis 19, 104; tomentulosa 104 
Eupatorium areolare 62, 70, 74, 111; 
bertholdii var. stenophyllum 62, 111; 
brevipes 64, 111; calaminthifolium 62, 
111; collinum 38, 62, 70, 111; maire- 
tianum 63, 74, 111; pazcuarense 66, 
111; quadrangulare 14, 20, 111; tepi- 
canum 20, 62, 70, 111 
Euphorbia 64; biformis 48, 64, 99; cam- 
pestris 66,99; colletioides 28,99; den- 
tata 39,54,99; fulva 19,37,99; graminea 

39, 99; heterophylla 28, 39, 99; hirta 
39, 99; humayensis 28,99; hyssopifolia 
39, 99; indivisa 39, 99; paludicola 76, 
100; potosina 48, 54, 100; pulcherrima 
20,100; schlechtendalii 28,100; sphae- 
rorhiza 48, 100; stictospora 54, 100; 
subreniformis 43,100; thymifolia 43,100 

Euphorbiaceae 99 

Euphrosyne partheniifolia 76, 111 

Eurya mexicana 102 

Evolvulus alsinoides 43, 48, 106; prostra- 
tus 48, 106; rotundifolius 48, 106; ser- 

iceus 48, 106 
Exogonium bracteatum 28, 106 
Exostema caribaeum 28, 109 
Exothea copalillo 19, 101 

Eysenhardtia polystachya 11, 37-40, 46, 

50, 51, 53, 54, 62, 81, 97 

Fagaceae 92 

Fagus mexicana 69 

Ferocactus melocactiformis 46, 103 

Festuca 66; amplissima 68,87; tolucensis 

66, 87 
Ficus 11, 16, 76,81; cotinifolia 19,27, 62, 

93; glabrata 13,17, 19,93; glaucescens 

13, 19,93; involuta 17,19, 93; lentigin- 

osa 13, 19, 93; mexicana 19, 93; padi- 

folia 13, 17, 19, 93; petiolaris 37, 40, 

93; segoviae 93 
Fimbristylis dichotoma 76, 89; miliacea 

76, 89 
Flacourtiaceae 103 
Florestina pedata 28, 39, 111 
Forchhammeria pallida 19, 22, 26, 33,95; 

sessilifolia 14, 95 
Forestiera 11, 81; phillyreoides 38, 40, 

46, 50, 106; tomentosa 38, 40, 106 
Fouquieria formosa 38, 39, 102 
Fouquieriaceae 102 
Franseria 54, 111 
Fraxinus uhdei 62, 69, 106 
Froelichia interrupta 54, 93 
Fuchsia arborescens 70, 104; chiapensis 

104; decidua 70, 104; fulgens 70, 104; 

michoacanensis 63, 70, 74, 104; mi- 

crophylla 63, 74, 104; minutiflora 104; 

pringlei 63, 104; thymifolia 63, 74, 104 

Galipea 20, 98 

Galium 64, 109 

Garcia nutans 14, 100 

Garrya laurifolia62, 74, 105; ovata 63,105 

Gaudichaudia subverticillata 48, 99 

Gentianaceae 106 

Geraniaceae 97 

Geranium deltoideum 63, 97; seemannii 

63, 97; vulcanicola 66, 97 

Gesneriaceae 109 

Gilibertia arborea 105 

Gliricidia sepium 22, 97 

Gnaphalium 64, 111; vulcanicum 66, 111 

Godmania aesculifolia 13, 108 

Gomphrena decumbens 39, 48, 51, 54, 93 
Gouaniapolygama22,101; stipularis 22,101 

Gramineae 86 

Grindelia oxylepis 51, 111 

Guaiacum coulter i 27, 33, 98 

Guardiola mexicana 63, 111 

Guarea excelsa 13, 19, 98 

Guazurna ulmifolia 22, 27, 35, 37, 102 

Guttiferae 102 

Gymnanthes actinostemoides 69, 100 

Gymnosperma glutinosum 54, 111 

Gyrocarpus americanus 22, 27, 95 

Habenariaclypeata 63,91; entomantha 63,91 

Hackelochloa granularis 39, 87 
Haematoxylon brasiletto 11, 33, 81, 97 
Halimium glomeratum 102 
Hamamelidaceae 95 
Hamelia versicolor 22, 28, 109; xorullen- 

sis 20, 109 
Haplopappus venetus 46, 54, 111 

Haplophyton cimicidum 28, 106 

Hedyosmum artocarpus 92; mexicanum 

70, 92 

Helianthemum glomeratum 46, 64, 102 

Heliconia 20, 91 

Helicteres guazumifolia 14, 22, 102 
Heliocarpus 27, 101; occidentalis 19, 22, 
101; pallidus 19, 22, 101; terebintha- 

ceus 35, 37, 38, 39, 101 
Heliocereus speciosus 70, 103 

Heliopsis procumbens 63, 111 

Henry a 21, 28, 109 

Hernandiaceae 95 

Heteranthera limosa 76, 90; peduncular is 

76, 90; reniformis 76, 90 
Heterocentron mexicanum 63, 104 
Heteropogon contortus 39, 43, 47, 52, 87; 

melanocarpus 52, 87 
Heteropteris laurifolia 21,28,99; palmer i 

21, 28, 99 
Heterosperma pinnatum 39, 48, 51, 111 
Hibiscus bifurcatus 20,102; tiliaceus 78,102 

Hieracium abscissum 63, 111; fendleri 

63, 111 
Hilar ia 67, 87; cenchroides 11, 39, 50, 

81, 87; ciliata28, 64, 87 
Hintonia latiflora 28, 109; standleyana 28, 

Hippocratea acutiflora 101; elliptica 101; 

rovirosae 101; utilis 101; volubilis 21, 

28, 101 
Hippocrateaceae 101 
Hippomane mancinella 78, 100 



Hirtella racemosa 20, 95 
Holodiscus argenteus 63, 74, 95 
Hura 16; polyandra 11, 17, 19, 81, 100 
Hybanthus 21, 103; mexicanus 14, 20, 

103; serrulatus 20, 28, 103; yucatan- 

ensis 14, 20, 103 
Hydrochloa caroliniensis 76, 87 
Hydrocotyle umbellata 76, 105; verticil - 

lata var. triradiata 76, 105 
Hygrophila pringlei 64, 109 

Hymenachne amplexicaulis 76, 87 
Hymenaca courbaril 19, 97 

Hymenostephium microcephalum 63, 70, 
74, 111 

Hyperbaena denticulata 94; ilicifolia 14. 

20, 28, 94 
Hypericum 51, 64, 102 
Hypoxis decumbens 48, 64, 91 
Hyptis albida 38, 39, 40, 67, 107; rhytidea 

38, 107; stellulata 107 

Icacorea compressa 105; revoluta 105 
Icica serrata 98 

Ilex brandegeana 62, 69, 71, 100 

Inga eriocarpa 19, 62, 70, 97; laurina 19, 
70, 97; oophylla 19, 97 

Inodes rosei 89 

Iostephane heterophylla 64, 111 

Ipomoea 11, 27. 29, 37, 38, 39, 65, 81, 
107; costellata 48, 106; intrapilosa 27, 
35, 37, 38, 39, 107; murucoides 38, 40, 
107; stans 39, 48, 51, 107; wolcottiana 

27, 107 

Iresine schaffneri 39, 93 
Iridaceae 91 

Isoetes mexicana 76, 85 


Jacobinia 21, 109; roseana 20, 109 

Jacquinia aurant iaca 22, 28, 33. 

pungens 27, 34, 105 

Jaegeria hirta 63, 111; macrocephala 63, 

Jatropha cordata 25, 26, 35, 38, 40, 100; 
curcas var. rufus 27, 100; dioica 39, 
46, 100; peltata 19, 27, 28, 100; platy- 
phylla 100; spathulata 100; sympetela 
27, 100; tubulosa 99 

Juglandaceae 92 

Juglans major var. glabrata 62, 69, 92; 
olanchana var. standleyi 69, 92; pyri- 
formis 92 

Julianaceae 100 

Juncaceae 90 

Juncus balticus var. mexicanus 76, 90; 

effusus 76, 90; microcephalus 76. 

Juniperus 55; deppeana 62, 86; flaccida 

62, 86; mexicana 86; monticola f . com- 

pacta 66, 86; pachyphloea 86 
Jussiaea bonariensis 76, 104; repens var. 

peploides 76, 104 

Kallstroemia 39, 54, 98 

Karwinskia humboldtiana 34, 38, 54, 101 

Kohleria elegans 70, 109 
Kostelctskya paniculata 48, 102 
Krameria secundiflora 48, 97 
Ky 11 inga odorata 48, 89 

Labiatae 107 

Laelia autumnal is 65, 91; furfuracea 65, 

91; sawyeri 21, 91 
Lagascea decipiens 28, 38, 111 
Lagrezia monosperma 34, 93 
Laguncularia racemosa 77, 104 

Lamourouxia multifida 64, 108; viscosa 
64, 108 

Lantana 29, 107; achyranthifolia 39, 107; 

camara 38, 107; frutilla 39, 107 
Lasiacis 67; divaricata 27, 38, 87; pro- 

cerrima43, 87; ruscifolia 20, 27, 87; 

sorgho idea 63, 87 

Lasiarrhenum strigosum 63, 107 
Lasiocarpus 27, 99 
Lauraceae 94 
Leersia hexandra 76, 87 
Leguminosae 96 

Lemaireocereus 20, 27,32, 34, 35,38, 39, 

40, 54, 103 

Lemna gibba 75, 89; perpusilla 75, 89; 

valdiviana 75, 89 
Lemnaceae 89 

Lentibulariaceae 109 
Leptochloa dubia 54, 87 

Leucaena esculenta 37, 97; glauca 27, 37, 

Leucopremna mexicana 103 

Liabum caducifolium 22,27, 111; glabrum 
var. hypoleucum 22,27,38, 111; pring- 
lei 38, 111 

Licaria cervantesii 19, 94 

Lilaea scilloides 76, 86 

Lilaeaccae 86 

Liliaceae 90 

Lindernia anagallidea 76, 108 

Lippia ligustrina 107; umbellata 70, 107 

Liquidambar styraciflua 69 

Litsea glaucescens 63, 94 

Lobelia cardinalis 76, 110; jaliscensis 64, 

110; laxiflora 63, 110 
Loeselia amplectens 64, 107; coerulea 48, 

107; mexicana 64, 107 
Loganiaceae 106 

Lonchocarpus 11,81; constr ictus 20, 27, 97; 
eriocarinalis 26,97; lanceolatus 26, 97 

Loniccra pilosa 65, 72, 109 
Loranthaceae 93 

Lotus oroboides 48, 97; repens 64, 97 
Lucuma palmeri 106 
Luehea Candida 19, 101 

Lupinus montanus 66, 97; squamecaulis 
66, 97 

Luziola gracillima 76, 87 

Luzula racemosa 66, 90 

Lycurus phleoides 47, 51, 54, 87 

Lysiloma 39; acapulcensis 22, 26, 35, 37, 

40, 97; divaricata 11, 16, 19, 26, 37, 

40, 81, 97; tergemina27, 33, 97 



Lythraceae 104 
Lythrum gracile 76, 104 

Macromeria exserta 64, 107; longiflora 

64, 107 
Macrosiphonia hypoleuca 48, 106 
Magnolia schiedeana 69, 94 

Magnoliaceae 94 

Malaxis 64, 91 

Malpighia mexicana 28, 99; ovata 28, 99 

Malpighiaceae 99 

Malvaceae 102 

Malvaviscus arboreus 20, 102 

Mammillaria 46, 103 

Mandevilla foliosa 38, 106; subsagittata 
21, 106 

Manihot caudata 38, 40, 100; tomatophylla 

33, 100 

Maranta 21; arundinacea 27, 91 

Marantaceae 91 

Marathrum elegans 75, 95 

Margaranthus solanaceus 39, 108 

Margaritaria nobilis 20, 100 

Marsdenia 29, 106 

Marsilea fournieri 75, 85; mexicana 75, 


Mastichodendron angustifolium 19, 106; 

capiri 19, 27, 106 
Matudaea trinervia 69, 95 
Maximilianea vitifolia 103 
Meibomia jaliscana 96; plicata 96 
Melampodium 39, 111; montanum 64, 111; 

sericeum 51, 111 

Melastomataceae 104 

Meliaceae 98 

Meliosma dentata 11, 69, 74, 81, 101 

Menispermaceae 94 
Mexianthus mexicanus 43, 111 
Miconia 70, 104; albicans 42, 104 

Microchloa kunthii 47, 51, 87 

Micropleura renifolia 64, 105 

Milla biflora 48, 90 

Mimosa 67, aculeaticarpa 68, 97; biuncif- 
era 11, 46, 54, 81, 97; monancistra 11, 
38, 40, 50, 51, 53, 54, 81, 97; pigra 76, 
78, 97 

Minkelersia galactoides 65, 97 

Misanteca jurgensenii 94 

Mitrocereus militaris 33, 103 

Monimiaceae 94 

Monnieria 21; trifolia 98 

Monnina wrightii 48, 99; xalapensis 63, 
70, 74, 99 

Monochaetum 74, 104 

Monstera 21; deliciosa 89 

Montanoa myriocephala 38, 111; pyrami- 
data 38, 111 

Moraceae 93 

Morisonia americana 14, 27, 33, 95 

Muhlenbergia 11, 81; dumosa 64, 87; 
grandis 52, 87; leptoura 64, 87; mac- 
roura 65, 87; quadridentata 66, 88; 
repens 47, 51, 88; rigida 39, 44, 47, 
50, 52, 54, 65, 88; robusta 52, 88; 

speciosa 43, 88; stricta 39, 52, 88; 
tenuifolia 54, 88 

Muntingia calabura 22, 101 

Musaceae 91 

Myrica mexicana 69, 70, 92 

Myricaceae 92 

Myriocarpa longipes 22, 92 

Myroxylon flexuosum 103; velutinum 103 

Myrsinaceae 105 

Myrtaceae 104 

Myrtillocactus geometrizans 35, 38, 40, 

49. 103 

Najadaceae 86 

Najas guadalupensis 75, 86 

Nectandra perdubia 13, 94 

Nemastylis tenuis 48, 51, 91 

Neogoezia planipetala 65, 105 

Neptunia prostrata 75, 97 

Nissolia 29, 39, 97; fruticosa 28, 97; nel- 

soni 97 
Nocca decipiens 111 
Nolina watsonii 47, 90 
Nopalea 28, 103 
Notholaena 8; aurea 39, 85; brachypus 28, 

85; sinuata 39, 85 
Nothoscordum bivalve 48, 90 
Notoptera tequilana 28, 38, 111 
Nyctaginaceae 94 
Nymphaea ampla 75, 94 
Nymphaeaceae 94 

Nymphoides humboldtianum 75, 106 
Nyssa sylvatica 69 

Ochnaceae 102 

Odontoglossum 65, 91 
Odontonema 21, 109 

Olacaceae 93 

Oleaceae 106 

Olivaea tricuspis 76, 111 

Olyra latifolia 20, 88 

Onagraceae 104 

Oncidium 65, 70, 91; liebmannii 21, 91 

Onoseris onoseroides 20, 111 

Ophryosporus 43, 111 

Opiliaceae 93 

Opizia stolonifera 28, 88 

Oplismenus 21; burmannii 28, 43, 88; 
hirtellus 65, 88; rariflorus 27, 88 

Opuntia 33, 40, 52; durangensis 49, 103; 
fuliginosa 11, 29, 34, 38, 39, 40, 50, 51, 
81, 103; guilanchi 11, 38,50, 53, 54, 
81, 103; leucotricha 49, 54, 103; ro- 
busta 46, 50, 54,103; streptacantha 11, 

40, 46, 49, 50, 53, 54, 81, 103 

Orbignya cohune portada, 11-14, 16-19, 
22, 81, 89 

Orchidaceae 91 

Oreopanax echinops 70, 105; peltatus 70, 
105; salviniil05; xalapensis 69,70,105 
Oserya coulter iana 75, 95 
Osmanthus americanus 69, 106 
Ostrya guatemalensis 92; virginiana 69- 

71, 74, 92 



Ouratea mexicana 14, 102 
Oxalidaceae 97 

Oxalis 28, 48, 64, 65, 97; hernandesii 43, 


Oxandra lanceolata subsp. marcocarpa20, 

Oxypappus seemannii 43, 65, 111 

Pachycereus chrysomallus 103; pecten- 

aboriginum 33, 103 
Palmae 89 
Panicum 43; albomaculatum 65, 88; bul- 

bosum 65, 88; hians 76, 88; trichoides 

43, 88 

Papaveraceae 95 

Parathesis 20, 70, 105 

Parosela pectinata 96; tuber culata 96; 

Parsons ia hooker iana 104; jorullensis 104; 

llavea 104; lobophora 104 
Parthenium bip inn at if id urn 54,111; incan- 

urn 54, 111 
Parthenocissus quinquefolia 65, 72, 101 
Paspalum 39, 52, 65,67; distichum 76,88; 

lividum 76, 88; longicuspe 76,88; mul- 

ticaule 43, 88; notatum 43, 88; plicatu- 

lum 43, 76, 88; pubiflorum 76, 88; vir- 

gatum 76, 88 
Passiflora 29, 103 
Passifloraceae 103 
Paullinia fuscescens 21, 101; sessiliflora 

21, 28, 101; tomentosa 28, 101 
Pavonia palmeri 20, 102 

Pectis dichotoma 43, 111; prostrata 39. 
48, 54, 111 

Pedilanthus aphyllus 100; calcaratus 20, 

100; palmeri 20, 100 
Pellaea 8, 85; ternifolia 39, 85 
Pennisetum setosum 43, 88 
Penstemon 108; campanulatus 64, 66,108; 

kunthii 64, 108 

Pentarrhaphis polymorpha 39, 52, 88 
Peperomia 21, 91; galioides 65, 91; um- 

bilicata 65, 91 
Pereskiopsis rotund ilolia 27, 103 
Perezia wislizenii 65, 111 
Pernettya ciliata 63, 66, 74, 105 
Perrottetia longistylis 70, 100 
Persea 19, 70, 94 

Perymenium buphthalmoides 65, 111; 
mendezii 38, 111; parvifolium 46, 111; 


rosei 48, 111; subsquarrosum 38, 111 
Petastoma patelliferum 21, 108 
Phaeosphaerion 21, 90 

Phaseolus 29,97; heterophyllus 39,48,51, 

97; strobilophorus 65, 97 
Phenax hirtus 74, 92 
Philadelphus mexicanus 72, 95 
Philodendron 65, 89; polytomum 21, 89; 

radiatum 21, 89; tripartitum 72, 89 
Phoebe arsenii 19, 95; ehrenbergii 70, 95 
Phoradendron commutatum 42, 93 
Photinia oblongifolia 70, 95 
Phyllanthus acidus 100; acuminatus 20, 

28, 100; elsiae 78,100; micrandrus 22, 

100; mocinianus 28, 100; nobilis 100 

Phyllonoma laticuspis 70, 95 

Phy sodium corymbosum 27, 102 

Phytolaccaceae 94 

Picramnia antidesma 14, 20, 98 
Pinaceae 86 

Pinaropappus roseus 48, 111 

Pinguicula moranensis 64, 109 

Pinus 11, 81; ayacahuite 60, 86; cembroi- 

des 55, 60, 86; chihuahuana 60, 86; 

douglasiana 60, 86; hartwegii 60,66,74, 

86; leiophylla 60,86; lumholtzii 60, 86; 

michoacana 60,86; montezumae 60,86; 

oocarpa 56, 59, 60, 86; pseudostrobus 

60, 70, 74, 86 
Piper 14, 91; brachypus 20, 91; jalapense 

20,91; jaliscanum 20,91; tuberculatum 

20, 22,91; uhdei 20,70,91; umbellatum 
20, 91 

Piperaceae 91 

Piptadenia constricta 20, 22, 27, 97 
Piptochaetium fimbriatum 65, 88 

Piptothrix jaliscensis 63, 111 

Piqueria trinervia 48, 51, 111 

Pisonia aculeata 14, 29, 94 

Pistacia mexicana 27, 100 

Pistia stratiotes 75, 89 

Pitcairnia karwinskyana 65, 90 

Pithecellobium 42; acatlense 38,97; dulce 
11, 29, 31, 32, 34, 81, 97; lanceolatum 
14, 17, 33, 78, 97, leptophyllum 46, 97 

Pithecoctenium echinatum 28, 108 

Platanus 76 

Platymiscium trifoliolatum 20, 97 

Pleurothallis 65, 91 

Pluchea odorata 76, 78, 111 

Plumbaginaceae 105 

Plumbago pulchella 54, 105 

Plumeria rubra 20, 27, 38, 40, 106 

Podachaenium eminens 63, 111 

Podocarpus reichei 70, 74, 86 

Podophania dissecta 28, 111 

Podopterus mexicanus 32, 33, 93 

Podostemaceae 95 

Poeppigia procera 20, 97 

Polemoniaceae 107 

Polianthes graminifolia 48, 91 

Poly gala 48, 99; angustiiolia 43, 99; glo- 
chidiata 51, 99; gracillima 65, 99; 

longicaulis 43, 99 
Polygalaceae 99 
Polygonaceae 93 

Polygonum portoricense 76, 93; punctatum 
76, 93 

Polymnia maculata 64, 111 

Polypodium 8,70,85; angustifolium 65, 85; 
angustum 65, 85; furfuraceum 65, 85; 
madrense 65, 85; thyssanolepis 39, 85 

Pontederiaceae 90 

Porophyllum nutans 38, 65, 111; punctat- 
um 28, 43, 111; viridiflorum 63, 111 

Portulacaceae 94 

Posoqueria latifolia 19, 109 

Potamogcton diversifolius 75, 86; nodosus 



75, 86; pusillus 75, 86 
Potentilla richardii 66, 95 
Pouteria campechiana var. palmeri 19, 

Pouzolzia palmeri 28, 92 

Priva mexicana 39, 107 
Prochnyanthes viridescens 65, 91 
Prosopis 49,52; juliflora 78,97; laevigata 

11, 31, 33, 34, 46, 50, 54, 81, 97 

Prunus 11, 81; capuli 95; cortapico 70, 
95; rhamnoides 70,95; serotina 62, 95; 
virens 95 

Pseudosmodingium perniciosum 25, 26, 

Psidium guajava 22, 104; sartorianum 20, 

Psychotria 20, 109 

Ptelea trifoliata 38, 98 

Pteridium aquilinum 64, 85 

Pteridophyta 85 

Pterolepis pumila 43, 104 

Quamoclit 29, 107 

Quassia amara 14, 20, 22, 98 

Quercus 11, 42, 56, 57, 61, 71, 81; acuti- 
folia 11, 57, 70, 81,92; aristata42, 61, 
67, 92; candicans 62, 74, 92; castanea 
57, 62, 74, 92; coccolobifolia 61, 92; 
crassifolia 62, 74, 92; depressipes 61, 
92; eduardi 61, 92; elliptica 62, 70, 92; 
gentry i 62, 92; glaucoides 62, 92; 
grisea 61, 92; insignis 70, 92; laurina 
11, 61, 74, 81, 92; laxa 62, 70, 92; 
macrophylla 42, 55, 60, 61, 67, 92; 
mexicana 61, 92; obtusata 61,92; plan- 
ipocula 61, 70, 92; potosina 55, 61, 92; 
rugosa 61, 92; salicifolia 62, 70, 92 

scytophylla 70, 92 

Ramirezella strobilophora 97 

Randia 27, 34, 42, 109; armata 14, 22, 

109; cinerea 22, 27, 109; mitis 42,109; 

watsonii 38, 109 
Ranunculaceae 94 
Ranunculus macranthus 65, 94; petiolaris 

65, 94 
Rapanea 74, 105; ferruginea 70, 105 

Rauwolfia canescens 106; hirsuta 14, 22, 

78, 106 
Recchia mexicana 28, 98 
Rhamnaceae 101 
Rhamnus mucronata 62, 101 
Rhizophora mangle 11, 77, 81, 104 
Rhizophoraceae 104 
Rhus allophylloides 63, 70, 74, 100; radi- 

cans 65, 72, 100; trilobata 100 
Rhynchelytrum roseum 39, 51, 52, 88 

Rhynchosia 29, 39, 97 

Ribes ciliatum 63, 66, 74, 95 

Rivina humilis 28, 94 

Robinsonella 20, 102 

Rondeletia buddleioides 70, 109 

Rosaceae 95 

Rotala dentifera 76, 104 

Rourea glabra 21, 22, 95 
Rubiaceae 109 
Rubus 65, 95 

Ruellia 21, 28, 65, 67, 109; albiflora 34, 
109; bourgaei 65,109; jaliscana 20,109 
Rumfordia floribunda 63, 70, 74, 111 
Ruppia maritima 75, 86 
Ruprechtia fusca 20, 22, 27, 32, 33, 93; 

pallida 27, 32, 93 
Russelia tepicensis 43, 108 
Rutaceae 98 

Sabal pumos 13, 89; rosei 13, 22, 27, 89 
Sabiaceae 101 
Sacciolepis myuros 76, 88 
Sageretia elegans 38, 101 
Sagittaria 76, 86; latifolia 76, 86 
Saldanhaea seemanniana 21, 28, 108 

Salicaceae 92 

Salix bonplandiana 62, 70, 76, 92; chilen- 

s is 17, 62, 76, 78,92; humboldtiana 92; 

oxylepis 74, 92; taxifolia 76, 92 
Salpianthus 21, 94 
Salvia chapalensis 63, 74, 107; cinnabar- 



65, 107; hyptoides 65,107; iodantha 63, 
74, 107; lasiocephala43, 107; lavandu- 
loides 65,107; longistyla 74,107; mex- 
icana 64, 74, 107; polystachia 63, 108; 
purpurea 63, 74, 108; reflexa 54, 108; 
thyrsiflora 63, 108; xalapensis 65, 108 
Sanvitalia ocymoides 51,111; procumbens 

39, 111 
Sapindaceae 101 
Sapindus saponaria 22, 27, 101 
Sapium pedicellatum 20, 22, 27, 100 

Sapotaceae 105 
Sarcococca conzattii 74, 100 
Satureia macrostema 63, 74, 108 
Saurauia reticulata 102; serrata 70, 102 
Saurauiaceae 102 

Saxifragaceae 95 

Schaefferia frutescens 20, 100 

Schkuhria anthemo idea var. wislizeni 51, 



Scirpus americanus 52, 89; olneyi 76, 89; 

validus 76, 89 
Scrophulariaceae 108 
Sebastiana corniculata 43, 100; jaliscen- 

sis 70, 100 
Sechiopsis 39, triquetra 110 
Securidaca diversifolia 21, 99 

Selaginella 8, 39, 85 
Selenicereus vagans 29, 103 
Semeiandra grandiflora 28, 104 
Senecio albonervius 63, 74, 112; anguli- 
folius 63, 74, 112; barba-johannis 74, 
112; callosus 64, 66, 112; guadalajar- 
ensis 65, 112; salignus 68, 112; stoe- 
chadiformis 68,112; toluccanus 66,112 
Sericotheca fissa 95 
Serjania 29, 101 



Setaria geniculata 39, 51, 54, 88 

Setariopsis latiglumis 28, 88 

Seymeria virgata 65, 108 

Sibthorpia pichinchensis 64, 108 

Sicyos 65, 110 

Sida linifolia 43, 102; urens 43, 102 

Sideroxylon angustifolium 106; capiri 106 

Simarubaceae 98 

Siparima nicaraguensis 70, 94 

Sisyrinchium 48, 64, 65, 91 

Smilax domingensis 65, 90; mexicana 90; 

moranensis 65, 72, 90; pringlei 72, 90; 

spinosa 21, 90 
Solanaceae 108 
Solandra nitida 21, 72, 108 
Solarium 65, 108; append iculatum 65, 108 

bicolor 14, 108; brachystachys 70,108 

cervantesii 74, 108; lentum 74, 108 

nudum 63, 108 
Sorghastrum incompletum 39, 52, 88 
Sphacele pinetorum 63, 108 
Spigelia 21, 106; scabrolla 65, 106 
Spiranthes aurantiaca 65, 91; michuacana 

48, 91 
Spirodcla polyrhiza 75, 89 
Spondias mombin 100; purpurea 22, 26. 


Sporobolus pyramidatus 52, 88; splendens 

76, 88 

Stachys coccinea 64, 108 
Staphyleaceae 101 
Stellar ia cuspidata 64, 94 
Stemmadenia palmeri 106; tomentosavar. 

palmeri 22, 27, 38, 39, 106 
Stemodia bartsioides 76, 108 
Stenandrium 48, 109 
Sterculiaceae 102 

Stevia 67; alatipes 65, 112; elongata 65, 
66, 112; glandulosa 63, 112; lucida 63, 
66, 74, 112; micrantha 48, 112; pur- 
purea 48, 112; serrata 44, 48,51, 112; 
subpubescens 63, 70, 112; viscida 51, 
65, 112 

Stipa eminens 54, 88 

Struthanthus grahamii 42, 93; venetus 34, 
78, 93 

Strychnos brachistantha 21, 106; pana- 
mensis 21, 106; tepicensis 106 

Stylosanthes subsericea 43, 97 

Styracaccae 106 

Sty rax 11, 81; argenteus 70, 106; rami- 
rezii 70, 74, 106 

Swartzia nitida 108; ochnacea 13, 20, 97 

Swietenia 16; humilis 19, 98 

Symphoricarpos microphyllus 63, 74, 109 
Symplocaceae 106 

Symplococarpon hintonii 70, 102 
Symplocos prionophylla 11, 70, 

74, 81 

Syngonium 72, 89; podophyllum 21, 89 

28, 106 
Tagetes 51, 112; elongata 39, 112; lucida 

39, 48, 51, 65, 112; micrantha 48, 112; 

subulata 65, 112 
Talinum paniculatum 39, 94 
Taonabo pringlei 102 
Taxodiaceae 86 
Taxodium mucronatum 76, 86 
Tecoma stans 38, 39, 108 




Tabebuia 16; donnell-smithii 108; 
meril9, 27, 108; pentaphylla 19 
Tabernaemontana amygdalifolia 20, 22. 



Ternstroemia pringlei 63, 69, 70, 74, 102 
Tetracera volubilis 21, 102 
Tetramerium 39, 109 
Thalia geniculata 76, 91 
Thalictrum pringlei 65, 94 
Theaceae 102 

Theophrastaceae 105 

Thevetia ovata 27, 42, 106; peruviana 14, 

106; plumeriifolia 13, 27, 106 
Thouinia acuminata 20, 22, 26, 101 
Thouinidium decandrum 13, 101 
Thymelaeaceae 104 
Tilia mexicana 69, 70, 101 

Tiliaceae 101 

Tillandsia 21, 34, 70; achyrostachys var. 
stenolepis 29, 90; balbisiana 42, 90; 
bourgaei 65, 90; caput-medusae 21,90; 
ionantha 29,90; juncea 29 , 90; macdoug- 
allii 65, 90; plumosa 65,90; prodigiosa 
65, 90; recurvata 29,34, 38, 50,54, 90; 
rettigiana 65,90; schiedeana 21,29,70, 
90; tenuifolia 29, 90; usneoides 65, 90; 
violacea 65, 90 

Tounatea simplex 97 

Trachypogon montufari 65, 88; secundus 
43, 47, 52, 88 

Tradescantia crassifolia 39, 48, 65, 90 
Tragoceros flavicomum 28, 112; schie- 

deanus 39, 112; zinnioides 39, 112 
Trema micrantha 20, 22, 92 

Trichilia colimana 20, 26, 98; havanensis 

14, 22,98; hirta 13, 27,98; palmeri 20. 

26, 98; trifolia 42, 98 

Tripogandra amplexicaulis 65, 90 

Tripogon spicatus 47, 51, 88 

Tripsacum 28, 88; lanceolatum 47, 88 

Trisetum spicatum 66, 88; virletii 64, 88 

Tristachya avenacea 52, 65,88; hypnoides 
75, 95 

Triumfetta 29, 67, 70, 101; brevipes 38, 
101; paniculata 20, 101; polyandra 22, 

Trixis angustifolia 38, 54, 112; longifolia 
39, 112 

Trophis mexicana 70,93; racemosa 19,93 

Turnera 103; pumilea 43, 103 

Turneraceae 103 

Turpinia occidentalis 70, 101 

Typha 76, 86 

Typhaceae 86 

Ulmaceae 93 
Umbelliferae 105 



Urera baccifera 22,92; caracasana 22, 92 
Urticaceae 92 

Vaccinium geminiflorum 66, 105; steno- 

phyllum 63, 105 
Valeriana ceratophylla 48,109; densiflora 

65, 110; urticifolia 65, 110 
Valerianaceae 109 

Verbena Carolina 65,107; litoralis 76,107 
Verbenaceae 107 
Verbesina crocata 22, 112; greenmanii 63, 

68, 112; klattii 63, 74, 112; liebmannii 

63, 112; serrata 54, 112; sphaeroceph- 

ala 38, 67, 112 
Vernonia mucronata 63, 112; pallens 63, 

112; palmeri 20, 112 

109; elatum 62, 


63, 112; 

Viburnum d is par 63, 


Viguiera 65, 112; a] 

linearis 48, 112; pachycephala 48,112; 

pringlei 63, 112; quinqueradiata 38, 
112; tenuis 43, 112 

Violaceae 103 

Vitaceae 101 

Vitex hemsleyi 20, 107; mollis 27, 38, 62, 

107; pyramidata 42, 107 
Vitis bourgaeana 65, 72, 101; tiliifolia 21, 

28, 72, 101 

Wimmeria confusa 38, 40, 101; persici- 

folia 28, 101 
Woodsia mollis 65, 85 

Xanthosoma 21, 89 

Ximenia amerieana 33, 93; parviflora 63, 


Xylosma flexuosum 14, 22, 103; velutinum 

20, 103 
Xyridaceae 89 
Xyris jupicai 76, 89; mexicana 76, 89 

Yucca decipiens 46, 51, 54, 90 

Zaluzania augusta 54, 112 

Zamia 20, 85 

Zannichellia palustris 75, 86 

Zanthoxylum 74, 98; arborescens 27, 98; 

fagara 22, 29, 38, 98 
Zeugites 21, 88; mexicana 64,88; smilaci- 

folia 64, 88 

Zexmenia ceanothifolia 28, 112; ghies- 
breghtii 112; greggii 38, 68, 112; mac- 
rocephala 38, 43, 112; palmeri 65, 112 

Zingiberaceae 91 

Z innia angus 



• * 

65, 112; greggii 

ana 39, 48, 51, 54, 112 
Zinowiewia concinna 70, 101 
Ziziphus 11, 81; amole 27, 32, 33, 101; 

mexicana 28, 33, 101; sonorensis 101 
Zornia diphylla 43, 48, 51, 97 
Zosteraceae 86 
Zygophyllaceae 98 










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Contributions from the University of Michigan Herb 
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No. 1, was published 30 Sept 

Director, Herbarium of the University 

Michigan, 48104, USA. 

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University of Michigan 


Volume 9, No. 2, pp. 125-203, 26 text-figures, 8 plates 

University Herbarium, University of Michigan 

Ann Arbor, Michigan 



Rogers McVaugh, Editor 

Contributions from the University of Michigan Herbarium, Nos. 1 - 
8, with title-page and cumulative index, are still available. Volume 9, 
No. 1, was published 30 September, 1966. For information address the 
Director, Herbarium of the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 
Michigan, 48104, USA. 



Introduction 127 

General Aspects of the Algal Vegetation: 

Grand Bahama 129 

Grand Cayman 129 

St. Christopher (St. Kitts) 130 

Nevis 131 

Antigua 131 

Montserrat 133 

Dominica 133 

St. Lucia 135 

Barbados 135 

St. Vincent 138 



Grenada 139 

Annotated List of Species 141 

Supplementary Bibliography 189 

Plates and Descriptions 195 

Index to Genera 203 


The Caribbean marine algal flora has interested me at least as long as has that of New 
England. Indeed, stemming from my Florida studies a general manuscript was compiled 
over 40 years ago, and only after many revisions did it appear in print. While revisions 
were in process it became obvious that the distribution of these plants was very poorly 
documented. Many of the early records give no more precise locality than "West Indies", 
or, where an island is mentioned no local site appears. The mainland shores in particular 
have been largely neglected, though Florida, Texas and to some extent the northern coast 
of Brazil have received a little attention. To remedy the lack along these particular coasts 
was beyond my power, but the Antillean chain appealed as offering readier points of 


Useful accounts of the algae of the Bermudas (Collins & Hervey 1917, Howe 1918) 
and the Bahamas (Howe 1920), of the former Danish West Indies (Borgesen 1913-20), of 
the French islands (Maze & Schramm 1870-77, Questel 1951) and of Barbados (Vickers 
1905, 1908) have been published. I have myself made extensive studies of the Bermudian 
marine flora during many visits, and a substantial one of Jamaica. My early knowledge of 
the floras of the other islands had mainly been acquired through study of collections 
made by correspondents. Often these collections were of considerable size, and I have 
reported on them individually, Haiti in particular (1929, 1943). Others were small and 
simply became for the time herbarium records, but all helped document the algal 
distribution accounts significantly. All were incorporated in my general account of the 
tropical marine flora (1960), where there is given a brief historical survey of the marine 
botanical work in the region. Yet, for the most part, the algal records through the Lesser 
Antilles remain scattering, and generally without station records. It was desired to correct 


During the winter seasons of 1966-67-68 several islands were visited and extensive 
collections made. For some of them, as Grenada and Barbados, these are complementary, 
for others, like St Vincent and Bequia, they appear to be the first records of any sort. In 
this paper I include a very few reports of algae from Bermuda and Grand Bahama, as they 
are timely and important, though those islands are out of our general range. A 
considerable number are reported from Grand Cayman also, to supplement collections 
received from G. R. Proctor, but the great majority of the records listed are from the 
Lesser Antilles. An extended report of the algae of Jamaica appeared not long ago 
(Chapman 1961, 1963) and one of the island of Trinidad is known to be in preparation. 
Descriptions of the marine vegetation of the Netherlands islands has recently appeared 
(Vroman 1968). While the listing of algae from the smaller islands is manifestly 
incomplete, and some of the very small ones (Anguilla, Cayman Brae, Carriacou for 
instances) have been neglected, this leaves the large islands of Cuba, Puerto Rico and 
Hispaniola (or at least the Dominican Republic) as major subjects for future study. 

It is not possible to acknowledge individually all who have generously helped with this 
study. Much of my scientific expense was met by a grant from the National Science 
Foundation (GB-3186), for which essential and most welcome help thanks are gratefully 
rendered. This included field and laboratory needs, assistance, and on Barbados research 
space, as well as at the Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, Mass., where time was 
divided between New England studies and this project, for facilitating which its superb 
library was most necessary. For the loan of herbarium material for comparison with my 
collections, hearty thanks are due to the Directors or Curators at the U.S. National 
Museum, the New York Botanical Garden, the University of California at Berkeley, the 


Farlow Herbarium of Harvard University, the Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet, Stockholm, 
the Universitets Botaniska Museum, Lund, the Rijksherbarium, Leiden, the Science 
Museum, Kingston, Jamaica and to many others whose help, though less direct, is equally 
appreciated. For preparing the latin diagnoses I am indebted to Dr. Hannah Croasdale, of 
Dartmouth College. 

The first set of the specimens of algae which I collected in 1966-1967-1968 and which 
1 have reported in this paper has been deposited in the Herbarium of the University of 
Michigan, with the exception of those from Dominica collected by me or by Mr. Rhyne, 
where the most complete set has been placed in the U.S. National Herbarium, 
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., and the second in that of Michigan. 
Specimens from other collectors are also in the Michigan herbarium except as noted. 

While indications of those residents who on certain islands gave particular assistance 
will be given when those islands are discussed, it is appropriate to say here as well as in 
more detail later that the Smithsonian Institution sponsored the Dominica visit, and that 
the Bellairs Institute of McGill University not only allowed me to make that laboratory 
my base for work on Barbados and for correlating work elsewhere, but that its Director, 
Dr. John B. Lewis, gave graciously and unstintingly of time and attention to my problems, 
and by his intimate local knowledge guided me promptly to workable shore areas. 

By no means least must be my expression of gratitude to my wife, Jean Grant Taylor, 
for whom these trips theoretically were vacations, but who in practice drove our rented 
cars over all but the most dangerous roads, coped with the complex local postal 
regulations, and with the clerks to whom scientific shipments were rather suspect, located 
detailed official land maps in obscure government offices, made local contacts which 
developed into information centers, coaxed native dishes from cooks who considered 
them too much trouble, found in crowded or curbside markets fruits and vegetables to 
extend the local concept of tourist dietary, and in general "ran interference" for me so 
that the routine of collecting and drying specimens could be effectively crowded into our 
short visits. 


GRAND BAHAMA 26-28 Feb. 1968 

A general study of Bahaman algae was not planned for the visit of 25 Feb.-l Mar. 
1968. A little shore collecting was done near the Grand Bahama Hotel and toward 
Settlement Point. On the Thalassia flats near the hotel in the area known as the West End 
Halimeda opuntia was generally the dominant alga, although Enteromorpha flexuosa and 
E. plumosa prevailed in some spots. About Settlement Point and West End Village 
Monostroma oxyspermum was the most prominent alga on the rocks, and there was a 
good deal of Bostrychia tenella on the mangroves. 

The feature of particular interest in the area appeared on the gently sloping beach-rock 
shores along the southwest side not far from the hotel property. Here in the conspicuous 
tide-pools and rocky shoals grew an abundance of luxuriant Cystoseira myrica, the plants 
reaching heights of 30-40 cm. This species has long been known from the Bahamas: 
Grand Bahama, New Providence, Rose and Berry Islands and Gun Cay, though its further 
distribution in the areas is as yet undetermined, and the museum specimens I have seen 
have all been small. It is also known, though much less well, from Florida, whence good 
specimens have lately come to hand. This until recently (Taylor 1961) was the only 

(Desf.) Bory grows in the Bermudas, probably as a recent introduction. 


GRAND CAYMAN 16-25 Jan. 1968 

The Cayman islands have not been altogether neglected phycologically, particularly 
Grand Cayman. Collections made there by George R. Proctor and others have been seen, 
and for the island nearly 50 species and varieties were recorded in my general catalog 
(Taylor 1960), but I am now able to add about as many more. 

The western coast of Grand Cayman alternates long sandy beaches with areas of beach 
rock and limited inshore shallows. With the proliferation of hotels and residential clubs 
along this coast its natural character is rapidly disappearing. Algae were washed ashore in 
considerable variety during our visit. The little rocky promontories bore only a moderate 
algal growth, of which the most distinctive element was Turbinaria, which grew along the 
outer margin of the rocks just below low tide, both species being represented. There was a 
good deal of Bryothamnion triquetrum, of Galaxaura and Spyridia aculeata, but 
Gelidiella acerosa and Digenia, which were to be expected, were stunted and overgrown 
with epiphytes, while beneath all these the vegetation of close turf-forming species 
showed no one kind as particularly conspicuous. 

The south shore showed some beach areas, some accessible beach rock shoals, but the 
most distinctive algal regions were the broad sea-grass shoals of South Sound near Red 
Bay. Here Thalassia dominated offshore, Halodule nearer low tide line. There were fine 
patches of Caulerpa sertularioides, otherwise very scarce about the island. Common plants 
were Avrainvillea longicaulis, A. nigricans and Penicillus capitatus. The seldom-seen 
Chrysophaeum occurred here also, as a considerable range extension. Great loose masses 
of Halimeda opuntia were abundant, likewise Cladophoropsis membranacea. As usual in 
such an environment the variety of species was small, but the luxuriance conspicuous. 

The shores near Boddentown and, further eastward, Gun Bay Village, were good for 
rocky shoal species. However, the long stretches of sharp, intricately eroded rock, 



especially toward the east end of the island as usual yielded little of interest. Rocks 
somewhat less difficult of access near Savannah and West Bay Village on the north shore 
bore Petro siphon adherens, a plant very rarely reported. Probably the area most meriting 
careful study is North Sound, for which I lacked a suitable boat and helper. For instance, 
the algal associates of the mangrove thickets could be determined, and there should be a 
variety of Gracilarias, Hypneas and Eucheumas, perhaps Halymenias, in somewhat deeper 
water. At the Georgetown Embarcadero where a road gave me access I found on a rotting 
skiff a luxuriant growth of Bryopsis halliae and the alga-like animal Ascothamnion, with 
some good plants of Dasya pedicellata, commonly ill-grown in the tropics. More toward 
the entrance at Botabano, Proctor some years ago collected quite a variety of species 
characteristic of sheltered waters, so the area is probably a rich one. 

It is dangerous to state on short acquaintance that some species generally common are 
not so on a given island, yet it is indeed remarkable that Cladophora fascicularis and 
Colpomenia seemed absent, attached Sargassums, Janias, Corallinas and Caulerpa 
racemosa scarce. On the other hand, Cladophora fuliginosa was more common than on 
those of the small islands further east which were visited. All of these are forms with very 
wide ranges, and the suppressive conditions seem to be local. These cannot, however, be 
due to the discharge of fresh water, since the island is very low, scarcely reaching an 
elevation of 20 meters, and there are no significant streams. 

ST. CHRISTOPHER 2-5 Mar. 1968 

This island, in the Antilles universally referred to as St. Kitts, is one of those which has 
escaped phycological study. The interior is rugged, and practically devoid of roads. A high 
central ridge is dominated by two chief peaks, one reaching an elevation of over 1 100 m., 
with a crater lake on a shoulder of the more northern one. A rough marginal road does, 
however, run around the island, though only partially near the shore, so that most of the 
beaches (except on the southeast peninsula) could be reached by car were the feeder lanes 
not so difficult. 

The coast is mostly precipitous, and even where the maps show no cliffs, not really 
accessible. Sandy shores shown on the maps, as in St. Thomas Middle Island Parish, 
frequently yielded no drift algae. In fact, no successful collecting was done on the west 
side of the island: reefs productive of algae were not in evidence offshore. There was, 
however, a considerable drift of shoal and reef algae coming ashore at Dieppe Bay on the 
north, and an abundance on the seines of fishermen working over these shoals. At Black 
Rocks near Belle Vue on the northeast I met the feature, unusual in these islands, of 
young volcanic rock as a substrate, but the heavy surf prevented much collecting. The 
intertidal area could be seen to be dominated by a brown crust, probably Ralfsia, mixed 
with patches of a dwarf Laurencia. The uppermost zone of mossy algae was of Bostrychia 
binderi, while brown tufts and felted filaments were characteristic of the lower splash 
zone, and nearer the water's edge at low tide a mat composed of Centroceras and other 
filamentous types supported tufts of Wrangelia. 

At Conaree Beach on the southeast a long stretch of dark sand is interrupted by a few 
areas of accessible beach rock, with bracket corals conspicuous offshore. Washed ashore 
were quantities of Sargassum vulgare, Bryothamnion triquetrum and Laurencia papillosa. 
On the rocky shoals Chondria littoralis was common, as was Gracilaria sjostedtii, 
particularly oirthe rocks buried in the sand. Still further to the southeast the land is 
drawn out into a jagged peninsula, and this tip provided the most productive shores. It 
was not practicable for me to get to Cockleshell and Majors Bays, which might have been 
very fine. However, Frigate Bay on the southwest side and North Frigate Bay on the 
northeast side served very well. The former at the rocky Fort Tryon end showed a 
conspicuous intertidal vegetation of very yellow Laurencia papillosa. Somewhat lower in 


the intertidal area there was a lot of Dilophus guineensis and Dictyota ciliolata among the 
clumps of Sargassum platycarpum, but most of the area was covered with a mat of 
minute species. Across the peninsula from this bay was North Frigate, which proved 
exceptionally fine, not directly at the point of access but some distance to the north, 
where there was an exposure of beach rock with pools. The shore drift on the sand was 
chiefly of Cymodocea, associated with which (in contrast to Thalassia) I have seldom 
found many algae. This came from sandy shoals, of course. The rocky areas were in great 
contrast. By far the most striking thing was the large amount of the quite rare Caulerpa 
webbiana forming soft felts in the pools. Around these the rocks were richly tufted with 
Gracilaria debilis, G. ferox, very yellow Eucheuma gelidium and bright green Viva 
fasciata. There was an inconspicuous undergrowth of compact Halimeda opuntia, and 
Chondria littoralis was abundant where there was some sand on the rocks. 

NEVIS 6-12 Mar. 1968 

Somewhat smaller than St. Kitts, the island of Nevis is quite similar in many respects, 
such as topography and phycological neglect. There is a single central mountain peak of 
about the same height (about 1000 m.), with access by road limited to the lower marginal 
lands which, however, are broader in proportion. The main circular road lies somewhat 
back from the shore except on the northwest, and particularly far inland toward the 
south, where there are broad derelict estates with badly eroded service lanes. The shore 
could be reached at a few beaches, but no really good beach rock or inshore reef 
collecting presented itself. 

Immediately beyond the little capitol, Charlestown, a superb beach runs north for over 
4 km., backed by a fine grove of coconuts, dominating the west side of the island. This 
Pinneys Beach, being immediately accessible, was carefully worked over and algae in 
moderate variety were found washed ashore, though very small in quantity. On the few 
large rocks Chaetomorpha media formed the most obvious growth. Things most common 
in the drift included Gracilaria debilis, G. damaecornis and Dictyota indica. Further north 
at Jones Bay a heavy Thalassia drift carried with it a profusion of Dictyotas, particularly 
D. dentata. Nearby Mosquito Bay showed abundant Enter omorpha clathrata on the few 
rocks and a substantial variety of Rhodophyceae, particularly frequent being clumps of 
Lophocladia and oiCodium isthmocladum. 

The Sea Haven Estate shore near the airport on the north carried a substantial drift of 
Thalassia, Sargassums and Dictyotas. There was a good deal of Liagora farinosa, of 
Dictyosphaeria cavernosa and Valonia ventricosa. The special rarity was a scrap of 
Caulerpa ashmeadii. No useful collecting areas were available along the east side until we 
reached the southeast limit where, by a long, dangerously eroded lane we came to the 
Indian Castle Estate, now an experimental station. Here there was a heavy surf running on 
the beautiful shore outside of the coconuts. The marine drift was composed of a great 
mass of Cymodocea, but with it considerable Dicty op terisjustii, much/), delicatula and a 
variety of Dictyotas. Sargassums constituted a moderate proportion of the drift, 
particularly S. natans, but only Phaeophyceae were in significant quantity. The lanes to 
the other old estates around the south and southeast shores were so bad that access by car 
was not feasible, so no collecting was done here. 


27-31 Mar. 1966; 29 Jan.-12 Feb. 1967 

Antigua, like Jamaica and Barbados, has long been a major center of business and 
culture among the former British West Indian colonies, and was a naval base at one time, 
but scientific efforts there did not involve botany in a major way. It is a moderately low 


island, less elongated than some of the Lesser Antilles, being about 18 by 27 km. Boggy 
Peak reaches a height of about 400 meters. The shoreline is deeply indented in many 
places. Even before the advent of steam its importance as a naval base waned; an 
increasingly dry climate has almost extinguished the sugar and rum enterprises which at 
one time had much of the land under cultivation. All of the island now seems dry, 
although coconut trees and others demanding moderate moisture can be seen to flourish 
in the Fig Tree Hill area of the southwest, whereas other areas like that in the extreme 
east toward Devils Bridge Point (Indian-Town Point), beyond Willikie Village, carry an 
acacia-cactus scrub under extremely dry conditions. Access to the shore is unexpectedly 
limited because there is no peripheral road near the coast, except briefly on the 

southwest. If a small launch were available the island could be easily and closely studied 
from offshore. 

It is unfortunate that the botany of the island was not early and thoroughly studied. 
For the land flora this is particularly disappointing because too little is known of what 

was the flora before the cane fields destroyed it. Here we do not have the equivalent of 
the Gullies and Turners Woods of Barbados to retain a bit of the original flora. In 
particular the marine algae have been neglected, and only about 15 species were recorded 
before 1960, and some 10 added in my 1962 paper. Our two short visits to the island 
brought the total to over 135, confirming practically all those previously recorded except 
Pachychaeta griff ithsioides, for which this has been considered the type locality. 

Since the shore is usually to be approached by roads leading down to it from the 
inland complex rather than paralleling it, they commonly terminate at sites occupied by 
hotels and beach clubs, military or commercial installations, and this limits collecting 
activity. On the north shore beyond the capital town the first good collecting sites were 
near Wetherell Point and Soldiers Bay, especially the former. Here there was a good and 
varied growth of algae on the rocky reef at the east end of the beach. Between tide marks 
Enteromorpha lingulata covered some rocks, Polysiphonia howei was frequent a little 
lower, followed by Galaxauras. At about 5 dm. depth Dictyota ciliolata was common. 
The item otherwheres rarest was Cymopolia, present in small amount in 1966 and not 
otherwise found on these trips. The pelagic Sargassa were present in 1967. Less notable 
was the vegetation at Soldiers Bay, but Falkenbergia was abundant on Laurencia papillosa 
and Digenia. 

Our base being at Hodge Point the nearby shore was checked almost daily. It was not 
very rich, though the rocky shelves eventually yielded a number of things.. In 1966 
Pocockiella was washed ashore in abundance, but not in 1967. High on the rocks 
Dichothrix was evident, lower in the crevices there was much Dictyospliaeria vanbosseae, 
and near the seaward edge, a good colonization of Turbinaria. There were small beds of 
Thalassia along the shore, associated patches of Avrainvillea rawsonii, and dwarfed 
Penicillus capitatus. Further east at Judge Bay there was usually a richly varied wash 
coming ashore, dominated by Dictyotaceae, but a good deal of Falkenbergia and many 
fragments of Martensia. 

Much of the northeast area is occupied by U.S.A. military installations and unavail- 
able, but the shallow harbors are probably rich in algae, for at Fitches Creek where 
the highway reached the shore there was a great deal of Padina, and Parham Harbor 
should be a fruitful region for study. Again, there are islands off shore, and yet more to 
the eastward many small covers and reefs, where a boat could be used to good effect. Trips 
to Devils Bridge were taken, but there the shore was too precipitous for collecting; the 
adjacent Fanneys Cove on the other hand was a profitable site, yielding Bostrychia 
tenella, B. rivularis and Bryopsis plumosa, none common on Antigua. 

While the south shore doubtless is as rich as the others only one place visited is 


notable. Mamora Bay appears to be a favorite area for the ''moss" fishermen, and 
remnants of their Eucheuma isiforme harvest were common along the shore. With it were 
masses of Halimeda opuntia and Centroceras. On the northwest several small bays were 
visited: Pinchin Bay, Goat Hill Bay, Rocky or Pull-and-be-Damned Bay, and Hog John or 
Loblolly Bay in particular. All yielded modest returns, and at a time of onshore winds 
might be very rich. 

The harbor area of St. Johns was not in general favorable territory, but at the time of 
my visits a long causeway ran out to a little peak called Rat Island, and the rocky 
shallows on each side of the causeway were very richly covered with algae. Truncation of 
the island and widening of the causeway to develop a shipping facility may have ruined 
the immediate area, but probably a similar vegetation exists on the northern shores of the 
harbor called The Cove, whereas on the near south side in front of the town pollution is 
already heavy. Along the causeway and lateral to it within view the algal growth on the 
rocks was spectacular. Phaeophyceae were not conspicuous. The major constituents 
among Rhodophyceae were Gracilaria sjostedtii, Agardhiella tenera and Centroceras in 
abundance near the surface, with occasional clumps of Pterocladia americana and 
Grateloupia filicina While Ulva fasciata was present at a high level, the abundant 
Chlorophycean was, most unexpectedly, Caulerpa scapelliformis with blades to 2 dm. 
long in large masses on the rocks just below low tide level. This is, of course, a new record 
for the alga, and as a range extension slightly more northern than its recorded occurrence 
on Guadeloupe (Taylor 1967). 

The possibilities of the island for algal study were suggested to me by Dr. Waldo L. 
Schmitt, and Mr. Paul Denckla, who has long been resident on the island, and collected 
some algae there (Taylor 1962), was indefatigable in making arrangements for my work. 
In introducing me to interesting areas his friend Mr. Frank H. S. Warneford was also most 
helpful, and to all of them hearty thanks are due. 

MONTSERRAT 10 Feb. 1967 

A visit to this island was made to see how practicable it would be to secure a general 
collection of the marine algae of its coast. It was found possible to approach the shore by 
car at few places only, and when reached, collecting was not possible. The shore-line in 
general was too precipitous, too rough for me to work. A younger person, guided and 
assisted by a sympathetic local resident, might have done somewhat better. Perhaps from 
a boat some sheltered spots might have been reached, but this would have required 
exceptionally favorable weather. At Woodlands Beach the intertidal rocks were green 
with Enteromorpha flexuosa, but nothing else was accessible. 

DOMINICA 16 Feb.-13 Mar. 1967 

As it is expected that Dominica will be the subject of a separate and much more 
detailed report, conditions there will be treated very briefly here, although careful 
observations were more practical than on some of the other islands. Dominica is, 
botanically, extremely interesting, the land flora relatively well preserved. Rising to an 
altitude of over 1400 m., the highlands are heavily forested thanks to the ample rainfall, 
though not readily accessible above the passes. Tree ferns are abundant at moderate 
altitudes and even near sea level the fern vegetation and masses of epiphytes on the trees 

are conspicuous. This terrestrial vegetation has been thoroughly described (Hodge 1954), 
but much of the cryptogamic botany has been neglected. 

The west coast shores are not particularly favorable for algal growth. However, there 
were exceptional local areas. The shallows beyond the north or Soufriere Bay Shore of the 
peninsula to Scotts Head provided a good site. The rocks at high tide level were covered 


with Chaetomorpha nodosa, and a bit lower C media replaced it. Viva fasciata was 
common, and locally also Ectocarpus breviarticulatus, Giffordia mitchellae, and Gelidiella 
acerosa, with Ralfsia discoloring large areas of otherwise bare rock and Sargassum vulgare 
supplying clumps dominant by their height. The variety of other things was considerable 
on this side, but on the more exposed south shore, while the intertidal area was 
uninteresting, there was a substantial Sargasswn-Dictyota vegetation below the zone of 
chief wave force. 

In the capital town of Roseau itself the shore could be reached directly in front of the 
postoffice, and followed somewhat southward from it. Even with heavy pollution algal 
growth on the rocks was luxuriant, particularly on the great rocks rising above the 
cobblestones and more resistant to the heavy surf. While there was Chaetomorpha nodosa 
high on some rocks, the most evident abundant green alga was Viva fasciata, which grew a 

bit lower. Very common also was Gymnogongrus tenuis; Grateloupia filicina and G. 
cuneifolia were hardly less so, and there were numerous other algae so that the flora was 
most interesting. 

For the most part collections northward along the west coast were of seaweed washed 
ashore, and as the road followed the coast closely opportunities were numerous north as 
far as Macoucherie, but not practicable further. Where large rocks did stand up and 
maintain a plant cover it showed the usual cap of Chaetomorpha nodosa above 
Enteromorpha, Viva and various small species. In quieter areas the cobbles themselves 
bore considerable quantities of Padinas, Gracilarias (notably G. domingensis) and Hypnea 
musciformis. The coast again became accessible north of the old capital Portsmouth, both 
at Lagon on Prince Rupert Bay and Tanetane on Douglas Bay. These were quiet, rather 
shoal areas, the latter richer in algae. Dictyotas, especially D. ciliolata, were unusually 
common; so was Wrangelia argiis. Among more rare items that also were common here 
were Pterocladia bartlettii and Liagora decussata. 

Roads did not circle the north tip of the island, so it was not investigated. On the 

northeast limited access was possible and collections were made at Calibishie and a bit 

eastward at Woodford Hill Bay. Both were good sites. At Calibishie offshore reefs 

provided a heavy drift of weed on the shore and a chance to secure attached material to 

correspond. Abundant were large jelly-like digitate masses of a colonial diatom, which 

was kindly identified by Mr. Robert Ross, Keeper of Botany at the British Museum 

(N.H.) as Amphipleura micans var. fragilis (Grev.) Cleve. There was a substantial rock 

cover of Pocockiella, lithothamnia, Amphiroa fragilissima and in spots A. rigida var. 

antillana on the reef near shore. With it Viva fasciata, Gelidiella acerosa, Digenia, 

Laurencia corallopsis, Gracilarias and Bryothamnion triquetrwn constitute the bulk of 
the vegetation. 

Almost the whole east side was unavailable, the roads where open suitable for jeep 
travel only, except at Rosalie where a collection was made. It was not a good site, the 
river probably having some effect, and the cobble shore being unsuitable under heavy 
surf. There was more variety of drifted Sargassums here than usual on Dominica, but on 
the rocks little more than Enteromorphas and Grateloupia filicina. 

Particularly favorable facilities were available on Dominica, for the Smithsonian 
Institution of Washington most graciously arranged for complete field support based on 
the station set up for the Bredin-Archbold-Smithsonian Biological Survey at Clarke Hall 
on the Layou River. Needless to say we are most grateful to the sponsors of the Survey 
and the Institution. Furthermore the Smithsonian assigned as collaborator Mr. Charles F. 
Rhyne of its staff to make advance arrangements, work with me during my visit, and 
continue afterwards to collect in new areas. On all occasions his help was very material 
and generously given. 


ST. LUCIA 16-26 Mar. 1968 

This island afforded better rocky-shore collecting than most others visited in 1966-68. 
It is quite high throughout the central part, though little exceeding 900 m. Two main 
roads cross the high land toward the north, and several very secondary roads cut well into 
the high country. A peripheral road serves much of the coastal lower land, but not the 
northeast sector. The shore is chiefly rocky with numerous bays and good beaches, 
especially on the northwest side. 

LaBrellotte Bay is a good example of these. At intervals it is interrupted by rocky 
outcrops which are easily worked upon, and in some places there are small sea-grass shoals 
near shore. While each outcrop when visited had a little different flora from the others, 
some features were rather general. Near high-tide line there was an Ectocarpus-zone with 
E. duchassaignianus a bit above E. breviarticulatus. Below, Padinas were conspicuous, 
mostly dwarf, and in turn below these abundant Dilophus guineensis appeared on some 
outcrops, not on all. Tufted things common but scattered about include Hypnea 
musciformis, Gelidiella acerosa and Galaxaura squalida. At very high tide levels some 
rocks were topped with Chaetomorpha nodosa and Ectocarpus breviarticulatus, Spyridia 
aculeata and Centroceras coming in a bit deeper, as near Cap Pointe toward the north end 
of the island. 

The harbor of Castries if studied in detail would yield a good variety of forms 
characteristic of moderately polluted water. Where sampled near numerous fishing boats 
the harbor wall bore in quantity Viva fasciata, with Centroceras and Spyridia aculeata a 
bit deeper. Further south at La Toe beyond the polluted area I made one of the most 
surprising finds: a large population of Brachytrichia quoyii with, of course other items. 
Still further south at Grande Cul de Sac there was a conspicuous vegetation of Sargassum 
on the offshore rocks and of Enteromorpha clathrata intertidally. A variety of things 
were being washed ashore here, notably much Siphonocladus tropicus and the 
extraordinary Gracilaria crassissima in large pads. 

While the southern bays looked very promising, time for collecting there could not be 
arranged. On the southeast the shore was seldom accessible from the road, but by boat 
should give very good hunting. A notable mangrove-bordered lake near Savannes deserves 
study. A visit across the northern part of the island to Grand Anse Bay found a great 
beach pounded by heavy surf, almost without drifted algae other than a few Sargassum 
plants, though the rocks at the boundaries showed the usual Laurencia papillosa- 
Gelidiella acerosa vegetation, but little else. An attempt to reach nearby Marquis Bay 
failed, a hurricane and subsequent tangled shrub growth having destroyed the access road, 
but collections had been made there by G. R. Proctor ten years ago (Taylor 1962, p. 46). 

BARBADOS 14 Feb.-8 Mar. 1966 

4-15 Mar. 1967; 30 Mar.-5 Apr. 1968 

Except for Guadeloupe, of all the Lesser Antilles the island of Barbados is from a 
phycological standpoint historically the most interesting. Studies on the French islands 
were earlier by a quarter century or more, but the large proportion of names used which 
are not acceptable by modern standards limits the usefulness of the Maze and Schramm 
account (1870-77). For Barbados the more conservative treatment and attractive 
illustrations by Vickers (1905, 1908) are more satisfactory. Never-the-less there are a few 
novelties described by her for which more material and fuller descriptions are still desired 
and though this feature was one of the first to focus my plans on this island I found that 
general observations outweighed in importance and practicability a search for her special 
types in the field, and in this respect little was accomplished. On the other hand a very 
substantial increase in the list of algae recorded from the island was effected, over 50 


species, whereas about 70 previously recorded were not found on these occasions. That 
some should not be noticed is not surprising in view of the irregular appearances of the 
scarcer marine algae everywhere, and, of course, some of the old records are of very 
uncertain worth. The total of seaweeds recorded is now over 230, exclusive of 
Myxophyceae, and this could certainly be substantially increased were attention focused 

on the small and microscopic species. 

Barbados is by no means possessed of the broadest range of tropical algal habitats. Its 
characteristic coasts are exposed ones, and a large proportion of the shore is rocky, 
sometimes limestone cliffs, sometimes quite low, but eroded into most abrasive ridges and 
spurs, sometimes of sloping beach rock, but relatively lacking are sheltered coves, 
mangrove-bordered coves, land-locked marine lakes, or shores with extensive tide-pool 
areas. Sea-grass meadows are present, but not extensive, and they, like other productive 
areas of sandy or muddy bottom, have little protection from offshore reefs. The relative 
completeness of its algal list is, therefore, due to the degree of attention devoted to these 
plants about the island, rather than intrinsic richness. 

Barbados, in contrast to its neighbors, is a relatively low island, but of rolling terrain 
with occasional dry stream valleys or gullies. Both the northern and southern ends are 
comparatively flat; otherwise some distance from the western shore the land rises sharply 
between approximately the 120 m. and 150 m. contours, and continues to rise until 
toward the northeast portion an altitude of about 340 m. is reached at Mount Hillaby in 
the Scotland District of steep hills. Beyond these the descent to the marginal lowland 
along the east coast is quite steep, sometimes continued to sea level, as along the coast 
north of Cattle Wash, but frequently ending in cliffs at the shore. Although the land itself 
is not very high, cliffs constitute the shore line along much of the south and southeast as 
well. Because of the complex but well-marked road system almost all portions of the 
shore are accessible at frequent intervals. 

It did not prove feasible to collect about Bridgetown Harbor; doubtless pollution has a 
major role in limiting the flora there. A more suitable habitat was available on the 
artificial foreshore established with massive rocks to protect the roadway seaward from 
the tourist center called Pelican Village northwest of the mercantile area, beyond the 
newer deep-water harbor. The rocks at the upper intertidal limit were covered with Ulva 
fasciata in a narrow belt, below which there was a broader one of Chaetomorpha media. 
Near its lower limit very soft black tufts were conspicuous which proved to be Bryopsis 
pennata. Less common, with the Chaetomorpha, was Gymnogongrus tenuis, also forming 
dark but more wiry tufts. 

It became quite clear on my first visit that the west coast was not going to be the 
richest one for algae. Without reef shelter there was little sea-grass, little on the narrow 
sandy shoals, and on beach rock reefs running out from the shore there was a close algal 
growth, but of small species. As a first result of conditions it was found that no collecting 
between Bridgetown and Holetown was useful. On to the sand near the Bellairs station and 
neighboring beach clubs little came ashore, but divers in relatively shallow water brought 
in fine plants of Liagora mucosa and a few other things, but reported no major 
vegetation. Some tentative dredging at a few meters' depth was profitless, though with 
adequate heavy equipment and more persistence something might have been accom- 
plished in spite of the troublesome coral masses. 

The chief useful algal sites along the northwest coast were the beach-rock ledges found 
at frequent intervals near Paynes Bay and from Heywoods Beach to Six Mens Bay. At 
Paynes Bay occasional rock ledges occur which are largely exposed at low tide. On the 
main reefs the inner portion had a dominant Enteromorpha belt, the outer portion one of 
dwarf Sargassum with Gehdiella acerosa, Padina and Cladophoropsis which continued 


over me upper rocK sunace witn mucn less Sargassum, but Dilophus guineensis and dwarf 
Acanthophora spicifera, Wrangelia argus and Myxophyceae (especially Lyngbya majuscu- 
la) join the still more-dwarfed Padinas. It is curious how different areas seemingly 
identical in exposure are respecting their floras. A nearby ledge showed a good deal of 
Ulva fasciata, yet another not much lower had a great deal of Giffordia duchassaigniana 
instead along the inshore margin. Near the north end of the beach there was a small 
growth of Thalassia in the sand, and the chief alga associated with it was Padina 

At Heywoods Beach and Six Mens Bay the beach rock similarly ran out into deep 
water. The inner margin again was marked by a green Enteromorpha band, but large areas 
were covered by black Myxophyceae, notably Lyngbya majuscula. The general dwarf 
vegetation was much as at Paynes Bay, but Galaxauras and Centroceras were more 
prominent, instead of Acanthophora. Again there were local areas of different 
dominance, for instance one considerable area almostly solely covered with dwarf, 
unidentifiable Dictyotas. On the border toward the sea Chaetomorpha media was 
abundant, with Ectocarpus breviarticulatus very common near high tide. These are, then, 
characters of the vegetation on an unprotected coast, but one not, at the times of my 
visits, a coast subject to severe wave action. 

In great contrast one may consider the conditions at River Bay and Little Bay on the 
northeast coast. They are approached through gaps in stern cliffs which show superb 
examples of fossil corals, especially at River Bay. Wide rock shelves extend out to deep 
water; except on rare occasions thunderous surf pounds upon them. The general 
dominant genus is Sargassum, especially S. platycarpum, developed splendidly in the 
sheltered rock clefts and sheltered pools, but otherwheres stunted. The close rock-surface 
growth of Ectocarpus, Giffordia, Gelidiella, Centroceras and Laurencia was similar to that 
elsewhere, but more varied in detail of associated species. The whole area of each bay was 
rich in these dwarf forms, and their more fully developed phases in the rock crevices, but 
deserved far more attention than I could give them. 

Certain special features deserve brief mention. River Bay received an intermittent 
freshwater drainage. In 1966 the lower brackish part of the stream was densely filled with 
Enteromorpha lingulata, but in the other years it was not striking. At the end of the 
stream bed and behind the rock shelves there is a large pool with a maximum low-tide 
depth of about a meter. Here there was a good deal of E. flexuosa and numerous tufts of 
the unusual Rosenvingea sanctae-crucis in 1967. Just north of Little Bay there was a high 
tide pool quite inaccessible under ordinary circumstances, but in 1967 at a period of low 
tide and calm it was reached by skirting the foot of the high cliff. Doubtless much heated 
at low tide, it was in great part bare, but notable for conspicuous tufts of Sphacelaria 
tribuloides and much Ectocarpus breviarticulatus. Another peculiar feature appeared in 
1968. I was locally assured that the pelagic Sargassa would not come ashore in the late 
winter-early spring, and in 1966 and 1967 this was true, but in 1968 I first found them, 
particularly S. natans, in quantity ashore in the bays of St. Lucy Parish, and later along 
the east coast generally. 

The middle portion of the east coast is closely paralleled by a new highway and offers 
especially favorable stations for algae. Very long beaches are interrupted in shallow water 
by rock ledges with many sheltered pools and deep clefts. On a quiet day at low spring 
tides they are very accessible. On the seaward side Sargassum rigidulum dominates. The 
dwarf rock-surface flora is much the same as on the west coast. At low tide level Codium 
intertextum, scarce on these islands, did here cover the rocks in limited areas. Many deep 
tide pools were lined with Avrainvillea rawsonii and some with Chamaedoris; A. nigricans 
was frequent. Caulerpas, not particularly luxuriant about the island, appeared here in 
good colonies of C cupressoides, C. mexicana, C. racemosa and C. sertularioides. Perhaps 


the most striking element in the Rhodophycean ilora here was Corallina subulata, which 
covered large, old plants of other algae in dense masses. 

The old collecting stations of Vickers at Bathsheba, Bath and Conset Bay are still 
worthy, though the area just discussed is now more rewarding, except for algae drifted 
ashore. The grassy shoal at Bath Bay showed a notable colony of Udotea cyathiformis at 
a depth of somewhat over 15 dm. The drift coming ashore was heavy in 1966, less in the 
other years, but representative of the flora of offshore reefs. At both Bath and Conset a 
good deal of Botryocladia occidentals was washed ashore, and also of the more rare 
Haloplegma, among a great variety of other things. These places, and especially Bath, 
were good stations for Codium isthmocladum (as the type locality) and C repens. At 
Conset Bay drainage from the shore was reflected in a heavy growth of Enteromorpha, 
Cladophora and Bryocladia cuspidata. 

Because there were few places where I could reach the shore on the southeast no 
useful observations were made. On the southwest from South Point in to Bridgetown 
there were, on the other hand, excellent conditions for algal growth and easy access. The 
rocky shoals at Oistins were richly covered, and algae in good variety were drifted ashore 
there and at several other stations. The most notable novelty at Oistins was the 
introduced Caulerpa scapclliformis (Taylor 1967) growing at low tide level in quantity in 
deeper crevices of the rock. While it occurred at Bath and Conset Bays, and at other 
stations nearer Bridgetown, this was the most striking colonization. It was not found on 
the east coast at all. Because of pollution there was a good development of Enteromorpha 
and Cladophora at Oistins, and a gradual transition to a vegetation of relatively pure 
water. A similar green mat of algae was prominent at St. Lawrence Bay. 

At Gravesend-Garrison an extremely broad shoal extends out to a low reef margin, and 
gives a wonderful opportunity lor observation at low tide. The algal cover is 
discontinuous, chiefly of Hypnea and Padina sanctae-crucis with much Cladophora east of 
the dyke. Especially to the west of it lubricous streamers of brown Myxophyceae were 
conspicuous, and small patches of blue-green species. Of larger algae the most interesting 
was Caulerpa cupressoides var. lycopodium moderately common in a large form. The last 
station along this coast worth mentioning was the shore east of the Hilton Hotel, 
nominally part of Carlisle Bay. Here Enteromorphas are already abundant, and the flora 
may become increasingly typical of polluted water. 

In the Introduction mention has already been made of the particular helpfulness of Dr. 
John Lewis at the Bellairs Institute of McGill University in St. James Parish. Without his 
suggestions the location of field stations would have been much more difficult, and his 
cooperation like that of his staff at the Institute made work there especially pleasant. Dr. 
Melvin Goldstein and Mr. David Patriquin of McGill University were at the station in 
1966 and about a third of the collections made on Barbados that year were made jointly 
with them, and this is specified on the labels of the pertinent specimens. A succession of 
students at the Institute brought in algae from ventures in scuba-diving, and supplied 
numerous handsome plants for mounting. The very intimate knowledge of the island, 
local customs and facilities possessed by Mr. and Mrs. Andrew Hammond was generously 
made available, and Mr. E. G. B. Gooding helped greatly in matters of interest respectin 
land plants. While this study was in progress a short paper on Barbados algae has appeared 
which includes five species (excluding Myxophyceae) not otherwise recorded (Almodovar 
& Pagan, 1967). 

ST. VINCENT 20-25 Mar. 1966 

This island has practically been neglected from the standpoint of algal study, and this 
is not surprising in view of the few places along the shore easily reached by road. The 


west coast is precipitous: a recent road of sorts now exists part way northward, but it is 
mostly high above the shore and dangerous, and the inaccessible interior rises to over 
1200 m. There was little chance to collect; visits somewhat beyond Barrouallie were 
unproductive. At Barrouallie, which was the effective end of foray in that direction, 
rocky ridges separated 3-4 small beaches. The most distinctive thing on the rocks was 
Grateloupia filicina, which was associated with some Gymnogongrus tenuis, relatively 
scarce elsewhere. A rarity drifted ashore was Rosenvingea floridana. The variety available 
at Camden Park Bay was much greater, with Gracilarias and Dictyotas most prominent. 
South of Kingstown near the southern end of the island Calliaqua Bay was also 

On the east side of the island the road, coming from somewhat inland, first reaches the 
shore near Argyle, where the drift was dominated by Dictyopteris delicatula: in fact, this 
species and Sargassa together were the main features of the driftweed on the east coast. 
Peruvian Vale, a little to the north, again showed this Dictyopteris dominant, with 
Spatoglossum, Amansia and Vidalia as special curiosities. The species of Bryothamnion 
were practically absent from St. Vincent, but B. seaforthii was found in small amount 
here. The relative scarcity of Sargassa as washed ashore on the eastern beaches was also 
notable. Just a little further north at a place called Spring the rocks showed a large 

population of Chnoospora, quite an unusual feature and emphasizing the fact that some 
species of algae may be of very local occurrence in the tropics. By no means all are as 
regularly to be expected in appropriate situations as are Enteromorpha lingulata, Digenia 
simplex, Laurencia papillosa and Centroceras clavulatum. While we inspected the east 
shore as far north as Georgetown, beyond which the road was reported unfavorably, no 
other features of note presented themselves. 

BEQUIA 22 Mar. 1966 

For this quite small island I know of no algal records at all. Politically and 
economically dependent on St. Vincent, its population is small and the shore-line, except 
near the village landing, seems in a natural state. A visit of but a few hours was alone 
practicable, but upwards of 40 kinds of marine algae were recorded. A quick inspection 
of the village shore and of Princess Margaret Beach yielded nothing of interest. Conditions 
were better, at least for drifted material, on the northeast along the splendid beach at 
Friendship Bay, Lord Avon's former estate, which is now community property. 

On the south shore an excellent area for attached algal growth was found in shallows 
toward Adams Beach. High on the rocks Bostrychia tenella formed its characteristic 
mossy growth, and somewhat lower there were dense mats of Laurencia f intricate Other 
common species included Lyngbya majuscula, Cladophora fascicularis, Padina gymno- 
spora and Acanthophora spicifera, and while nothing which might be termed rare 
appeared, there was an impression of richness not often met about the high islands. 
Further study of this area, and of the Spring Bay region on the northeast shore, which 1 
did not have time to visit, should be extremely worthwhile. 

GRENADA 12-17 Mar. 1966 

The algae of Grenada, it being an island accessible from Barbados and Trinidad, have 
received a considerable degree of attention, and a substantial list of over 90 species has 
been attributed to it. During our brief visit I was only able to add a dozen or so to the 
record. As usual on the high islands, this one rising to over 800 m., approaches to the 
shore are limited. For the most part the northern end could not be reached, and the main 
road on the east was generally quite far inland, while the west shore road was too high 
above the water to give ready access, and though we went as far as Charlotte Town we 
found nothing distinctive. In general, Sargassums and stunted Padinas dominated the rock 


vegetation in the intertidal zone, with the usual undergrowth of Laurencia papi/losa and 
other small species. 

North of St. Georges at Grand Mai Bay a small assortment of driftweed was available. 
Just south of the town at Grand Anse we found a quantity of Chnoospora on the rocks of 
an isolated jetty, and a moderate drift, notably of Gracilarias. Inland a freshwater site at 
locally famous Annandale Falls was visited; the rocks were partly black-spotted, perhaps 
by Myxophyceae, partly red with Hildenbrandia rivularis. Al the end of the southern 
peninsula under Point Salines, Black Bay provided a very varied drift dominated by 
Dictyotas and Dictyopteris delicatula. Not often seen in quantity , Cryptonemia luxurians 
was frequent along this black sand beach. Still on the south, a little further east it was 
possible to reach a mangrove thicket at Little Woburn, where Murrayella and Caloglossa 
were abundant, but neither Catenella nor Bostryehia. 

On the east side, material was collected at Marquis and at Grenville a bit north of it. 
Most o( the drift material ashore was Sargassiim, but the associated variety was 
considerable. At the first station the most remarkable find was a specimen of Halymenia 
duchassaigniana, and at Grenville it was a large clump of the very broad Dictyota 
dichotoma var. menstrualis. The north side was reached by a road leading to a proposed 
real estate development at Levera Beach. On this shore the drift was scant and the inshore 
rocks rather bare, but the fortunate coincidence by which Mrs. Virginia Maes of the 
Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences was collecting algae for micromollusca on the 
outer reef by snorkel search, provided by her kindness ample Caulerpa taxi folia, 
Enantiocladia, Cryptonemia luxurians, Dictyopteris plagiogramma and other items from a 
rich vegetation, which tended to show that the offshore reefs about the island were quite 
as heavily vegetated as the drifted algae suggested. 





DIPLOCHAETE Collins, 1901 

D. solitaria Collins:— GRAND BAHAMA: West End, southwest shore, epiphytic on 

Callithamnion sp., no. 68-28. GRAND CAYMAN: South Shore, Boddentown, no. 
67-68 (on Vaucheria); West Shore, near West Indian Club, no. 67-91 (on 
Cladophora). DOMINICA: St. Mark Parish, Soufriere Bay, no. R-307B (on 

Herposiphonia). ST. LUCIA: Laborie Quarter, Laborie, no. 68-338C (on Giffordia). 




E. chaetomorphoides Borg. (?):- BARBADOS: St. Peter Parish, Six Mens Bay, no. 


E. clathrata (Roth) J. Agardh:- NEVIS: St. James Windward Parish, Mosquito Bay, no. 

68-160. DOMINICA: St. Andrew Parish, Woodford Hill Bay, no. R-246. GRENA- 
DA: St. George Parish, Grand Mai Bay, no. 66-252. 

E. plumosa Kutz.:- GRAND BAHAMA: West End near hotel, no. 68-11. GRAND 

CAYMAN: South Shore east of Boddentown near "Joe Conyers", no. 67-38A. ST. 
LUCIA: Castries Quarter, Grande Cul de Sac, no. 68-356. 

E. lingulata J. Agardh:- GRAND CAYMAN: North Sound, Botabano, no. GRP-A.2499; 

South Shore, east of Boddentown at "Joe Conyers", no. 67-39. NEVIS: St. Thomas 
Lowland Parish, Pinneys Beach, no. 68-136. ANTIGUA: St. John Parish, Hodge 
Point, no. 67-260; St. Philip Parish, Exchange Bay, no. 66-461; St. Paul Parish, 
Crawle Bay, no. 67-209A. DOMINICA: St. Joseph Parish, north of St. Joseph, R. 
M. King no. C-1139; St. David Parish, Rosalie, no. 67-458. ST. LUCIA: Gros Islet 
Quarter, La Brellotte Bay, no. 68-291; Laborie Quarter, Laborie, no. 68-337. 
BARBADOS: St. Peter Parish, Bayfield, no. 66-27, Six Mens Bay, no. 67-650; St. 
Lucy Parish, River Bay, nos. 66-72, 68458; St. John Parish, Bath Bay, no. 67-667; 
Christ Church Parish, St. Lawrence Bay, no. 68-505. ST. VINCENT: St. Patrick 
Parish, Barrouallie, no. 66-328B. BEQUIA: Adams Beach, no. 66-374. GRENADA: 
St. George Parish, True Blue, no. GRP-A.2699 p.p. 

E. flexuosa (Wulf.) J. Agardh:- GRAND BAHAMA: West End near hotel, no. 68-5. ST. 

KITTS: St. George Basseterre Parish, Frigate Bay, no. 68-1 16. ANTIGUA: St. John 
Parish, St. John Harbor, no. 67-282, Deep Bay, no. 67-303B. MONTSERRAT: St. 

Serial numbers of material for which I was the senior collector are preceded by the last digits of the 
collection year (e.g., 67-234). For the work on Dominica where C. F. Rhyne was the sole collector his 
initial precedes his collection number (R-234), and for some collected by William Stern and D. C. 
Wasshausen their initials appear (S & W-234). Material from several islands collected by G. F. Proctor 
is similarly indicated (GFP-A.234). 



Peter Parish, Woodlands Bay, no. 67-309. DOMINICA: St. Joseph Parish, 400 m. 
south of Layou River, no. 67-338; St. John Parish, Prince Rupert Bay, no. 67-486, 
Douglas Bay, no. 67-500; St. David Parish, Rosalie, no. 67457. BARBADOS: St. 
Michael Parish, Gravesend, no. 67-701, Carlisle Bay, no. 67-761 ; St. Peter Parish, 
Six Mens Bay, no. 67-641; St. Lucy Parish, River Bay, nos. 67-680, 68450; St. 
John Parish, Martins Bay, no. 68-5 17; Christ Church Parish, Oistins, nos. 66-111, 
67-614B. ST. VINCENT: St. George Parish, Calliaqua, no. GRP-A.5299. BEQUIA: 
Adams Beach, no. 66-389. 

E. linza (L.) J. Agardh:- GRENADA: St. Andrew Parish, Grenville Beach, no. 66-302. 

MONOSTROMA Thuret, 1854 
M. oxyspermum (Kiitz.) Doty:- GRAND BAHAMA: West End, Settlement Point, no 


ULVA Linnaeus, 1753 

U. lactuca L., var. lactuca, or near var. rigida (C. Agardh) Lc Jolis:- GRAND CAYMAN: 

North Sound, Botabano, no. GRP-A.2496. ANTIGUA: St. John Parish, St. John 
Harbor, no. 67-281. DOMINICA: St. Andrew Parish, Calibishie, no. 67-531. 
BARBADOS: St. James Parish, Paynes Bay, no. 68-555; Christ Church Parish, 
Rockley Beach, no. 67-709, Hastings, no. 66-197. ST. VINCENT: St. George 
Parish, Calliaqua, no. GRP-A.5243. 

, "var. latissima" Auct., non L.:- ANTIGUA: St. George Parish, St. George 

Bay, no. 66-496. (Cfr. Papenfuss 1960, p. 303). 

U. fasciata Delile:— ST. KITTS: St. John Capisterre Parish, Dieppe Bay, no. 68-54; St. Peter 

Basseterre Parish, North Frigate Bay, no. 68-71. NEVIS: St. George Gingerland 
Parish, Indian Castle Estate, no. 68-233. ANTIGUA: St. John Parish, St. John 
Harbor, causeway to Rat Island, no. 67-273, Soldiers Bay, no. 67-153; St. Paul 
Parish, Crawle Bay, no. 67-218. DOMINICA: St. George Parish, Roseau, no. 
67-348; St. Joseph Parish, south of the Macoucherie River, no. 67-396; St. John 
Parish, Prince Rupert Bay, no. 67487; St. Mark Parish, Soufricrc Bay, nos. 67428, 
R-279. ST. LUCIA: Castries Quarter, Castries Harbor, no. 68401; St. George 
Gingerland Quarter, Indian Castle Estate beach, no. 68-233. BARBADOS: St. 
Michael Parish, Carlisle Bay, no. 67-762, Bridgetown, off Pelican Village, no. 
67-754; St. Lucy Parish, Fryer Well Point, no. 66-16; Christ Church Parish, Oistins, 
no. 67-624. ST. VINCENT: St. George Parish, Calliaqua, no. 66-345 A. GRENADA: 
St. George Parish, Point Salines, Black Bay, no. 66-267. 



CHAETOMORPHA Kiitzing, 1845 

C. gracilis Kiitz.:- ST. VINCENT: St. Patrick Parish, Barrouallie, no. 66-328A. 

BARBADOS: St. Lucy Parish, River Bay, no. 66-66 A. 

C.brachygona Harv.:- ANTIGUA: St. John Parish, Hodge Point, no. 67-239. ST. 

LUCIA: Castries Quarter, Grande Cul de Sac, no. 68-359. BARBADOS: St. Lucy 
Parish, River Bay, no. 67-681 ; Christ Church Parish, Rockley Beach, no. 67-708B. 
ST. VINCENT: St. George Parish, Calliaqua Bay, no. GRP-A.5307. 

C. linum (Mull.) Kiitz.:- ST. KITTS: St. George Basseterre Parish, Frigate Bay, no. 


68-104; St. Peter Basseterre Parish, North Frigate Bay, no. 68-72. DOMINICA: St. 
Paul Parish, 1.2 km. south of the Layou River, no. 67-360; St. John Parish, Prince 
Rupert Bay, no. 67488. ST. VINCENT: St. George Parish, Calliaqua, no. 66-341; 
St. Andrew Parish, Camden Beach, no. 66-337 (?). BEQU1A: Friendship Bay, no. 


C. geniculata Mont.:- ANTIGUA: St. John Parish, Hodge Point, no. 67-239(7). 

C. nodosa Kutz.:- GRAND CAYMAN: South Shore, Red Bay, no. 67-110. ANTIGUA: 

St. John Parish, Goat Hill Bay, no. 67-303A, Loblolly Bay, no. 67-293A; St. Philip 
Parish, Fanneys Cove, no. 67-247(7). DOMINICA: St. George Parish, Roseau, no. 
67-356; St. Paul Parish, 1.6-3.2 km. south of the Layou River, no. 67-328; St. 
Joseph Parish, north of St. Joseph, R. M. King no. C-1137, south of the 
Macoucherie River, no. 67-410; St. John Parish, Douglas Bay, no. 67-498; St. 
Andrew Parish, Woodford Hill Bay, no. R-247, Calibishie Bay, no. 67-553; St. Mark 
Parish, Soufriere Bay, no. 67422. ST. LUCIA: Gros Islet Quarter, La Brellotte Bay, 
no. 68-277(7), Jacks Beach, no. 68-410. 

The filament diameter of much of this material reaches 100 ju, and in no. 68-410 
is still greater in the upper parts which, however, are probably reproductive. The 
basal cell is very slender at the discoid holdfast, and at the top 27-50 (-65) fi diam., 
the length very variable, but usually 3-4 times the maximum diameter, or 90-140 m, 
much smaller than in C. aerea. 

C. crassa (C. Agardh) Kiitz.:- NEVIS: St. George Gingerland Parish, Indian Castle Estate 

beach, no. 68-234(7). ANTIGUA: St. Paul Parish, Crawle Bay no. 67-229. ST. 
LUCIA: Vieux Fort Quarter, Anse des Sables, no. 68-327. GRENADA: St. Andrew 
Parish, Grenville Beach, no. 66-304A. 

Some of the collections are composed of filaments small for this species, such as 
nos. 68-234 and 68-337, which have a maximum filament diameter of about 430 ju, 
but the walls are thin and do not have the rigidity characteristic of C. linum, for 
which the size is, in addition, somewhat excessive. 

C. aerea (Dillw.) Kiitz.:- DOMINICA: St. John Parish, Douglas Bay at Tanetane, nos. 

67-495, 67-499. ST. LUCIA: Gros Islet Quarter, Jacks Beach, no. 68-410. 

C. media (C. Agardh) Kutz.:- ANTIGUA: St. John Parish, Hodge Bay, no. 67-264(7). 

NEVIS: St. Thomas Lowland Parish, Pinneys Beach, no. 68-134. DOMINICA: St. 
George Parish, Roseau, no. 67-353; St. Mark Parish, Soufriere Bay, nos. 67-423, 
R-264. BARBADOS: St. Michael Parish, Bridgetown at Pelican Village, no. 67-753; 
St. Peter Parish, Bayfield, no. 66-24, Heywoods Beach, no. 67-421, Six Mens Bay, 
no. 67-639; St. Lucy Parish, Little Bay, no. 67-839; Christ Church Parish, Oistins, 
nos. 66-122, 67-605, 68-417, Welches, no. 68491. 

C. clavata (C. Agardh) Kutz.:- DOMINICA: St. Joseph Parish, 400 m. south of the 

Layou River, no. 67-333. GRENADA: St. Andrew Parish, Marquis, no. 66-280B(?). 

RHIZOCLONIUM Kutzing, 1843 
R. kerneri Stockm.:- BEQUIA: Adams Beach, no. 66-375. 

CLADOPHORA Kutzing, 1843 

As in various other areas, in the Caribbean there are a few readily-recognized 
species of Cladophora, and others which are of quite uncertain status. Partly this is 
because names of European algae have been applied to our plants, which do not 



our species have never really been segregated, clearly typified and their range of 
variation established. It is a difficult genus, here as elsewhere. Because of the 
uncertainty attending their identification it has been decided to omit from the 
present report all but a few of the most distinct and best-known Caribbean species. 
Plants of large size are not common on these shores. 

C. fuliginosa Kiitz.:- GRAND CAYMAN: West Shore, near the West Indian Club, no. 

67-25 D, near Pageant Beach Hotel, no. 67-82; North Shore, Grape Tree Point, no. 
GRP-A.2492. NEVIS: St. James Windward Parish, Sea Haven Estate, no. 68-209. 
ANTIGUA: St. John Parish, Hodge Point, nos. 66-438A, 67-134. DOMINICA: St. 
Andrew Parish, Calibishie Bay, nos. R-173, R-182A, R-189C. ST. LUCIA: Gros 
Islet Quarter, La Brellotte Bay, no. 68-262. 

C. fascicularis (Mert.) Kiitz.:- ST. KITTS: St. George Basseterre Parish, Frigate Bay, no. 

68-1 1 7. NEVIS: St. Thomas Lowland Parish, Pinneys Beach, no. 68-135; St. James 
Windward Parish, Mosquito Bay, no. 68-162. DOMINICA: St. Paul Parish, 1.2 km. 
south of the Layou River, no. 67-362; St. Joseph Parish, 400 m. south of the Layou 
River, no. 67-339; St. John Parish, Prince Rupert Bay, no. 67-473, Douglas Bay, no. 
68-504; St. Andrew Parish, Woodford Hill Bay, no. R-215. ST. LUCIA: Castries 



68-338. BARBADOS: St. Michael Parish, Gravesend, no. 67-705, Carlisle Bay, no. 
67-759; St. Lucy Parish, River Bay, nos. 67-820, 68448; Christ Church Parish, 
Oistins, nos. 66-99, 67-737A, St. Lawrence Bay, no. 68-504. ST. VINCENT: St. 
George Parish, Calliaqua Bay, no. GRP-5308; St. Andrew Parish, Camden Beach, 
no. 66-336. BEQUIA: Adams Beach, no. 66-398B. GRENADA: St. George Parish, 
Point Salines, Black Bay, no. 66-269; St. Andrew Parish, Grenville Beach, no. 
66-30 1 . 

C. prolifera (Roth) Kiitz.:- BARBADOS: St. Lucy Parish, Little Bay, no. 67-836; Christ 

Church Parish, Oistins, nos. 67-602, 68-416. 



DASYCLADUSC. Agardh, 1827 

D. vermicularis (Scop.) Kras.:- GRAND BAHAMA: West End, no. 68-30. GRAND 

CAYMAN: North Shore, Grape Tree Point, no. GRP-A.249 1 . 

NEOMERIS Lamouroux, 1816 
N. cokeri Howe:- GRAND BAHAMA: West End, no. 68-29. 

N. mucosa Howe:- ANTIGUA: St. Paul Parish, Crawle Bay, no. 67-2 15; St. John Parish, 

Hodge Point, no. 67-240. 

N. annulata Dickie:- ANTIGUA: St. John Parish, Wetherell Point, no. 66-470A. 

DOMINICA: St. Andrew Parish, Calibishie Bay, no. R-198. BARBADOS: St. 
Michael Parish, Gravesend, no. 67-774, 68-510; St. John Parish, Bath Bay, no. 

N. dumetosa Lamx.:- DOMINICA: St. Joseph Parish, 400 m. south of the Layou River, 

no. 67-334. 

CYMOPOLIA Lamouroux, 1816 

C. barbata (L.) Lamx.:- ANTIGUA: St. John Parish, off Wetherell Point, no. 66-402 


ACETABULARS Lamouroux, 1816 
A. pusilla (Howe) Collins:- ANTIGUA: St. Philip Parish, Fanneys Cove, no. 67-256. 

A. crenulata Lamx.:- GRAND CAYMAN: West Shore near West Indian Club, no 

67-25 A; South Shore, Red Bay, no. 67-66. 

ACICULARIA D'Archiac, 1843 
A. schenckii (Mob.) Solms-Laub.:- BARBADOS: St. Andrew Parish, near Windy Hill, no 



HALICYSTIS Areschoug, 1850 
H. osterhoutii L. R. & A. H. Blinks:- GRAND CAYMAN: East End, Gun Bay, no 


VALONIA Ginnani, 1757 

V. ventricosa J. Agardh:- GRAND CAYMAN: West Shore near West Indian Club, no. 

67-25C, Red Bay, no. 67-75B. ST. KITTS: St. Peter Basseterre Parish, North 
Frigate Bay, no. 68-102. NEVIS: St. Thomas Lowland, Pinneys Beach, no. 68-122A; 
St. James Windward Parish, Mosquito Bay, no. 68-188, Sea Haven Estate, no. 
68-214. ANTIGUA: St. John Parish, Port Royal Bay, no. 67-155, Hodge Point, no. 
66-407; St. George Parish, Judge Bay, no. 67-199. ST. LUCIA: Gros Islet Quarter, 
La Brellotte Bay, no. 68-298. BARBADOS: St. James Parish, off Coral Reef Club 
area near Holetown, at 7.5 m. depth, the largest specimen being a simple obovoid, 
60 mm. long, 47 mm. in max. diam., no. 67-862; St. John Parish, Bath Bay, nos. 
66-147, 67-671, Conset Bay, no. 68-538; Christ Church Parish, Oistins, Nos. 
66-1 14B, 67-737B. ST. VINCENT: St. George Parish, Calliaqua, no. GRP-A.5285. 
BEQUIA: Friendship Beach, no. 66-364. GRENADA: St. Andrew Parish, Marquis, 

no. 66-274. 

V. macrophysa Ktitz.:- GRAND CAYMAN: North Shore, Grape Tree Point, no. 

GRP-A.2486; South Shore, Red Bay, no. 67-75 A. NEVIS: St. George Gingerland 
Parish, Indian Castle Estate, no. 68-235. ANTIGUA: St. George Parish, Judge Bay, 
no. 67-188. BARBADOS: St. James Parish, off Miramar Hotel near Holetown at 
60-70 m. depth, no. 66-140. ST. VINCENT: St. George Parish, Calliaqua, no. 
GRP-A.5285. BEQUIA: Friendship Beach, no. 66-365. 

V. ocellata Howe:- GRAND CAYMAN: South Shore, Red Bay, no. 67-74, Boddentown, 

no. 67-51. BARBADOS: St. John Parish, Martins Bay, no. 68-523. 

V. aegagropila C. Agardh:- NEVIS: St. James Windward Parish, Sea Haven Estate, no. 


V. barbadensis n. sp.:- Plantae clavatae, ad 1.5-2.5 cm. alt., coenocytia principalia ad 

basim teniussima, distaliter ad 2-5 mm. diam., in 1-3 cellulis hapteralibus parvis, 
simplicibus aut sublobatis, innata, hae cellulae plerumque breves interdum, autem, 
in filamenta 1.0-1.5 mm. long., quae membranam tenuem habent, evolventes. 
Membrana coenocytiorum principalium tenuissima, prope basim, autem, et in 
hapteris satis crassior. Reproductio per numerosas sporas cystiformes 
(35)-45-90-(125) ju diam. effecta, membranis 2.0-3.5 n crass. Planta typica e loco I. 
Barbados, Paroecia St. John, Bath dicto; plantae in petris corallinis paululum infra 
aquae altitudinem aestus recessu abunde sparsae, W. R. Taylor cum M. Goldstein et 



D. Patriquin lectae, no. 66-168. Planta typica in Herbario Universitatis Michiganen- 
sis deposita. 

Plants delicate, clavate, to 1.5-2.5 cm. tall, the main coenocytes exceedingly 
slender at the base, to 2-5 mm. diam. distally, borne on 1 -3 (or more?) small, simple 
or somewhat lobed hapteral cells which are usually short, but may develop into 
thin-walled filaments 1.0-1.5 mm. long; cell wall of the main coenocytes for the 
most part very thin, but near the base and in the haptera somewhat thicker. 
Reproduction by very numerous cyst-like spores (35)-45-90-(125) a diam., with 
smooth walls 2.0-3.5 m thick. BARBADOS: St. John Parish, Bath, the plants 
scattered in some abundance on coral rock somewhat below low tide level. Coll. by 
W. R. Taylor, M. Goldstein and D. Patriquin, no. 66-168. 

One would be satisfied to call this a Valonia were it not for the cyst-like spores, 
which are not a form of reproduction to be expected in that group. However, as the 
function of these is not known it seems best to associate these plants tentatively 
with that genus until more is known about them. Text-figures 1-6. 

Text-figures 1—6. Valonia barhadcnsis. Fig. 1, entire plant with a 5 mm. scale bar. Figs. 2 — 6, basal 

portions of 5 plants showing hapteral cells and filamentous outgrowths, with 0.4 mm. bar. 

ERNODESMIS Borgesen, 1912 
E. verticillata (Kiitz.) Borg.:- GRAND BAHAMA: West End, near hotel, no. 68-21 


ANTIGUA: St. Paul Parish, Crawle Bay, no. 67-212. DOMINICA: St. Andrew 
Parish, Calibishie Bay, no. 67-526, 67-564. ST. LUCIA: Castries Quarter, Grande 
Cul de Sac, no. 68-358. BARBADOS: St. John Parish, Bath Bay, no. 67-666, 
Conset Bay, no. 66-214; Christ Church Parish, Silver Sands, no. 66-128, Oistins, no. 


SIPHONOCLADUS Schmitz, 1878 

A. tropicus (Crouan) J. Agardh:- NEVIS: St. James Windward Parish, Mosquito Bay, no. 

68-164, Sea Haven Estate, no. 68-210; St. George Gingerland Parish, Indian Castle 
Estate, no. 68-247. DOMINICA: St. Andrew Parish, Calibishie Bay, nos. 67-562, 
R-176. ST. LUCIA: Castries Quarter, Grande Cul de Sac, no. 68-357. BARBADOS: 
St. John Parish, Conset Bay, no. 66-2 1 2; Christ Church Parish, Oistins, no. 67-735. 
GRENADA: St. Andrew Parish, Marquis, no. 66-280A. 

CHAMAEDORIS Montagne, 1862 

C. peniculum (Soland). 1 Kuntze:- NEVIS: St. James Windward Parish, Mosquito Bay, 

no. 68-165; Sea Haven Estate, no. 68-197. DOMINICA: St. Andrew Parish, 
Calibishie Bay, no. 67-538; St. Mark Parish, Atlantic side of Scotts Head, no. 
R-291. ST. LUCIA: Dauphin Quarter, Grande Anse, no. 68-288. BARBADOS: St. 
Lucy Parish, River Bay, nos. 66-69, 67-810; St. Andrew Parish, Chalky Mount, no. 
68-480, where very abundant in some deep tide-pools; St. John Parish, Bath Bay, 
nos. 66-162, 67-662; Christ Church Parish, Oistins, no. 67-733. 

DICTYOSPHAERIA Decaisne, 1842 

D. vanbosseae Borg.:-ST. KITTS: St. Peter Basseterre Parish, North Frigate Bay, no. 

68-84. ANTIGUA: St. John Parish, Hodge Point, no. 66409. DOMINICA: St. 
Andrew Parish, Calibishie Bay, no. 67-554. ST. LUCIA: Gros Islet Quarter, La 
Brellotte Bay, no. 68-305. BARBADOS: St. James Parish, Paynes Bay, no. 66-33; 
St. Lucy Parish, River Bay, no. 67-819, Little Bay, nos. 66-54, 67-845; St. John 
Parish, Martins Bay, no. 68-552; Christ Church Parish, Oistins, no. 66-120. 
(However, see Valet 1966, p. 256) 

D. cavernosa (Forssk.) Borg.:- GRAND CAYMAN: West Shore near West Indian Club, 

no. 67-25B; North Shore, Grape Tree Point, no. GRP-A.2478; South Shore, Red 
Bay, no. 67-114. NEVIS: St. Thomas Lowland Parish, Pinneys Beach, no. 68-1 21 B; 
St. James Windward Parish, Mosquito Bay, no. 68-189, Sea Haven Estate, no. 
68-213. ANTIGUA: St. John Parish, Hodge Point, no. 66419A;St. George Parish, 
Judge Bay, no. 67-193. DOMINICA: St. Andrew Parish, Calibishie Bay, nos. R-195, 
R-199. ST. LUCIA: Vieux Fort Quarter, Anse des Sables, no. 68-334. BARBADOS: 
St. John Parish, Martins Bay, no. 68-521, Bath Bay, nos. 66-173, 67-859; Christ 
Church Parish, Silver Sands, no. 66-125. BEQUIA: Friendship Beach, no. 66-363. 
GRENADA: St. Andrew Parish, Marquis Beach, no. 66-275. 

In my general text on tropical algae (1960) and elsewhere I have often cited J. Ellis and D. Solander 
as joint authors of various species names. As early publications of Ellis (1755, 1756) use a pre-Linnean 
terminology they are not available as sources. While his 1767 paper is in approximate conformity with 
the current International Rules, most of the names concerned come from D. Solander (1787) 
posthumously. As the title-page of this work clearly designates Ellis as the collector, Solander as 
describer, Solander should be cited as sole author. This has long been recognized by some 
phycologists, as Kjellman (1900), but not by Hauck (1885), Collins (1909b), B^rgesen (1911b) or 

Howe (1918a), while J. G. Agardh (1876) cites many as Solander in Ellis, which hardly seems 



P. adhaerens Howe:- GRAND CAYMAN: West Shore near West Bay village between 

Northwest Point and Boatswains Bay, no. 67-99. Also seen, but not collected, near 
Savannah on the north coast. Unless one is equipped with rock -breaking tools it is 
very difficult to collect I his plant. It has seldom been reported. 

CLADOPHOROPS1S Borgesen, 1905 

C. membranacea (C. Agardh) Borg.:- GRAND CAYMAN: South Shore, Red Bay, no. 

67-77, east of Boddentown near "Joe Conyers", no. 67-37; East End at Gun Bay, 
no. 67-59A. ST. KITTS: St. George Basseterre Parish, Frigate Bay, no. 68-100. 
NEVIS: St. James Windward Parish, Mosquito Bay, no. 68-187. ANTIGUA: St. 
John Parish, Hodge Point, no. 67-438C, Wetherell Point, no. 67-479. DOMINICA: 
St. John Parish, Prince Rupert Bay, no. 67483; St. Andrew Parish, Calibishie Bay, 
nos. 67-559, R-173A; St. Mark Parish, Soufriere Bay, nos. 67-425, R-266. ST. 
LUCIA: Castries Quarter, La Toe, no. 68-408; Vieux Fort Quarter, Anse des Sables, 
no. 68-326. BARBADOS: St. James Parish, Paynes Bay, no. 68-561; St. Peter 
Parish, Heywood Beach, no. 68-424, Six Mens Bay, nos. 66-2 IB, 67-648; St. Lucy 
Parish, River Bay, nos. 67-683, 68453; St. Joseph Parish, Cattle Wash, no. 66-2; St. 
John Parish, Bath, no. 66-170; Christ Church Parish, Oistins, no. 67-634. ST. 
VINCENT: St. George Parish, Calliaqua Bay, no. GRP-A.5252. BEQU1A: Adams 
Beach, no. 66-379B. 

C. macromeres W. R. Taylor:- BARBADOS: Christ Church Parish, Oistins, no. 67-634. 

BOODLEA Murray & DeToni, 1890 

B. composita (Harv.) Brand:- ANTIGUA: Si. John Parish, St. John Harbor, no. 

67-368(7). ST. LUCIA: Gros Islet Quarter, LaBrellotte Bay, no. 68-268. DOMINI- 
CA: St. Mark Parish, Soufriere Bay, no. 67-426, R-268. 

MICRODICTYON Decaisne, 1839 

M. boergesenii Setch.:— BARBADOS: St. James Parish, off Miramar Hotel near Holetown 

at 60-70 m. depth, no. 66-139. 

STRUVEA Sonder, 1845 

S. anastomosans (Harv.) Pice.:- DOMINICA: St. John Parish, Douglas Hay, no. 67492; 

St. Andrew Parish, Calibishie, no. R-170; St. Mark Parish, Soufriere Bay, no. 


ANADYOMENE Lamouroux, 1812 

A. stellata (Wulf.) C. Agardh:— NEVIS: St. James Windward Parish, Sea Haven Estate, no. 

68-196. ANTIGUA: St. John Parish, Hodge Point, no. 67-143; Si. George Parish, 
Judge Bay, no. 67-198. DOMINICA: St. Andrew Parish, Woodford Hill Bay, no. 
R-214, Calibishie Bay, no. 67-580. ST. LUCIA: Gros Islet Quarter, La Brellolte 
Bay, no. 68-303. BARBADOS: St. Lucy Parish, River Bay, no. 67-816, Little Bay, 
no. 66-53; St. John Parish, Bath Bay, no. 66-161 , Conset Bay, no. 66-219. 




BRYOPSIS Lamouroux, 1809 

B. plumosa (Huds.) C. Agardh:- ANTIGUA: St. John Parish, lagoon behind Pinchin Bay, 

no. 67-285; St. Philip Parish, Fanneys Cove, no. 67-246. GRENADA: St. George 
Parish, Point Salines, Black Bay, no. 66-268. 

B. pennata Lamx.:- ANTIGUA: St. Paul Parish, Crawle Bay, no. 67-210; BARBADOS: 

St. Michael Parish, Bridgetown at Pelican Village, no. 67-752; St. James Parish, 
Paynes Bay, no. 66-36 ; St. Peter Parish, Six Mens Bay, no. 67-80 1 ; St. Lucy Parish, 
River Bay, no. 67-822, Little Bay, no. 67-838; Christ Church Parish, Hastings, 

B. halliae W. R. Taylor:- GRAND CAYMAN: North Sound, Georgetown Embarcadero, 

no. 67-122. 


CAULERPA Lamouroux, 1809 

C. fastigiata Mont.:- GRAND CAYMAN: South Shore, Red Bay, no. 67-68C. BARBA- 
DOS: Christ Church Parish, Oistins, no. 67-606. 

C. vickersiae Borg.:- ANTIGUA: St. John Parish, Hodge Point, no. 67-238. ST. LUCIA: 

Gros Islet Quarter, La Brellotte Bay, no. 68-315 (p.p., with Dasya). 

C. verticillata J. Agardh:- GRAND CAYMAN: North Sound, Botabano, no. GRP- 


C. webbiana Mont.:- ST. KITTS: St. Peter Basseterre Parish, North Frigate Bay, no. 


C.ashmeadii Harv.:- NEVIS: St. James Windward Parish, Sea Haven Estate, no. 


C. cupressoides (West) C. Agardh, var. cupressoides:- GRAND CAYMAN: West Shore 

near West Indian Club, no. 67-21. NEVIS: St. Thomas Lowland Parish, Pinneys 
Beach, no. 68-139; St. James Windward Parish, Mosquito Bay, no. 68-179, Sea 
Haven Estate, no. 68-218C (all 3 near v. flabellata). ANTIGUA: St. John Parish, 
Hodge Point, no. 66425 (near v. mamillosa); St. George Parish, Judge Bay, no. 
67-206 (near v. serrata); St. Paul Parish, Crawle Bay, no. 67-23 1 (near v. ericifolia). 
DOMINICA: St. Andrew Parish, Calibishie Bay, nos. R-154, R-185. BARBADOS: 
St. John Parish, Bath Bay, no. 67-856 (near v. tumeri); St. Andrew Parish, Chalky 
Mount, nos. 67-85 1 , 68479 (near v. mamillosa). 

, var. lycopodium (West) C. Agardh:- GRAND CAYMAN: West Shore, West 

Bay near Pageant Beach Hotel, no. 67-117. ST. LUCIA: Gros Islet Parish, La 
Brellotte Bay, no. 68-3 13A. BARBADOS: St. Michael Parish, Gravesend, no. 
67-769, Garrison, no. 68-511; St. James Parish, Heronetta Beach, no. 68-551; St. 
Andrew Parish, Chalky Mount, no. 68-484; St. John Parish, Bath Bay, no. 66-152. 
ST. VINCENT: St. George Parish, Calliaqua Bay, no. GRP-A.5300. 

, , forma elegans (Crouan) Weber-van Bosse:- ANTIGUA: St. 

Paul Parish, Crawle Bay, no. 67-213. DOMINICA: St. Joseph Parish, 185 m. and 
400 m. south of the Layou River, nos. R-318, 67-227 (intermediate to f. disticha). 
BARBADOS: St. John Parish, Conset Bay, no. 66-213. 

, var. mamillosa (Mont.) Weber-van Bosse:- ANTIGUA: St. John Parish, 

Hodge Point, no. 66425. ST. LUCIA: Gros Islet Quarter, La Brellotte Bay, no. 
68-3 13B. BARBADOS: St. Lucy Parish, River Bay, no. 68-447. ST. VINCENT: St. 
George Parish, Calliaqua, no. GRP-A.5242. BEQUIA: Adams Beach, no. 66-376. 


, var. serrata (Kiitz.) Weber-van Bosse:- BARBADOS: St. Michael Parish, 

Gravesend, no. 68-512. 

C. mexicana (Sond.) J. Agardh:- ANTIGUA: St. George Parish, Judge Bay, no. 67-203. 

BARBADOS: St. Andrew Parish, Chalky Mount, no. 68-473. GRENADA: St. 
Andrew Parish, Grenville Beach, no. 66-304B. 

C. prolifera (Forssk.) Lamx.: - ST. KITTS: St. Peter Basseterre Parish, North Frigate Bay, 

no. 68-76. NEVIS: St. Thomas Lowland Parish, Pinneys Beach, no. 68-127, Jones 
Bay, no. 68-153. ANTIGUA: St. John Parish, Hodge Point, no. 66426; St. George 
Parish, Judge Bay, no. 67-200. 

C. scapellif oralis (R. Br.) C. Agardh:- ANTIGUA: St. John Parish, St. John Harbor, 

rocks along causeway to Rat Island, no. 67-268. BARBADOS: St. Michael Parish, 
Garrison, no. 68-513, Carlisle Bay, no. 67-756; St. James Parish, Coral Reef Club 
near Holetown, no. 67-695; St. John Parish, Bath Bay, nos. 66-153, 66-191, Conset 

Bay, no. 66-210; Christ Church Parish, Oistins, nos. 66-1 17A, 67-632, 68-415, 
Welches, no. 68-490, Maxwell Coast, no. 66-233, St. Lawrence Bay, nos. 67-719, 

As found in the West Indies this plant grows in the lowest inlertidal zone where 
there is only very moderate wave action, and in the lower tide pools, but more 
luxuriantly in very quiet water, such as along the Rat Island causeway in St. John 
Harbor, where it was abundant just below lowest spring tides. Major construction 
looking toward a deep water harbor in progress in 1968 may have destroyed this 
station, but the plant is probably well established elsewhere along the shores 

C. sertularioides (Gmel.) Howe, var. sertularioides:— GRAND CAYMAN: South Shore, 

Red Bay, no. 67-67. NEVIS: St. James Windward Parish, Mosquito Bay, no. 
68-176, Sea Haven Estate, no. 68-207A. ANTIGUA: St. John Parish, St. John 
Harbor, no. 67-276, Hodge Point, no. 66-443; St. George Parish, Judge Bay, no. 
67-202. DOMINICA: St. Paul Parish, 1 .2 km. south of the Layou River, no. 67-363; 
St. Joseph Parish, 185 m. and 400 m. south of the Layou River, nos. R-319, 
67-463. ST. LUCIA: Gros Islet Quarter, La Brellotte Bay, no. 68-286; Laborie 
Quarter, Laborie, no. 68-341. BARBADOS: St. Michael Parish, Gravesend, no. 
67-770; St. James Parish, Heronetta Beach, no. 68-552; off the Coral Reef Club 
area near Holetown at 2.5 m. depth, no. 68-747; St. Lucy Parish, Little Bay, no. 
66-52; St. Andrew Parish, Chalky Mount, no. 68-483. BEQUIA: Adams Beach, no. 

, , forma brevipes (Gmel.) Howe:— ST. KITTS: St. George 

Basseterre Parish, Frigate Bay, no. 68-101. DOMINICA: St. Andrew Parish, 
Calibishie Bay, no. R-186. ANTIGUA: St. John Parish, Goat Hill Bay, no. 67-302, 
Hodge Point, no. 66429. BARBADOS: St. James Parish, Coral Reef Club area near 
Holetown, no. 67-747; St. John Parish, Martins Bay, no. 68-5 18. ST. VINCENT: St. 
George Parish, Calliaqua Bay, no. GRP-A.5244. 

C. taxifolia (Vahl) C. Agardh:- ST. KITTS: St. Peter Parish, North Frigate Bay, no. 

68-81. NEVIS: St. Thomas Lowland Parish, Pinneys Beach, no. 68-128, Jones Bay, 
no. 68-154. ANTIGUA: St. John Parish, St. John Harbor, causeway to Rat Island, 
no. 67-270; St. George Parish, Judge Bay, no. 67-204. DOMINICA: St. Andrew 
Parish, Calibishie Bay, no. 67-540. ST. LUCIA: Castries Quarter, Grande Cul de 
Sac, no. 68-362. BARBADOS: St. John Parish, Conset Bay, no. 66-215. 
GRENADA: St. Patrick Parish, Levera Beach, no. 66-286. 

C. raceinosa (Forssk.) J. Agardh:— GRAND CAYMAN: North Sound, Botabano, no. 


GRP-A.2500; East End, Old Isaacs, no. GRP-A.2467; South Shore, east of 
Boddentown near "Joe Conyers", no. 67-36. ST. KITTS: St. Peter Basseterre 
Parish, North Frigate Bay, no. 68-90. ANTIGUA: St. John Parish, Goat Hill Bay, 
no. 67-305, Wetherell Point, no. 66480, Hodge Point, nos. 66-447, 67-261 ; St. Paul 
Parish, Crawle Bay, no. 67-21 1 . DOMINICA: St. Andrew Parish, Calibishie Bay, no. 
67-534. ST. LUCIA: Laborie Parish, Laborie, no. 68-342. BARBADOS: St. Michael 
Parish, Gravesend, no. 67-771; St. Peter Parish, Heywoods Beach, no. 68-431, Six 
Mens Bay, no. 67-795; St. Lucy Parish, Little Bay, nos. 66-51, 67-847, 68-441; St. 
Andrew Parish, Chalky Mount, nos. 66-224, 68-481 ; St. John Parish, Martins Bay, 



C. microphysa (Weber-van Bosse) Feldmann:- NEVIS: St. James Windward Parish, Sea 

Haven Estate, no. 68-205. BARBADOS: St. Lucy Parish, Little Bay, no. 66-59. 
BEQUIA: Friendship Bay, no. 66-361. 



AVRAINVILLEA Decaisne, 1842 
- GRAND CAYMAN: South She 

East End, Gun Bay, no. 67-53. ST. KITTS: St. Peter Basseterre Parish, North 
Frigate Bay, no. 68-88. ANTIGUA: St. John Parish, Hodge Point, no. 66-432B. ST. 
LUCIA: Gros Islet Parish, La Brellotte Bay, no. 68-320. BARBADOS: St. Michael 
Parish, Gravesend, no. 67-782; St. Lucy Parish, River Bay, no. 66-91, Little Bay, 
nos. 66-56, 68-443; St. Andrew Parish, Chalky Mount, nos. 67-852, 68-471; St. 
John Parish, Martins Bay, no. 68-516, Bath Bay, nos. 66-166, 67-665. 

A. longicaulis (Kiitz.) Murr. & Bood.:- GRAND CAYMAN: South Shore, Boddentown, 

no. 67-70. ANTIGUA: St. John Parish, Port Royal Bay, no. 66485. 

A. nigricans Decne., var. nigricans:- ANTIGUA: St. John Parish, Hodge Point, no. 

67-244; St. George Parish, Judge Bay, no. 67-179. ST. LUCIA: Laborie Parish, 

Laborie, no. 68-343. BARBADOS: St. Andrew Parish, Chalky Mount, nos. 67-849, 

68-472; St. John Parish, Bath Bay, no. 66-1 79A. 
, , forma fulva Howe:- GRAND CAYMAN: North Shore, Grape 

Tree Point, no. GRP-A.2753; South Shore, Red Bay, no. 67-71. BARBADOS: St. 

John Parish, Bath Bay, no. 68-1 79B. 

A. asarifolia Borg.:- ST. LUCIA: Gros Islet Parish, La Brellotte Bay, no. 68-284B. 

BARBADOS: St. John Parish, Bath Bay, no. 68-531. 

A. levis Howe:- GRAND CAYMAN: South Shore, Red Bay, no. 67-109. ST. LUCIA: 

Castries Quarter, Grande Cul de Sac, no. 68-365. 

RHIPILIA Kiitzing, 1858 

R. tomentosa Kiitz.:- ANTIGUA: St. John Parish, Hodge Point, no. 66-430; St. George 

Parish, Judge Bay, no. 67-178. 

UDOTEA Lamouroux, 1812 

U. conglutinata (Soland.) Lamx.:- ANTIGUA: St. John Parish, Hodge Point, no. 66431. 

U. cyathiformis Decne.:- BARBADOS: St. John Parish, Bath Bay, quite numerous 

offshore at about 15 dm. depth at low tide, nos. 66-182, 67-854A; Christ Church 
Parish, Silver Sands, no. 66-130. ST. VINCENT: St. George Parish, Calliaqua, no. 


U. spinulosa Howe:- JAMAICA: St. Catherine Parish, dredged from 20 m. depth off 

Hellshire Hills, no. 56-281A; Portland Parish, San San, T. Goreau & J. Lang no. 

A.3354 p.p. 

U. wiisonii Gepp & Howe:- JAMAICA: St. Andrew Parish, South Cay, T. Goreau & E. 

Graham nos. A.3446, A.3449, Southeast Cay, T. Goreau no. A.3455. 

U. flabellum (Soland.) Lamx.:- GRAND CAYMAN: East End, Old Isaacs, no. GRP- 

A.2744. ST. KITTS: St. Peter Basseterre Parish, North Frigate Bay, no. 68-83. 
ANTIGUA: St. George Parish, Judge Bay, nos. 66466, 67-201 , St. George Bay, no. 
66-498; St. Philip Parish, Exchange Bay, no. 66463; St. Paul Parish, Crawle Bay, 
no. 67-232. DOMINICA: St. Andrew Parish, Woodford Hill Bay, Pointe La Soie, no. 



Parish, Bath Bay, no. 66-181. ST. VINCENT: St. George Parish, Calliaqua, no. 

U. occidentalis A. & E. S. Gepp:- BERMUDA: without station, Sue Dimock, June 1891 . 

PENICILLUS Lamarck, 1813 

P. capitatus Lamk.:- GRAND CAYMAN: North Shore, Grape Tree Point, no. GRP- 

A.2755; South Shore, east of Boddentown at "Joe Conyers", no. 6742, Red Bay, 
no. 67-72A. ST. KITTS: St. Peter Basseterre Parish, North Frigate Bay, no. 68-87A. 
ANTIGUA: St. John Parish, Hodge Point, no. 66442. DOMINICA: St. Andrew 
Parish, Calibishie, nos. R-151, R-174. 

P. dumetosus (Lamx.) Blainv.:- GRAND CAYMAN: North Shore, Grape Tree Point, no. 

GRP-A.2752. ST. KITTS: St. Peter Basseterre Parish, North Frigate Bay, no. 
68-87B. ANTIGUA: St. John Parish, Port Royal Bay, no. 66486. GRENADA: St. 
Patrick Parish, Levera Beach, no. 66-290. 

P. lamourouxii Decne.:- GRAND CAYMAN: South Shore east of Boddentown near "Joe 

Conyers' 1 , no. 67-33. 

RHIPOCEPHALUS Kiitzing, 1843 

R. phoenix (Soland.) Kutz.:- GRAND BAHAMA: West End near hotel, no. 68-13. 

ANTIGUA: St. John Parish, Port Royal Bay, no. 66494. 

HALIMEDA Lamouroux, 1812 

H. opuntia (L.) Lamx.:- GRAND BAHAMA: West End near hotel, no. 68-15. GRAND 

CAYMAN: North Sound, Botabano, no. GRP-A.2513; East End, Old Isaacs, no. 
GRP-A.2749; South Shore, Red Bay, no. 67-113, Boddentown, no. 67-64. ST. 
KITTS: St. George Basseterre Parish, Frigate Bay, no. 68-105. NEVIS: St. James 

Windward Parish, Sea Haven Estate, no. 68-222. ANTIGUA: St. John Parish, Hodge 
Point, no. 66-436; St. Philip Parish, Exchange Bay, no. 66464. ST. LUCIA: 
Castries Quarter, Grande Cul de Sac, no. 68-377; Gros Islet Quarter, La Brellotte 
Bay, no. 68-293; Laborie Quarter, Laborie, no. 68-350. BARBADOS: St. John 
Parish, Martins Bay, no. 68-520, Bath Bay, nos. 66-176, 67-660; Christ Church 
Parish, Hastings, no. 66-208. ST. VINCENT: St. George Parish, Calliaqua, no. 
GRP-A.5236. BEQUIA: Adams Beach, no. 66-377. 

H. tuna (Soland.) Lamx.:- ST. KITTS: St. Peter Basseterre Parish, North Frigate Bay, no. 

68-85. NEVIS: St. James Windward Parish, Sea Haven Estate, no. 68-223A. 

H. discoidea Decne.:- ANTIGUA: St. John Parish, Wetherell Point, nos. 66475, 67-26 



Hodge Point, no. 67-243 


H. simulans Howe:- DOMINICA: St. John Parish, Prince Rupert Bay at 1 1-28 m. depth, 

W. L. Schmitt 28 Mar. 1956. ST. VINCENT: St. George Parish, Calliaqua, no. 

H. incrassata (Ell.) Lamx.:- GRAND CAYMAN: North Shore, Grape Tree Point, no. 

GRP-A.2526; South Shore, Red Bay, no. 67-73. 

H. monile (Soland.) Lamx.:- GRAND CAYMAN: South Shore near Boddentown, no. 

67-40. ANTIGUA: St. John Parish, Hodge Point, nos. 66-450, 67-245. 

CODIUM Stackhouse, 1797 

C. intertextum Coll. & Herv.:- BARBADOS: St. Michael Parish, Gravesend, no. 67-773; 

St. Andrew Parish, Chalky Mount, nos. 67-850, 68-470; St. John Parish, Bath Bay, 
no. 66-184. 

C. isthmocladum Vickers:- NEVIS: St. Thomas Lowland Parish, Pinneys Beach, no. 

68-143; St. James Windward Parish, Mosquito Bay, no. 68-161. DOMINICA: St. 
Paul Parish, 1.2 km. south of the Layou River, no. 67-364; St. Andrew Parish, 
Calibishie Bay, no. 67-532. ST. LUCIA: Castries Quarter, Grande Cul de Sac, no. 
68-360A; Gros Islet Quarter, La Brellotte Bay, no. 68-395, Gros Islet Beach, no. 
68-404. BARBADOS: St. Michael Parish, Gravesend, no. 67-772B, Carlisle Bay, no. 
67-760; Christ Church Parish, Oistins, nos. 66-95, 67-635, St. Lawrence Bay, no. 
66-186. ST. VINCENT: St. Andrew Parish, Camden Beach, no. 66-339. GRENA- 
DA: St. George Parish, Grand Anse Beach, no. 66-3 14. 

C. repens Crouan in Vickers:- BARBADOS: St. John Parish, Bath Bay, no. 66-167, 

Conset Bay, no. 68-536. 

C. taylori Silva:- ST. KITTS: St. John Capisterre Parish, Dieppe Bay, no. 68-69(7). ST. 

LUCIA: Castries Quarter, Grande Cul de Sac, no. 68-360B. BARBADOS: St. 
Michael Parish, Gravesend, no. 67-772A; Christ Church Parish, Oistins, no. 66-96. 
ST. VINCENT: St. Patrick Parish, Barrouallie, no. 66-326B. BEQUIA: Friendship 
Bay, no. 66-358. 



Order and Family Uncertain 

CHRYSOPHAEUM Lewis & Bryan, 1941 

C. taylori Lewis & Bryan:- BERMUDA: St. Georges Parish, Nonsuch I., on the south 

side, no. 56-833; Hamilton L, Hamilton Parish, Walsingham Bay, no. 56-704. 
BAHAMAS: North Bimini I., on Thalassia flats near the Lerner Marine Laboratory, 
coll. Taylor 1964. GRAND CAYMAN L: West Shore near Paget Beach Hotel, no. 
67-1 15; South Shore east of Boddentown near "Joe Conyers", no. 67-29. 



CHRYSONEPHOS Taylor, 1952 

C. lewisii (Taylor) Taylor:- BERMUDA: St. Georges L, Richardsons Cove, A. J. 

Bernatowicz no. 50-517; Hamilton L, Pembroke Parish, Fairylands Creek, Bernato- 
wicz no. 51-857. JAMAICA: St. Andrew Parish, Port Royal, on rocks, no. 56-33B, 

Palisadoes, on Acanthophora, no. 56-69. PUERTO RICO: Mayaguez Prov., 
Parguera, Lajas, in a fish trap, L. R. Almodovar & V. M. Rosado no. 4826 (dct. J. 
Th. (Coster). 





BACHELOTIA (Bornet) Kuckuck, 1939 
B. fulvescens (Born.) Kuck.:- BARBADOS: St. Peter Parish, Heywoods Beach, no 


ECTOCARPUS Lyngbye, 1819 

E. confervoides (Roth) LeJol.:- ANTIGUA: St. Philip Parish, Fanneys Cove, no. 67-248. 

E. breviarticulatus J. Agardh:— GRAND CAYMAN: East End, Gun Bay, no. 67-60. 

ANTIGUA: St. John Parish, Loblolly Bay, no. 67-294B; St. Philip Parish, Fanneys 

Cove, no. 67-263C. DOMINICA: St. Paul Parish, 1.6-3.2 km. south of the Layou 

River, no. 67-330; St. Joseph Parish, South of the Macoucherie River, no. 67-407; 
St. John Parish, Douglas Bay, no. 67-502; St. Mark Parish, Soufriere Bay, no. 

67-441. ST. LUCIA: Gros Islet Quarter, La Brellotte Bay, no. 68-256, Jacks Beach, 
no. 68-411; Laborie Quarter, Laborie, no. 68-338A. BARBADOS: St. Peters Parish, 
Heywood Beach, no. 68-422, Six Mens Bay, no. 67-644; St. Lucy Parish, River Bay, 
no. 66-93, Little Bay, nos. 6648, 68-445, Wickes Bay, no. 67-675; St. Andrew 
Parish, Windy Hill, no. 66-220. 

E. rhodochortonoides Borg.:— Plants about 5 mm. tall, the filaments very sparingly 

branched, 8.5-14.0 ju diam., the cells 2.5-7.0 diameters long; gametangia often 
sessile, often on a slight pedicel which is a projection of the supporting cell, 
occasionally on a one-celled stalk, 18-28 n diam., 26-47 ju long, with rather large 
cells. GRAND BAHAMA: West End, on old Cystoseira plant stalks in intertidal 
beach-rock pools, very abundant, no. 68-24. 

These plants do not quite reach the maximum filament diameter (21 ju) cited by 
Borgesen, nor in the region of the gametangia do the cells become as long, but near 
the filament tips they approach his characterization more closely. Otherwise they 
agree quite well with his description. Text-figures 7-14. 

GIFFORDIA Batters, 1893 

G. mitchellae (Harv.) Hamel:- ANTIGUA: St. John Parish, Goat Hill Bay, no. 67-306; St. 

Philip Parish, Fanneys Cove, no. 67-253B. DOMINICA: St. Joseph Parish, south of 
the Macoucherie River, no. 67409. BARBADOS: St. Lucy Parish, Little Bay, no. 

G. conifera (Borg.) W. R. Taylor (?):- ANTIGUA: St. Paul Parish, Crawle Bay, no. 


G. duchassaingiana (Grun.) W. R. Taylor:- ANTIGUA: St. John Parish, Hodge Point, no. 

67-141. DOMINICA: St. Paul Parish, 1.6-3.2 km. south of the Layou River, no. 
67-329A. ST. LUCIA: Laborie Quarter, Laborie, no. 68-338C. BARBADOS: St. 
James Parish, Paynes Bay, no. 66-39. 





SPHACELARIA Lyngbye, 1819 

S. furcigera Kiitz.:— DOMINICA: St. Joseph Parish, 400 m. south of the Layou River, no. 


S. tribuloides Menegh.:- ANTIGUA: St. John Parish, Loblolly Bay, no. 67-290, Port 

Royal Bay, no. 67-154. DOMINICA: St. Paul Parish, 1.6-3.2 km. south of the 
Layou River, no. 67-325. BARBADOS: St. Lucy Parish, Little Bay, no. 67-840. 

S. novae-hollandiae Sond.:- BARBADOS: St. Lucy Parish, Little Bay, no. 68-446. 


Text-figures 7-14. Ectocarpus rhodochortonoides. Portions of erect filaments showing gametangia, 

that in fig. 1 1 having discharged. Grand Bahama. 



DILOPHUSJ. Agardh, 1882 

D. guineensis (Kiitz.) J. Agardh:- GRAND CAYMAN: West Shore, near West Indian 

Club, no. 67-11; East End, Old Isaacs, nos. GRP-A.2521. ST. KITTS: St. Peter 
Basseterre Parish, Conaree Beach, no. 68-44. ANTIGUA: St. John Parish, Loblolly 
Bay, no. 67-298, Wetherell Point, no. 66-406, Hodge Point, no. 67-133B; St. George 
Parish, Judge Bay, no. 67-183. DOMINICA: St. Paul Parish, 1.2 km. south of the 
Layou River, no. 67-365; St. Joseph Parish, south of the Layou River, no. 67-394, 
south of the Macouclierie River, no. 67-411; St. Mark Parish, Scotts Head, no. 
R-294A. ST. LUCIA: Castries Quarter, Grande Cul de Sac, no. 68-363 A, Gros Islet 
Quarter, La Brellotte Bay, no. 68-302. BARBADOS: St. Michael Parish, east of 
Needham Point, no. 67-704; St. Lucy Parish, River Bay, nos. 66-77, 67-687; St. 
John Parish, Bath Bay, no. 66-159; Christ Church Parish, St. Lawrence Bay, nos. 
66-185, 68-499. ST. VINCENT: St. George Parish, Calliaqua, no. 66-342. BEQUIA: 
Adams Beach, no. 66-398A. 

D. alternans J. Agardh var. alternans:— ANTIGUA: St. John Parish, Wetherell Point, no. 

66-472, Hodge Point, no. 66-419D; St. George Parish, Judge Bay, nos. 66-469, 67- 



184; St. Paul Parish, Crawle Bay, no. 67-225. DOMINICA: St. Andrew Parish, Cali- 
bishie Bay, no. 67-579. ST. LUCIA: Gros Islet Quarter, La Brellotte Bay, no. 68-317. 
BARBADOS: St. James Parish, Payne Bay, no. 68-559; St. John Parish, Bath Bay, 
no. 66-227. 

, , forma acutissima fa. nov.:— Plantae typo speciei similes; rami 

1.5-4.0 mm. lat. super furcas, apicibus divergentibus et acutissimis. Planta typica e 
loco I. St. Lucia, Gros Islet Quarter, La Brellotte Bay dicto, a W. R. Taylor lecta, no. 
66-288, 17 iii 68; in Herbario Universitatis Michiganensis deposita. 

Plants similar to the type of the species; but branches 1 .5-4.0 id broad above the 



Text-figures 15, 16. Dilophus alternans fa. acutissima. Upper portions of two plants. St. Lucia. 

These plants have in common very divergently and acutely bifid branch tips. 
This is a character seen in one growth phase of Dictyota dentata, but not expected 
in Dilophus, where the branching habit is quite different. They greatly resemble 
Maze and Schramm's Dictyota dichotoma var. prolifera no. 387 from Guadeloupe 
(in the Kew herbarium specimen), but the branching is more equal, the tips sharper. 
Like it they are notably proliferous from the faces of the branches. The varietal 
name is not applied to specimens of this number in the 1870-77 text, nor does it 
appear in the earlier issues where specimen numbers are not used. Text-figures 15, 


D1CTY0TA Lamouroux, 1809 

D. dichotoma (Huds.) Lamx., var. dichotoma:- GRAND CAYMAN: West Shore near 

West Indian Club, no. 67-14. NEVIS: St. James Windward Parish, Mosquito Bay, 
no. 68-180. ANTIGUA: St. John Parish, Loblolly Bay, no. 67-297, Hodge Point, 
no. 66-420; St. George Parish, Judge Bay, nos. 67-160, 67-182A; St. Paul Parish, 
Crawle Bay, no. 67-227. BARBADOS: St. James Parish, Coral Reef Club near 
Holetown, no. 67-696; St. John Parish, Bath Bay, no. 66-160. ST. VINCENT: St. 
George Parish, Calliaqua, no. GRP-A.5309; St. Andrew Parish, Camden Beach, no. 

, var. menstrualis Hoyt:— GRENADA: St. Andrew Parish, Grenville Beach, 

no. 66-281. 

D. linearis (C. Agardh) Grev.:- GRAND CAYMAN: West Shore near West Indian Club, 

no. 67-12(7). ANTIGUA: St. George Parish, Judge Bay, no. 67-1 81 A. ST. 
VINCENT: St. George Parish, Calliaqua, no. GRP-A.5288. 

D. bartayresii Lamx.:— ANTIGUA: St. John Parish, Pinchin Bay, no. 67-283; St. Peter 

Parish, Six Mens Bay, no. 67-653; St. Paul Parish, Mamora Bay, no. 67-312. BAR- 
BADOS: St. James Parish, off Colony Club area near Holetown, at 10-14 m. depth, 
no. 67-653. 

D. volubilis Kutz.:- ANTIGUA: St. George Parish, Judge Bay, no. 67-180. 

D. divaricata Lamx.:— ST. KITTS: St. John Capisterre Parish, Dieppe Bay, no. 68-58. 

NEVIS: St. Thomas Lowland Parish, Jones Bay, no. 68-152. ANTIGUA: St. John 
Parish, Port Royal Bay, no. 66-490, Hodge Point, no. 66-448B; St. George Parish, 
Judge Bay, no. 67-1 8 IB; St. Paul Parish, Crawle Bay, no. 67-226. DOMINICA: St. 
John Parish, Douglas Bay, no. 67490. ST. LUCIA: Gros Islet Parish, La Brellotte 
Bay, no. 68-290. ST. VINCENT: St. George Parish, Calliaqua, no. GRP-A.5237. 
BEQUIA: Friendship Bay, no. 66-369C. 

D. indica Sonder:— NEVIS: St. Thomas Lowland Parish, Pinneys Beach, no. 68-137, 

Jones Beach, no. 68-150. DOMINICA: St. Joseph Parish, south of the Macoucherie 

River, no. 67-386. 

D. cervicornis Kutz.:- GRAND CAYMAN: East End, Gun Bay, no. 67-58. NEVIS: St. 

Thomas Lowland Parish, Pinneys Beach, no. 68-1 40A. ANTIGUA: St. George 
Parish, Judge Bay, no. 67-186. DOMINICA: St. John Parish, Prince Rupert Bay, no. 
67-480. BARBADOS: St. Michael Parish, Carlisle Bay, no. 67-763; St. John Parish, 
Bath Bay, nos. 66-1 57 (?), 67-670. 

var. cervicornis f. curvula fa. nov.:— Plantae satis parvae, 6-10 cm. alt., 

irregulariter ramosae, uno membro furcae non ramoso aut minus ramoso quam 
alterum et curvatissimo. Planta typica e loco I. Dominica, Paroecia St. Joseph dicto 
e litore meridionali flu minis Macoucherie, sed versus septcntriones loci Mero dicti, a 
W. R. Taylor & C. F. Rhync lecta, no. 67-385, 20 ii 67; in Herbario Musei 
Nationalis Civitatum Unitarum in loco Washington D.C. dicto deposita. 

Plants rather small, 6-10 cm. tall, irregularly branched, with one member of the 
fork unbranched or less branched than the other, and very strongly curved. 
DOMINICA: St. Joseph Parish, from the shore south of the Macoucherie River but 
north of Mero, no. 67-385; St. John Parish, Prince Rupert Bay, Portsmouth Harbor, 
no. S&W-27716. 

These plants seem very close to Maze and Schramm's D. dichotoma fa. curvula 
Crouan mscpt., according to the specimen no. 981 in the British Museum (Nat. 
Hist.) herbarium. The curved branches are, indeed, even more evident. The name 



appears without a pertinent description in their 1870-77 text, and, since the 
branchings are commonly unequal, I would prefer to associate the form with D. 
cervicomis. Even in a genus with species as variable as in this, form names are useful 
to call attention to features of variation otherwise disregarded and forgotten. 
Text-figures 17, 18. 

Text-figures 17, 18. Dictyota cervicomis fa. curvula. Upper portions of two plants. Dominica 

D. ciliolata Kiitz., var. ciliolata:- ANTIGUA: St. John Parish, Wetherell Point, no. 

66-477, Hodge Point, no. 67-258. ST. KITTS: St. John Capisterre Parish, Dieppe 
Bay, no. 68-57. DOMINICA: St. John Parish, Prince Rupert Bay, no. 67-471; St. 
Andrew Parish, Calibishie Bay, no. 67-583; St. Mark Parish, Scotts Head, no. R-300. 
BARBADOS: St. Michael Parish, Gravesend, no. 67-783; St. Peter Parish, Bayfield, 
no. 66-26; St. Lucy Parish, River Bay, no. 67-807, Little Bay, no. 67-833; Christ 
Church Parish, St. Lawrence Bay, no. 66-187. ST. VINCENT: St. George Parish, 
Calliaqua, no. GRP-A.5250. 

,var. bermudensis W. R. Taylor (?):- BARBADOS: St. John Parish, Bath Bay, 

no. 66-231. 

D. jamaicensis W. R. Taylor:- ANTIGUA: St. John Parish, Hodge Bay, no. 67-258(7). 

ST. LUCIA: Gros Islet Quarter, La Brellotte Bay, no. 68-289. BARBADOS: St. 
James Parish, Paynes Bay, no. 66-38 ; St. Peter Parish, Hey woods Beach, no. 68428 , 
Six Mens Bay, no. 68-794; St. Lucy Parish, Little Bay, no. 68442; Christ Church 
Parish, Silver Sands, no. 66-124. ST. VINCENT: St. George Parish, Calliaqua, no. 
GRP-A.5240; St. Andrew Parish, Camden Beach, no. 66-335A. BEQUIA: Adams 
Beach, no. 66-390. 

D. dentata Lamx.:- GRAND BAHAMA: West End near hotel, no. 68-25. GRAND 

CAYMAN: West Shore near West Indian Club, no. 67-16, near West Bay Village, no. 
67-101; North Shore, Grape Tree Point, no. GRP-A.2528. ST. KITTS: St. John 
Capisterre Parish, Dieppe Bay, no. 68-65; St. Peter Basseterre Parish, Conaree Bay, 
nos. GRP-A.3133, 6843, North Frigate Bay, no. 68-94. NEVIS: St. Thomas 
Lowland Parish, Jones Bay, no. 68-151. ANTIGUA: St. John Parish, Hodge Point, 
nos. 66421, 67-136; St. George Parish, Judge Bay, no. 66468. ST. LUCIA: Gros 
Islet Quarter, La Brellotte Bay, no. 68-324. DOMINICA: St. Paul Parish, 1.2 km. 


south of the Layou River, no. 61-351; St. Joseph Parish, south of the Macoucherie 
River, no. 67-387; St. Andrew Parish, Calibishie Bay, no. 67-543; St. Mark Parish, 
Atlantic side of Scotts Head, no. 62449. ST. VINCENT: St. George Parish, 
Calliaqua, no. 66-345B; St. Andrew Parish, Camden Beach, no. 66-335B. 
BARBADOS: St. Lucy Parish, River Bay, nos. 66-82, 67-690, 68-451; St. John 
Parish, Bath Bay, no. 66-148; Christ Church Parish, Oistins, no. 66-1 14A, St. 
Lawrence Bay, nos. 66-188, 67-720, 68498. ST. VINCENT: St. George Parish, 
Calliaqua, no. GRP-A.5283. GRENADA: St. George Parish, Martins Bay, no. 
66-295(7); St. Patrick Parish, Levera Beach, no. 66-291 ; St. Andrew Parish, Marquis 
Beach, no. 66-279. 

SPATOGLOSSUM Kutzing, 1843 

S. schroederi Kiitz.:— NEVIS: St. George Gingerland Parish, Indian Castle Estate, no. 

68-246. BARBADOS: Christ Church Parish, Oistins, no. 67-625, Hastings, no. 66- 
198. GRENADA: St. George Parish, Point Salines, Black Beach, no. 66-258; 
Charlotte Parish, Peruvian Vale, no. 66-350. 

DICTYOPTERIS Lamouroux, 1809 

D. justii Lamx.:- NEVIS: St. James Windward Parish, Mosquito Bay, no. 68-181; St. 

George Gingerland Parish, Indian Castle Estate, no. 68-237. ANTIGUA: St. John 
Parish, Hodge Point, no. 66-441. BARBADOS: Christ Church Parish, Silver Sands, 
no. 66-1 23, Oistins, no. 67-626, St. Lawrence Bay, nos. 66-192, 67-723, 68-500. ST. 
VINCENT: Charlotte Parish, Peruvian Vale, no. 68-348. GRENADA: St. George 
Parish, Point Salines, Black Bay, no. 66-259. 

D. delicatula Lamx.:- ST. KITTS: St. Peter Basseterre Parish, Conaree Beach, no. 68-681 

{p.p. with Sargassum hystrix). NEVIS: St. James Windward Parish, Sea Haven 
Estate, no. 68-238. ANTIGUA: St. George Parish, Judge Bay, no. 67-163; St. Philip 
Parish, Exchange Bay, no. 66452; St. Paul Parish, Crawle Bay, no. 67-224. 
DOMINICA: St. George Parish, Roseau, no. 67-355; St. Joseph Parish, south of the 
Macoucherie River, nos. 67-401, 67-408; St. Mark Parish, Scotts Head, no. R-294B. 
BARBADOS: St. Lucy Parish, River Bay, no. 67-691, Little Bay, no. 67-834; St. 
Joseph Parish, Cattle Wash, no. 66-3; Christ Church Parish, Oistins, no. 66-1 12. ST. 
VINCENT: St. George Parish, Argyle, no. 66-355, Calliaqua, no. GRP-A.5239; 
Charlotte Parish, Peruvian Vale, no. 66-349. BEQUIA: Adams Beach, no. 66-397. 
GRENADA: Black Bay, Point Salines, no. 66-270A; St. Andrew Parish, Marquis 

Beach, no. 66-277. 

D. jamaicensis W. R. Taylor:- BARBADOS: Christ Church Parish, Silver Sands, no. 

66-124; Oistins, no. 67-627. 

D. plagiogramma (Mont.) Vick.:- GRENADA: St. Patrick Parish, Levera Beach; no. 


POCOCKIELLA Papenfuss, 1943 

P. variegata (Lamx.) Papenf.:- GRAND CAYMAN: West Shore near West Indian Club, 

no. 67-22. ST. KITTS: St. George Basseterre Parish, North Friars Bay, no. 
GRP-A.3180. NEVIS: St. Thomas Lowland Parish, Pinneys Beach, no. 68-1 20B; St. 
James Windward Parish, Mosquito Bay, no. 68-192. ANTIGUA: St. John Parish, 
Loblolly Bay, no. 67-290, Wetherell Point, no. 66405, Soldiers Bay, no. 67-156, 
Hodge Point, no. 66405; St. George Parish, Judge Bay, no. 66-467A. DOMINICA: 
St. Andrew Parish, Calibishie Bay, nos. 67-542, 67-578, R-184; St. Mark 


Parish, Scotts Head, no. R-289. BARBADOS: St. John Parish, Bath Bay, no. 
66-172, Conset Bay, no. 68-548; Christ Church Parish, Silver Sands, no. 66-127, 
Oistins, no. 66-1 17B, St. Lawrence Bay, no. 67-722. GRENADA: St. George Parish, 
Point Salines, Black Bay, no. 66-257. 

STYPOPODIUM Kutzing, 1 843 

S. zonale (Lamx.) Papenf.:- GRAND CAYMAN: West Shore, near West Indian Club, no. 

67-24; North Shore, Grape Tree Point, no. GRP-A.2490. NEVIS: St. James 
Windward Parish, Mosquito Bay, no. 68-193. DOMINICA: St. Marks Parish, Scotts 
Head on the Atlantic side, R-289. BARBADOS: St. John Parish, Bath Bay, no. 
66-154. ST. VINCENT: St. George Parish, Calliaqua, no. GRP-A.5281. 

PADINA Adanson, 1763 

P. haitiensis Thivy (?):— ANTIGUA: St. Paul Parish, English Harbor dockyard, no. 


P. vickersiae Hoyt:- GRAND CAYMAN: East End, Gun Bay, no. 67-61. ST. KITTS: St. 

George Basseterre Parish, Frigate Bay, no. 68-98. NEVIS: St. James Windward 
Parish, Mosquito Bay, no. 68-182(7), 68-185. ANTIGUA: St. John Parish, Wetherell 
Point, no. 67-259. DOMINICA: St. Joseph Parish, south of the Macoucherie River, 
no. 67-381. ST. LUCIA: Gros Islet Parish, La Brellotte Bay, no. 68-258. 
BARBADOS: St. James Parish, Paynes Bay, nos. 66-47, 68-556; St. Peter Parish, 
Six Mens Bay, no. 66-28 ; St. Lucy Parish, River Bay, nos. 67-692, 67-805 ; St. John 
Parish, Bath Bay, no. 66-189; Christ Church Parish, Oistins, nos. 66-121, 67-633. 

ST. VINCENT: St. George Parish, Calliaqua, nos. GRP-A.5287, 66-340; St. Andrew 
Parish, Camden Beach, no. 66-332. 

P. sanctae-crucis Borg.:- GRAND CAYMAN: West Shore near Pageant Beach Hotel, no. 

67-80; North Shore, Grape Tree Point, no. GRP-A.2481. NEVIS: St. James 
Windward Parish, Mosquito Bay, no. 68-183. ANTIGUA: St. John Parish, Wetherell 
Point, no. 66-471, Hodge Point, nos. 66-434, 67-139; St. George Parish, Fitches 
Creek, no. 67-316; St. Philip Parish, Exchange Bay, no. 66-459; St. Paul Parish, 
Crawle Bay, nos. 67-2 18A, 67-219. DOMINICA: St. John Parish, Prince Rupert 
Bay, no. 67-466. BARBADOS: St. Michael Parish, Gravesend, no. 67-781; Carlisle 
Bay, no. 67-757; St. Lucy Parish, River Bay, nos. 66-80, 67-689, Little Bay, no. 
68-438; St. John Parish, Bath Bay, no. 66-155. ST. VINCENT: St. George Parish, 
Calliaqua, no. GRP-A.5288. 

P. gymnospora (Kiitz.) Vick.:- GRAND CAYMAN: West Shore, West Indian Club, no. 

67-23. NEVIS: St. James Windward Parish, Mosquito Bay, no. 68-182. ANTIGUA: 
St. John Parish, St. John Harbor, no. 67-269, Hodge Point, no. 66-41 5 A(?). 
DOMINICA: St. Joseph Parish, 400 m. south of the Layou River, no. 67-340; St. 
John Parish, Prince Rupert Bay, no. 67-466; St. Andrew Parish, Calibishie Bay, no. 
67-555; St. Mark Parish, Soufriere Bay, no. R-269. ST. LUCIA: Castries Quarter, La 

Toe Bay, no. 68-407. BARBADOS: St. Michael Parish, Gravesend, no. 67-706; St. 
James Parish, Paynes Bay, no. 68-558; St. Lucy Parish, River Bay, no. 67-809, 
Wickes Bay, no. 67-673; St. John Parish, Bath Bay, nos. 66-158, 67-668. BEQUIA: 
Adams Beach, no. 66-386. 




MYRIONEMA Greville, 1827 
M. strangulans Grev.(?):— GFLAND CAYMAN: South Shore east of Boddentown near 

"Joe Conyers", no. 67-38B. 


RALFSIA Berkeley, 1831 

R. expansa J. Agardh (?):- ANTIGUA: St. John Parish, Hodge Point, no. 66-438B; St 

Philip Parish, Exchange Bay, no. 66-465. 


CLADOSIPHON Kutzing, 1843 
C. occidentalis Kylin:- GRAND BAHAMA: West End near hotel, no. 68-6 



COLPOMENIA Derbes& Solier, 1856 

C. sinuosa (Roth) Derb. & Sol.:— ST. KITTS: St. John Capisterre Parish, Dieppe Bay, no. 

68-61; St. Peter Basseterre Parish, North Frigate Bay, no. 68-96. NEVIS: St. James 
Windward Parish, Mosquito Bay, no. 68-186, Sea Haven Estate, no. 68-211; St. 

George Gingerland Parish, Indian Castle Estate, no. 68-240. ANTIGUA: St. George 
Parish, Judge Bay, nos. 66-467, 67-192. DOMINICA: St. Andrew Parish, Calibishie 

Bay, no. 67-530; St. Mark Parish, Soufriere Bay, no. 67-429. ST. LUCIA: Dauphin 
Quarter, Grand Anse, no. 68-387; Laborie Quarter, Laborie, no. 68-340. BARBA- 
DOS: St. Michael Parish, Gravesend, no. 67-768; St. Lucy Parish, River Bay, no. 
67-821; St. John Parish., Bath Bay, no. 66-150; Christ Church Parish, Silver Sands, 
no. 66-131, St. Lawrence Bay, nos. 66-199, 68-496. 

H. clathratus (Bory) Howe: BARBADOS: St. John Parish, Bath Bay, no. 66-151. 

ROSENVINGEA Borgesen, 1917 

R. floridana (W. R. Taylor) W. R. Taylor:- NEVIS: St. Thomas Lowland Parish, Pinncys 

Beach, no. 68-144. ST. VINCENT: St. Patrick Parish, Barrouallie, no. 66-325. Plants 
more slender than the type, the branch tips filiform. 

R. intricata (J. Agardh) Borg.: GRAND BAHAMA: West End, no. 68-33. BARBADOS: 

Christ Church Parish, Oistins, no. 67-738. 

R. sanctae-crucis Borg.:- BARBADOS: St. Lucy Parish, River Bay, no. 67-682A. 

DOMINICA: St. John Parish, Prince Rupert Bay, Portsmouth Harbor, no. S & W 


CHNOOSPORA J. Agardh, 1847 

C. minima (Her.) Papcnf.:- ST. VINCENT: Charlotte Parish, Spring, north of Peruvian 

Vale, no. 66-401 . GRENADA: St. George Parish, Grand Anse Beach, no. 66-3 13. 




CYSTOSEIRA C. Agardh, 1820 
C. myrica (Gmel.) J. Agardh:- GRAND BAHAMA: West End, on the south shore, no 


SARGASSUM C. Agardh, 1820 

S. filipendula C. Agardh:- ST. KITTS: St. John Capisterre Parish, Dieppe Bay, no. 

68-67 (?). 

S. acinarium (L.) C. Agardh:- GRAND BAHAMA: West End, south shore, F. K. 

Sparrow. GRAND CAYMAN: West Shore near West Indian Club, no. 67-27; South 
Shore east of Boddentown, near "Joe Conyers", no. 67-30. ANTIGUA: St. John 
Parish, Port Royal Bay, no. 67-157(7); St. Paul Parish, Crawle Bay, no. 67-233. ST. 



S. rigidulum Kutz.:- St. John Parish, Loblolly Bay, no. 67-288(7). DOMINICA: St. David 

Parish, Rosalie, no. 67-453. BARBADOS: St. Lucy Parish, River Bay, nos. 66-88, 
67-802, Little Bay, nos. 66-61, 67-828; St. Andrew Parish, Chalky Mount, no. 
68-467; St. Joseph Parish, Cattle Wash, no. 66-9. 

S. vulgare C. Agardh, var. vulgare:- NEVIS: St. James Windward Parish, Mosquito Bay, 

nos. 68-190, 68-191. ANTIGUA: St. Philip Parish, Exchange Bay, no. 66-454A; St. 
Paul Parish, Crawle Bay, no. 67-235. DOMINICA: St. George Parish, Roseau, no. 
67-347; St. Paul Parish, 1.6-3.2 km. south of the Layou River, no. 67-332, 1.2 km. 
south of the Layou River, no. 67-376; St. Andrew Parish, Calibishie Bay, no. 
67-560; St. David Parish, Rosalie, no. 67-455; St. Mark Parish, Soufriere Bay, nos. 
67-430, R-302. ST. LUCIA: Dauphin Quarter, Grand Anse Beach, no. 68-384; 
Vieux Fort Quarter, Anse des Sables, no. 68-330. BARBADOS: St. James Parish, 
Paynes Bay, nos. 6642, 68-563; St. Lucy Parish, River Bay, no. 67-694B, Little 
Bay, nos. 67-828, 68436; St. Joseph Parish, Cattle Wash, no. 66-8; St. John Parish, 
Bath Bay, nos. 67-656, 68-527, 68-529B. ST. VINCENT: St. George Parish, Argyle, 
no. 66-356(7); St. Patrick Parish, Barrouallie, no. 66-323. BEQUIA: Princess 
Margaret Beach, no. 66400, Adams Beach, no. 66-394. GRENADA: St. Andrew 
Parish, Grenville Beach, nos. 66-285, 66-305, Marquis Beach, no. 66-276. 

, var. foliosissimum (Lamx.) C. Agardh:- ST. KITTS: St. Peter Basseterre 

Parish, Conaree, no. 68-40. DOMINICA: St. John Parish, Prince Rupert Bay, no. 
67-476. ST. LUCIA: Castries Quarter, Grande Cul de Sac, no. 68-352. BARBA- 
DOS: St. Joseph Parish, Cattle Wash, no. 66-7. ST. VINCENT: St. George Parish, 
Rose Cottage, G. R. Cooley no. A.8515. BEQUIA: Friendship Bay, no. 66-359. 
GRENADA: St. Andrew Parish, Grenville Beach, no. 66-306. 

S. polyceratium Mont., var. polyceratium:- GRAND CAYMAN: West Shore near West 

Indian Club, no. 67-26. ANTIGUA: St. John Parish, Port Royal Bay, no. 66488, 
Hodge Point, no. 66-414; St. Philip Parish, Exchange Bay, no. 66454B. 

, var. ovatum (Coll.) W. R. Taylor:- GRAND CAYMAN: West Shore near 

Pageant Beach Hotel, no. 67-86. 

S. furcatum Kutz.:- DOMINICA: St. Mark Parish, Atlantic side of Scotts Head, no. 


S. hystrix J. Agardh, var. hystrix:- GRAND BAHAMA: West End, south shore, F. K. 


Sparrow. ST. K1TTS: St. John Capisterre Parish, Dieppe Bay, no. 68-68(7), North 
Frigate Bay, no. 68-94B. DOMINICA: St. David Parish, Rosalie, no. 67452. ST. 



Church Parish, Oistins, no. 67-636. GRENADA: St. Andrew Parish, Grenville 
Beach, no. 66-284. 

, var. buxifolium (Chauv.) J. Agardh: 


Anse Beach, no. 68-385C(?). BARBADOS: St. John Parish, Bath, no. 66-229, 
Conset Bay, no. 68-539B; Christ Church Parish, Silver Sands, no. 66-132, St. 

Lawrence Bay, no. 67-7 13. 

, var. spinulosum (Chauv.) J. Agardh:- BARBADOS: Christ Church Parish, 

Silver Sands, no. 66-134(7), GRENADA: St. George Parish, St. George Harbor, B. 
E. Dahlgren and A. E. Persaud, 22 II 22 (Field Mus. Nat. Hist.). 

S. platycarpum Mont.:- GRAND CAYMAN: West Shore, West Indian Club, no. 67-89. 

ST. KITTS: St. George Basseterre Parish, Frigate Bay, no. 68-97. NEVIS: St. 
Thomas Lowland Parish, Jones Bay, no. 68-157. ANTIGUA: St. John Parish, Goat 
Hill Bay, no. 67-308, Loblolly Bay, no. 67-296, Hodge Point, no. 66-407; St. Philip 
Parish, Exchange Bay, no. 66455. DOMINICA: St. David Parish, Rosalie, no. 
67-454; St. Mark Parish, Scotts Head on the Atlantic Side, no. R-298. ST. LUCIA: 
Dauphin Quarter, Grand Anse, no. 68-380; Vieux Fort Quarter, Anse des Sables, 
no. 68-331. BARBADOS: St. Lucy Parish, River Bay, nos. 66-94, 67-804, Little 
Bay, nos. 66-60, 68-435; St. Joseph Parish, Cattle Wash, no. 66-6; St. John Parish, 
Bath Bay, nos. 67-654 (with leaves commonly forked), 68-525; Christ Church 
Parish, Silver Sands, no. 66-133, St. Lawrence Bay, nos. 67-712, 68-497. 
GRENADA: St. Andrew Parish, Grenville Beach, no. 66-304C. 

S. fluitans Borg.:- GRAND BAHAMA: West End near hotel, no. 68-14. GRAND 

CAYMAN: North Shore near North Side Village, no. 67-120, South Shore east of 
Boddentown near "Joe Conyers", no. 67-31. ST. KITTS: St. Peter Basseterre 
Parish, North Frigate Bay, no. 68-93. NEVIS: St. George Gingerland Parish, Indian 
Castle Estate, no. 68-243. ANTIGUA: St. John Parish, Wetherell Point, no. 66-267, 
Port Royal Bay, no. 66489, Hodge Point, no. 66413; St. George Parish, Judge 
Bay, no. 67-267; St. Philip Parish, Exchange Bay, no. 66454. ST. LUCIA: Dauphin 
Quarter, Grand Anse Beach, no. 68-383; Vieux Fort Quarter, Anse des Sables, no. 
68-328. BARBADOS: St. Lucy Parish, River Bay, no. 68456; St. Andrew Parish, 
Windy Hill, no. 68-466; St. John Parish, Bath Bay, no. 68-530, Conset Bay, no. 

S. natans (L.) J. Meyen:- GRAND CAYMAN: North Shore near North Side Village, no. 

67-119; East End, Gun Bay, no. 67-52. ST. KITTS: St. Peter Basseterre Parish, 
Conaree Beach, no. 68-39, North Frigate Bay, no. 68-92. NEVIS: St. George 
Gingerland Parish, Indian Castle Estate, no. 68-241. ANTIGUA: St. John Parish, 
Wetherell Point, nos. 66404; St. George Parish, Judge Bay, no. 67-266; St. Philip 
Parish, Exchange Bay, no. 66453. ST. LUCIA: Dauphin Quarter, Grand Anse, no. 
68-381. BARBADOS: St. Lucy Parish, River Bay, no. 68455, Little Bay, no. 
68437; St. Andrew Parish, Windy Hill, no. 68465; St. John Parish, Bath Bay, no. 
68-526, Conset Bay, no. 68-541 . 

TURBINARIA Lamouroux, 1828 

T. costata Bart.:- GRAND CAYMAN: West Shore, near Pageant Beach Hotel, no. 

67- 1 1 6 ; East End, Old Isaacs, GRP-A.2745 . 

T. turbinate (L.) Kuntze:- GRAND BAHAMA: West End, no. 68-17(7). GRAND 


CAYMAN: West Shore, West Indian Club, no. 67-17; South Shore east of 
Boddentown near "Joe Conyers", no. 67-43. ST. KITTS: St. Peter Basseterre 
Parish, Conaree Beach, no. GRP-A.3142, North Frigate Bay, no. 68-91. NEVIS: St. 
James Windward Parish, Sea Haven Estate, no. 68-195. ANTIGUA: St. John Parish, 
Hodge Point, nos. 66-416, 67-147. DOMINICA: St. Mark Parish, Soufriere Bay, no. 





ERYTHROCLADIA Rosenvinge, 1909 

E. subintegra Rosenv.:— DOMINICA: St. George Parish, Roseau, no. 67-353 {p.p. on 

Chaetomorpha) . BARBADOS: St. Michael Parish, Bridgetown near "Pelican 
Village 1 ', no. 67-753 {p.p. on Chaetomorpha). 

ERYTHROTRICHIA Areschoug, 1850 

E. carnea (Dillw.) J. Agardh:- ANTIGUA: St. Peter Parish, Bayfield, no. 66-25 {p.p., on 

Dictyota). BARBADOS: St. James Parish, off the Coral Reef Club near Holetown, 
no. 67-745 {p.p., on Poly sip honia). 


COMPSOPOGON Montague, 1846 
C. caeruleus (Balbis) Mont.:- DOMINICA: St. Andrew Parish, Woodford Hill River, no 






A. liagorae Borg.:- BARBADOS: St. Michael Parish, Garrison, no. 67-786 {p.p., in 



TRICHOGLOEA Kutzing, 1849 

T. requienii (Mont.) Kiitz.:- BARBADOS: St. John Parish, Bath Bay, no. 66-145; Christ 

Church Parish, Oistins, nos. 67-6 15, 67-727A. 


H. calvadosii (Lamx.) Setch.:- DOMINICA: St. Andrew Parish, Woodford Hill Bay, no. 


LIAGORA Lamouroux, 1812 

L. farinosa Lamx.:- GRAND CAYMAN: West Shore near West Indian Club, no. 67-7. 

ST. KITTS: St. George Basseterre Parish, Frigate Bay, no. GRP-A.3159; St. John 
Capisterre Parish, Dieppe Bay, no. 68-56; St. Peter Basseterre Parish, Conaree 
Beach, no. 68-38. NEVIS: St. James Windward Parish, Sea Haven Estate Beach, nos. 
68-199, 68-200. ST. LUCIA: Gros Islet Quarter, La Brellotte Bay, no. 68-257A. 
BARBADOS: St. Lucy Parish, River Bay, no. 68-449. 

L. ceranoides Lamx.:- GRAND CAYMAN: East End, Gun Bay, no. 67-54, no. 

GRP-A.2517. ANTIGUA: St. John Parish, Wetherell Point, no. 66-481 ; St. George 


Parish, Judge Bay, no. 67-172. DOMINICA: St. Joseph Parish, 400 m. south of the 
Layou River, no. 67-464 (det. I. A. Abbott); St. Andrew Parish, Calibishie Bay, no. 
67-527 (det. as fa. pulverulenta by I. A. Abbott). BARBADOS: St. Michael Parish, 
Gravesend, no. 67-784; St. James Parish, Paynes Bay, no. 66-31, off Coral Reef 
Club area, nos. 67-789, 67-792; St. Lucy Parish, River Bay, no. 67-817; Christ 
Church Parish, Oistins, no. 67-616, 67-729. 

L. valida Harv.:- GRAND CAYMAN: West Bay Village, no. 67-103; East End, Old Isaacs, 

no. GRP-A.2518. ST. KITTS: St. George Basseterre Parish, South Friars Bay, no. 
GRP-A.3175; St. John Capisterre Parish, Dieppe Bay, no. 68-60; St. Peter 
Basseterre Parish, Conaree Beach, no. 68-47. DOMINICA: St. John Parish, Prince 
Rupert Bay, no. 67469 (det. I. A. Abbott). BARBADOS: St. Michael Parish, 
Gravesend, no. 67-785 ; St. Lucy Parish, River Bay, no. 66-76; St. John Parish, Bath 
Bay, no. 66-171, Conset Bay, no. 68-546; Christ Church Parish, Oistins, no. 67-730, 
St. Lawrence Bay, no. 67-721. ST. VINCENT: St. George Parish, Calliaqua, no. 

L. mucosa Howe:- GRAND CAYMAN: East End, Old Isaacs, no. GRP-A.2515. 

BARBADOS: St. James Parish, off Coral Reef Club area near Holetown, nos. 
67-652, 67-786; Christ Church Parish, Oistins, no. 67-728. 

L. pedicellata Howe:- BARBADOS: St. James Parish, at 10-14 m. off the Coral Reef 

Club area near Holetown, no. 67-652. 

L. pinnata Harv.:- GRAND CAYMAN: West Shore near Pageant Beach Hotel, no. 67-81 ; 

West Bay Village, no. 67-102. 

L. decussata Mont.:- DOMINICA: St. Paul Parish, 1.6-3.2 km. south of the Layou River, 

no. 67-329; St. John Parish, Douglas Bay, no. 67-501 (both det. verified by I. A. 


GALAXAURA Lamouroux, 1812 

G. lapidescens (Soland.) Lamx.:— ST. LUCIA: Gros Islet Quarter, La Brellotte Bay, nos. 

68-292, 68-396. 

G. subvert icillata Kjellm.:- GRAND CAYMAN: West Shore, near Pageant Beach Hotel, 

no. 67-84A; North Shore, Grape Tree Point, no. GRP-A.2754. ANTIGUA: St. John 
Parish, Wetherell Point, nos. 66-482, 67-263. DOMINICA: St. Mark Parish, 
Soufriere Bay, no. 67-435. ST. LUCIA: Gros Islet Quarter, La Brellotte Bay, no. 

68-266. BARBADOS: St. James Parish, Paynes Bay, no. 66-32; St. Lucy Parish, 
River Bay, no. 68462; Christ Church Parish, Oistins, no. 66-119, Rockley Beach, 
no. 67-710. 

G. squalida Kiellm.:- GRAND CAYMAN: West Shore near Pageant Beach Hotel, no. 

67-83; East End, Old Isaacs, no. GRP-A.2747. ST. KITTS: St. George Basseterre 
Parish, Frigate Bay, no. GRP-A.3170. NEVIS: St. James Windward Parish, 
Mosquito Bay, no. 68-178. ANTIGUA: St. John Parish, Goat Hill Bay, no. 67-306; 
Loblolly Bay, no. 67-292, Wetherell Point, nos. 66474, 67-246B, Hodge Point, no. 
67-242; St. Philip Parish, Exchange Bay, no. 66462. DOMINICA: St. John Parish, 
Prince Rupert Bay, no. 67-474; St. Andrew Parish, Calibishie Bay, no. R-158; St. 
Mark Parish, Scotts Head on the Atlantic side, no. R-292, Soufriere Bay, no. R-306. 
ST. LUCIA: Gros Islet Quarter, La Brellotte Bay, no. 68-265. BARBADOS: St. 
James Parish, Coral Reef Club near Holetown, no. 67-697. 

G. rugosa (Soland.) Lamx.:- GRAND CAYMAN: South Shore, Boddentown, no. 67-50. 

ST. KITTS: St. George Basseterre Parish, Frigate Bay, nos. 68-106, GRP-A.3161; 
St. Peter Basseterre Parish, Conaree Beach, no. GRP-A.3138. NEVIS: St. James 


Windward Parish, Sea Haven Estate, no. 68-226. ANTIGUA: St. John Parish, Goat 
Hill Bay, no. 67-307, Wetherell Point, no. 66483, Hodge Point, nos. 67-144, 
67-242. DOMINICA: St. Paul Parish, 1.2 km. south of the Layou River, no. 

67-372B; St. Andrew Parish, Calibishie Bay, no. 67-584; St. Mark Parish, Soufriere 
Bay, no. R-262. ST. LUCIA: Laborie Quarter, Laborie, no. 68-345. BARBADOS: 
St. James Parish, Paynes Bay, no. 66-46A, Coral Reef Club area near Holetown, no. 
67-697; St. Peter Parish, Heywoods Beach, no. 68432; Christ Church Parish, 
Hastings, no. 66-207. BEQUIA: Friendship Bay, no. 66-360. GRENADA: St. 
George Parish, Point Salines, Black Bay, no. 66-262B. 

G. cylindrica (Soland.) Lamx.:- ST. K1TTS: St. John Capisterre Parish, Dieppe Bay, no. 

68-62; St. Peter Basseterre Parish, Conaree Beach, no. GRP-A.3139. NEVIS: St. 
George Gingerland Parish, Indian Castle Estate, no. 68-249. DOMINICA: St. Paul 
Parish, 1 .2 km. south of the Layou River, no. 67-372C; St. Joseph Parish, south of 
the Macoucherie River, no. 67-377; St. Andrew Parish, Calibishie Bay, no. 67-545, 
R-202; Woodford Hill Bay, Pointe la Soie, no. R-233. ST. LUCIA: Gros Islet 
Quarter, La Brellotte Bay, no. 68-306. BARBADOS: St. Lucy Parish, River Bay, 
no. 66-75A; Christ Church Parish, St. Lawrence Bay, no. 68-501. 

G. oblongata (Soland.) Lamx.:- ST. KITTS: St. John Capisterre Parish, Dieppe Bay, no. 

68-63. ANTIGUA: St. John Parish, Wetherell Point, no. 67-264A. DOMINICA: St. 
Paul Parish, 1 .2 km. south of the Layou River, no. 67-372; St. Joseph Parish, south 
of the Macoucherie River, no. 67-378. ST. LUCIA: Castries Quarter, Vigie Point, 
no. GRP-A.2799. BARBADOS: St. Lucy Parish, River Bay, no. 66-75; St. John 
Parish, Bath Bay, nos. 66-156, 66-164; Christ Church Parish, Oistins, no. 67-736. 
BEQUIA: Adams Beach, no. 66-372. 

G. obtusata (Soland.) Lamx.:- NEVIS: St. James Windward Parish, Mosquito Bay, no. 

68-177; St. George Gingerland Parish, Red Cliff, no. GRP-A.3224. ST. LUCIA: 
Castries Quarter, Grand Cul de Sac, no. 68-355. BARBADOS: St. John Parish, Bath 
Bay, no. 66-156. 

G. marginata (Soland.) Lamx.:- ST. KITTS: St. John Capisterre Parish, Dieppe Bay, no. 

68-64. NEVIS: St. James Windward Parish, Mosquito Bay, no. 68-166; St. George 
Gingerland Parish, Indian Castle Estate, no. 68-248. DOMINICA: St. Paul Parish, 
1.2 km. south of the Layou River, no. 67-368; St. Joseph Parish, south of the 
Macoucherie River, no. 67-379; St. Andrew Parish, Calibishie Bay, no. 67-569, 
Woodford Hill Bay, Pointe La Soie, no. R-239. ST. LUCIA: Castries Quarter, 
Grande Cul de Sac, no. 68-366. BARBADOS: St. James Parish, Paynes Bay, no. 
66-40; St. Peter Parish, Bayfield, no. 66-29. Six Mens Bay, no. 67-647; St. John 
Parish, Bath Bay, no. 66-165; Christ Church Parish, Oistins, no. 67-744. 
GRENADA: St. George Parish, Grand Anse, no. 66-317. BEQUIA: Adams Beach, 

no. 66-373. 


ASPARAGOPSIS Montagne, 1841 

A. taxiformis (Del.) Coll. & Herv.:- ANTIGUA: St. George Parish, Judge Bay, no. 

67-161. DOMINICA: St. Andrew Parish, Calibishie Bay, no. R-159. BARBADOS: 
St. John Parish, Bath Bay, nos. 66-230, 67-858, Conset, no. 68-545;Christ Church 

Parish, Oistins, no. 67-732. 




GELIDIELLA Feldm. & Hamel, 1 934 

G. trinitatensis W. R. Taylor:- GRAND CAYMAN: West Shore near Pageant Beach 

Hotel, no. 67-95. BEQUIA: Adams Beach, no. 66-399. 

G. acerosa (Forssk.) Feldm. & Hamel:- GRAND CAYMAN: West Shore near Pageant 

Beach Hotel, no. 67-87; East End, Old Isaacs, no. GRP-A.2474. NEVIS: St. James 
Windward Parish, Sea Haven Estate, no. 68-223B. ANTIGUA: St. George Parish, 
Judge Bay, nos. 66473, 67-189; St. Paul Parish, Crawle Bay, nos. 67-219, 67-230. 
DOMINICA: St. Andrew Parish, Calibishie Bay, nos. 67-541, R-189. ST. LUCIA: 
Castries Quarter, Grande Cul de Sac, no. 68-376; Gros Islet Quarter, La Brellotte 
Bay, no. 68-264; Laboria Quarter, Laborie, no. 68-344. BARBADOS: St. James 
Parish, Paynes Bay, no. 66433; St. Peter Parish, Bayfield, no. 6643, Six Mens Bay, 
no. 66-19, 67-646; St. Lucy Parish, Wickes Bay, no. 67-677; St. John Parish, Conset 
Bay, Vickers, Algues de la Barbade no. 118 (As G. spathulatum Kiitz.) may be a 
form of this species. BEQUIA: Friendship Bay, no. 66-369. GRENADA: St. 
Georges Parish, Martins Bay, no. 66-293. 

GELIDIOPSIS Schmitz, 1895 

G. planicaulis (W. R. Taylor) W. R. Taylor:- ST. LUCIA: Gros Islet Quarter, La Brellotte 

Bay, no. 68-279. BARBADOS: St. Lucy Parish, River Bay, no. 67-814. 

Some of the River Bay material had the branching almost palmate and chiefly 
toward the ends of the axes, resembling Gelidiella taylori Joly (1957), but the 
Barbados plants were coarser and had an entirely different type of apical growth. 
Gelidium nanum Grev. sensu Crouan in Maze & Schramm, Algues de la Guadeloupe 
no. 207 (British Museum N.H. specimen) should also be considered, but is not at 
the present available for microscopic examination. 

G. intricata (C. Agardh) Vick.:- GRENADA: St. George Parish, Martins Bay, no. 66-292 

(p.p., with Gelidium). 

GELIDIUM Lamouroux, 1813 

G. pusillum (Stackh.) Le Jolis, var. conchicola Pice. & Grun.:— DOMINICA: St. Andrew 

Parish, Calibishie Bay, no. 67-572. BARBADOS: St. Peter Parish, Six Mens Bay, no. 
67-801B. GRENADA: St. George Parish, Martins Bay, no. 66-292. 

G. microdonticum n. sp.:— Plantae ad 10-15 mm. alt., laminae stipitatae 0.75-1.25 mm. 

lat., ligulatae, simplices aut a marginibus parce atque irregulariter ramosae, basibus 
attenuatis, apicibus late rotundatis, lateribus plerumque parallelis, marginibus 
minute serrato-dentatis; tetrasporangia spherica, 23-32 ju diam., in soris subterminal- 
ibus in ramis innata. Planta typica e loco I. Barbados, Paroecia St. Lucy, Little Bay 
dicto, in petris littoralibus a W. R. Taylor et M. Goldstein lecta, no. 66-58, 19 ii 
1966; in Herbario Universitatis Michiganensis deposita. 

Plants to 10-15 mm. tall, the blades stalked, 0.75-1.25 mm. broad, ligulate, 
simple or sparingly and irregularly branched from the margins, the bases tapering, 
the apices broadly rounded, the sides generally parallel, the margins minutely, 
somewhat irregularly serrate-dentate. Tetrasporangia spherical, 23-32 ii diam., in 
subterminal sori on ordinary or somewhat narrow branches. BARBADOS: St. Lucy 
Parish, Little Bay, on littoral rocks, coll. W. R. Taylor and M. Goldstein, no. 66-58. 
TRINIDAD: St. George Parish, Maqueripe Bay, R. Thaxter 1912-13; St. David 
Parish, Matelot, W. D. Richardson no. 173, 1957. 

Plants of this Gelidium formed a close turf on very refractory rocks subject to 
severe surf on Barbados. The branches are generally marginal without contracted 



bases, but occasionally they arise from the blade face and then are stalked. The 
teeth are very distinct even though small, and occur about 8-10 to the millimeter. 
In section the blade medulla shows numerous large, very thick-walled cells, with 
between, but especially around them very many slender rhizines. The very distinct 
G. serrulatum J. Ag., a large species, is the other serrate one known from the West 
Indies, but this species is far smaller and does not suggest a dwarf form of G. 
serrulatum. Text-figures 19-24. 

Text-figures 19-24. Gelidium microdonticum. Figs. 19, 20, 23. Portions of 3 plants showing various 

degrees ol branching, witli 2 mm. bar scale. Figs. 21,22, similar portions with 3 mm. bar. Fig. 
24, tip of a branch with two sporangial sori, at the same scale. Figs. 19, 21, 22 show flagellar 
outgrowths near the base at various developmental stages. Fig. 23 is complete to the basal 
cushion. Barbados. 

PTEROCLADIA J. Agardh, 1851 

P. bartlettii W. R. Taylor:- ST. KITTS: St. Peter Basseterre Parish, Conaree Beach, no. 

68-48A. DOMINICA: St. Paul Parish, 1.6-3.2 km. south of the Layou River, no. 
67-331; St. Joseph Parish, south of the Macoucherie River, no. 67-380; St. John 
Parish, Prince Rupert Bay, no. 67467. BARBADOS: St. Peter Parish, Six Mens 
Bay, no. 67-793; St. Lucy Parish, River Bay, no. 67-812, Little Bay, no. 67-837. 

P. americana W. R. Taylor:- ANTIGUA: St. John Parish, St. John Harbor, causeway to 

Rat Island, no. 67-271. DOMINICA: St. John Parish, Prince Rupert Bay, no. 



P. pinnata (Huds.) Papenf.:- DOMINICA: St. Mark Parish, Scotts Head on the Atlantic 

side, no. R-297. BARBADOS: St. Lucy Parish, Fryer Well Point, no. 66-13. 


WURDEMANNIA Harvey, 1853 

W. miniata (Drap.) Feldm. & Hamel:- DOMINICA: St. Mark Parish, Soufriere Bay, no 

67-438. BARBADOS: St. Lucy Parish, Little Bay, no. 67-844. 



OCHTODES J. Agardh, 1 872 

0. secundiramea (Mont.) Howe:- ST. KITTS: St. John Capisterre Parish, Black Rocks, 

no. GRP-A.3189. DOMINICA: St. Andrew Parish, Calibishie Bay, no. 67-577, 
R-191. ST. LUCIA: Gros Islet Quarter, La Brellotte Bay, no. 68-309. BARBADOS: 
St. James Parish, Heywoods Beach, no. 68-420; St. Peter Parish, Six Mens Bay, nos. 
67-651, 68-797; Christ Church Parish, Hastings, no. 66-196. BEQUIA: Adams 

Beach, no. 66-387 



H. rivularis (Liebm.) J. Agardh:- GRENADA: St. George Parish, Annandale Falls, no 

66-309. Abundant on rocks in the freshwater stream. 

PEYSONNELIA Decaisne, 1841 

P. rubra (Grev.) J. Agardh:- BARBADOS: St. James Parish, 60-70 m. depth off Miramar 

Hotel near Holetown, no. 66-136; St. Lucy Parish, Little Bay, no. 67-846. 


FOSLIELLA Howe, 1920 

F. lejolisii (Rosan.) Howe:- GRAND CAYMAN: West Shore near West Indian Club, no. 

67-20. NEVIS: St. James Windward Parish, Sea Haven Estate, no. 68-214 (p.p., on 
Valonia). DOMINICA: St. Andrew Parish, Calibishie Bay, no. 67-536, Woodford 
Hill Bay, no. R-230A {p.p., on Amanda). BARBADOS: St. Lucy Parish, River Bay, 
no. 66-66B. 

F. farinosa (Lamx.) Howe:— ST. KITTS: St. Peter Basseterre Parish, Conaree Beach, no. 

GRP-A.3127. ANTIGUA: St. John Parish, Hodge Point, no. 66433. ST. LUCIA: 
Gros. Islet Quarter, La Brellotte Bay, no. 68-301. DOMINICA: St. Andrew Parish, 
Calibishie Bay, nos. 67-582A, R-157. BARBADOS: St. Lucy Parish, River Bay, no. 
67-811; Christ Church Parish, St. Lawrence Bay, no. 68-507. BEQUIA: Adams 
Beach, no. 66-371 

, var. solmsiana (Falk.) W. R. Taylor:- ANTIGUA: St. George Parish, Judge 

Bay, no. 67-199A (on Valonia). BARBADOS: St. James Parish, Coral Reef Club 
area, no. 67-862 (p.p., on Valonia). 


AMPHIROA Lamouroux, 1812 

A. fragilissima (L.) Lamx.:- GRAND CAYMAN: East End, Gun Bay, no. 67-62; South 

Shore, east of Boddentown near "Joe Conyers", no. 6741. NEVIS: St. George 
Gingerland Parish, Indian Castle Estate, no. 68-250. ANTIGUA: St. John Parish, 
Wetherell Point, no. 66-484; Hodge Point, nos. 66427, 67-171; St. George Parish, 
Judge Bay, nos. 67-189 (p.p., with Jania), 67-190 {p.p., with Spyridia). DOMINI- 
CA: St. Andrew Parish, Calihishie Bay, nos. 67-552, R-175;St. Mark Parish, no. 
67-436. ST. LUCIA: Laborie Quarter, Laborie, no. 68-348. BARBADOS: St. Lucy 
Parish, River Bay, no. 66-90, Little Bay, nos. 66-55, 68440; St. John Parish, Bath, 
no. 66-175. BEQUIA: Friendship Beach, no. 66-370. GRENADA: St. Georges 
Parish, Martins Bay, no. 66-294B. 

A. rigida Lamx., var. antillana Borg.:- ANTIGUA: St. George Parish, Judge Bay, no. 

67-187. DOMINICA: St. Andrew Parish, Calibishie Bay, no. 67-533. 

A. tribulus (Soland.) Lamx.:- NEVIS: St. James Windward Parish, Sea Haven Estate, no. 


CORALLINA Linnaeus, 1858 

C. cubensis (Mont.) Kiitz.:- GRAND BAHAMA: West End, no. 68-16. GRAND 

CAYMAN: West Shore near West Bay Village, nos. 67-104 {p.p., with Coelothrix), 
67-105. DOMINICA: St. Paul Parish, 1.2 km. south of the Layou River, no. 67-731 
(p.p., with Jania). ST. LUCIA: Dauphin Quarter, Grand Anse Bay, no. 68-389. 
BARBADOS: St. Lucy Parish, River Bay, no. 67-693; St. John Parish, Bath Bay, 
no. 66-174. 

C. subulata Soland.:- DOMINICA: St. Andrew Parish, Calibishie Bay, no. 67-585. ST. 

LUCIA: Castries Quarter, Grande Cul de Sac, no. 66-354 (jxp., with Jania); 


68-369. BARBADOS: St. Lucy Parish, River 

Bay, nos. 66-81, 67-823; St. Andrew Parish, Chalky Mount, nos. 67-853, 68-487; 
St. John Parish, Bath Bay, no. 66-226. 

JANIA Lamouroux, 1812 

J. capillacea Harv.:- GRAND CAYMAN: West End near West Bay Village, no. 67-105 

(p.p., with Corallina). ST. KITTS: St. John Capisterre Parish, Black Rocks, no. 
GRP-A.3203. ANTIGUA: St. John Parish, St. John Harbor, 67-277. DOMINICA: 
St. Andrew Parish, Calibishie Bay, no. R-189A; St. Mark Parish, Soufriere Bay, no. 
67-439. ST. LUCIA: Gros Islet Quarter, La Brellotte Bay, no. 68-316. BARBA- 
DOS: St. Lucy Parish, Little Bay, nos. 66-63, 68440 {p.p., with Amphiroa). 
GRENADA: St. Patrick Parish, Levcra Beach, no. 66-288B. 

J. adherens Lamx.:- GRAND BAHAMA: West End, no. 68-34. GRAND CAYMAN: West 

Shore near Pageant Beach Hotel, no. 67-84B, West Bay Village, no. 67-105 (p.p., 
with Corallina). ANTIGUA: St. George Parish, Judge Bay, no. 67-189, 67-191. ST. 
LUCIA: Castries Quarter, Grande Cul de Sac, no. 68-354; Gros Islet Quarter, La 
Brellotte Bay, no. 68-304A. BARBADOS: St. John Parish, Bath Bay, no. 66-175B. 

J. rubens (L.) Lamx.:- NEVIS: Si. James Windward Parish, Sea Haven Estate no. 68-225. 

DOMINICA: St. Joseph Parish, 400 m. south of the Layou River, no. 67-335; St. 
Andrew Parish, Calibishie Bay, no. 67-550; St. Mark Parish, Soufriere Bay, nos. 

67-432, R-260. ST. LUCIA: Gros Islet Quarter, La Brellotte Bay, no. 68-267, Jacks 
Beach, no. 68-414. BARBADOS: St. James Parish, Paynes Bay, no. 6646B; St. 
Lucy Parish, River Bay, no. 66-85; St. John Parish, Bath Bay, no. 68-531 (p.p., 
with Avrainvillea). 


J. pumila Lamx.:— BARBADOS: Christ Church Parish, Silver Sands, no. 66-123 (p.p., on 



HALYMENIA C. Agardh, 1817 
H. agardhii De Toni:- BARBADOS: St. Lucy Parish, Little Bay, no. 68-829. 

H. duchassaignianii (J. Agardh) Kylin:- GRENADA: St. George Parish, Point Salines, 

Black Bay, no. 66-270B; St. Andrew Parish, Marquis Bay, no. 66-278. 

GRATELOUPIA C. Agardh, 1 822 

G. filicina (Wulf.) C. Agardh:- ST. KITTS: St. Peter Basseterre Parish, Conaree Beach, 

no. 68-41. NEVIS: St. Thomas Lowland Parish, Pinneys Beach, no. 68-145. 
ANTIGUA: St. John Parish, St. John Harbor, no. 67-275, Loblolly Bay, no. 
67-294A. DOMINICA: St. George Parish, Roseau, no. 67-349; St. Paul Parish, 
1.6-3.2 km. south of the Layou River, no. 67-327; St. Joseph Parish, 185 m. south 
of the Layou River, no. R-317, south of the Macoucherie River, no. 67-397; St. 
John Parish, Prince Rupert Bay, no. 67489, Douglas Bay, nos. 67493, 67-503; St. 
Andrew Parish, Woodford Hill Bay, no. R-252; St. David Parish, Rosalie, no. 
67-461; St. Mark Parish, Soufriere Bay, no. R-275. ST. LUCIA: Gros Islet Quarter, 
La Brellotte Bay, no. 68-278. ST. VINCENT: St. George Parish, Argyle, no. 66-357; 
St. Patrick Parish, Barrouallie Beach, no. 66-321. GRENADA: St. Andrew Parish, 
Grenville Beach, no. 66-299. 

G. cuneifolia J. Agardh:- DOMINICA: St. George Parish, Roseau, no. 67-350: St. Luke 

Parish, south of Pointe Michel, no. 67420. 

CRYPTONEMIA J. Agardh, 1842 

C. luxurians (Mert.) J. Agardh:— NEVIS: St. Thomas Lowland Parish, Pinneys Beach, no. 

68-142B; St. James Windward Parish, Mosquito Bay, no. 68-1 69A; Sea Haven 
Estate, no. 68-219. DOMINICA: St. David Parish, Rosalie, no. 67450. BARBA- 
DOS: St. Andrew Parish, Chalky Mount, nos. 66-222, 68485 ; St. John Parish, Bath 
Bay, no. 66-183. ST. VINCENT: St. George Parish, Calliaqua, no. 66-351. 
GRENADA: St. George Parish, Point Salines, Black Bay, no. 67-261; St. Patrick 
Parish, Levera Beach, no. 67-287B. 



GRACILAR1A Greville, 1830 

G. verrucosa (Huds.) Papenf.:— NEVIS: St. Thomas Lowland Parish, Pinneys Beach, no. 

68-129. DOMINICA: St. Paul Parish, 1.2 km. south of the Layou River, no. 67-367. 
ST. LUCIA: Castries Quarter, Grand Cul de Sac, no. 68-351. BARBADOS: St. 
Andrew Parish, Chalky Mount, no. 68-469; St. John Parish, Bath Bay, no. 66-180; 
Christ Church Parish, Oistins, nos. 66-102, 67-741 ; St. Michael Parish, Carlisle Bay, 
no. 67-765. ST. VINCENT: St. Andrew Parish, Camden Beach, nos. 66-329, 
66-33 1 . 

G. debilis (Forssk.) Borg.:- ST. KITTS: St. George Basseterre Parish, North Friars Bay, 

no. GRP-A.3181 ; St. Peter Basseterre Parish, Conaree Beach, no. 68-52. NEVIS: St. 


Thomas Lowland Parish, Pinneys Beach, no. 68-131; St. James Windward Parish, 
Sea Haven Estate, no. 68-2 18A; St. George Gingerland Parish, Indian Castle Estate, 
no. 68-239. DOMINICA: St. Andrew Parish, Calibishie Bay, no. 67-544, Woodford 
Hill Bay, Pointe La Soie, no. R-231. ST. LUCIA: Gros Islet Quarter, La Brellotte 
Bay, nos. 68-269, 68-323; Vieux Fort Quarter, Black Bay, no. 68-325. BARBA- 
DOS: St. Lucy Parish, River Bay, nos. 66-74, 67-826, 68-460; St. Andrew Parish, 
Chalky Mount, no. 68-482; Christ Church Parish, St. Lawrence Bay, no. 67-715. 
GRENADA: St. George Parish, Black Bay, no. 66-255, Grande Anse Beach, no. 

G. damaecornis J. Agardh:— NEVIS: St. Thomas Lowland Parish, Pinneys Beach, no. 

68-132. DOMINICA: St. Paul Parish, 1.2 km. south of the Layou River, no. 67-370; 
St. Andrew Parish, Calibishie Bay, no. 67-554B. BARBADOS: St. Michael Parish, 
Gravesend, no. 67-780; St. Lucy Parish, River Bay, no. 66-79, 67-827; St. John 
Parish, Bath Bay, no. 67-663; Christ Church Parish, Oistins, nos. 66-109, 67-742. 

G. crassissima Crouan:- ST. LUCIA: Castries Quarter, Grande Cul de Sac, no. 68-374. 

BARBADOS: St. Michael Parish, Gravesend, no. 67-700; St. Lucy Parish, River 
Bay, no. 67-824; Christ Church Parish, Oistins, no. 67-727B, Welches, no. 68492, 
St. Lawrence Bay, no. 67-726. GRENADA: St. George Parish, Black Bay, no. 

G. ferox J. Agardh:- ST. K1.TTS: St. John Capisterre Parish, Dieppe Bay, no. 68-55. 

NEVIS: St. James Windward Parish, Sea Haven Estate, no. 68-212. DOMINICA: St. 
George Parish, Roseau, no. 67-352; St. Joseph Parish, Woodford Hill Bay, Pointe La 
Soie, nos. R-314, R-325. BARBADOS: St. Michael Parish, Gravesend, no. 67-778; 
St. Lucy Parish, River Bay, no. 67-825; Christ Church Parish, Oistins, nos. 66-107, 
67-622, Welches, no. 68-494, St. Lawrence Bay, nos. 67-716, 68494. 

G. cervicornis (Turn.) J. Agardh:— ST. KITTS: St. Peter Basseterre Parish, Conaree 

Beach, no. 68-46, North Frigate Bay, no. 68-89. NEVIS: St. James Windward 
Parish, Mosquito Bay, no. 68-173. DOMINICA: St. Joseph Parish, Woodford Hill 
Bay, Pointe La Soie, no. R-314. ST. LUCIA: Castries Quarter, Grande Cul de Sac, 
no. 68-370. BARBADOS: St. Andrew Parish, Chalky Mount, no. 68-475; St. John 
Parish, Bath Bay, nos. 66-163A, 67-854, Conset Bay, no. 68-544; Christ Church 
Parish, Oistins, no. 67-620. ST. VINCENT: St. George Parish, Calliaqua, no. 
66-343; St. Patrick Parish, Barrouallie, no. 66-324. BEQUIA: Adams Beach, nos. 
66-384, 66-396. 

G. domingensis Sonder:— NEVIS: St. Thomas Lowland Parish, Pinneys Beach, no. 

68-130. ANTIGUA: St. George Parish, Judge Bay, no. 67-178. DOMINICA: St. 
Paul Parish, 1.2 km. south of the Layou River, no. 67-374; St. Joseph Parish, 400 
m. south of the Layou River, no. 67-342, a little south of the Layou River, no. 
67-392, south of the Macoucherie River, no. 67-383; St. Andrew Parish, Calibishie 
Bay, no. R-178. ST. LUCIA: Castries Quarter, Grande Cul de Sac, no. 68-369. 
BARBADOS: St. Lucy Parish, River Bay, no. 66-73; Christ Church Parish, Oistins, 
no. 66-104. ST. VINCENT: St. Andrew Parish, Camden Beach, no. 66-330. 
GRENADA: St. George Parish, Point Salines, Black Bay, no. 66-266. 

It is not unusual for a few ligulate proliferations to be found on the faces of the 
blades of this species, but these do not affect the general plane aspect of the 

G. cuneata Aresch.:- This species has not figured largely in the literature, and it appears 

that no particular specimen was marked as the type of the species when described 
(Areschoug 1855, p. 35 1). It seems appropriate to remedy this at this time, and the 



one illustrated in Text-figure 25, Areschoug, Dec. 1844-Jan. 1845, from Pernam- 
buco, Brazil, kindly loaned by the Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet, Sectionen for 
Botanik, Stockholm, Sweden, is designated lectotype. The broadly triangular 
primary blades, eventually forking at the distal end and marginally proliferous are 
characteristic. Crisping of the margin, mentioned in the early description, is not 
obvious. In our West Indian flora the nearest resemblance is to G. curtissiae J. Ag., 
which has much narrower blades. 

NEVIS: St. James Windward Parish, Sea Haven Estate, no. 68-215. GRENADA: 
St. George Parish, Grand Anse Bay, no. 66-315, Point Salines, Black Bay, no. 
66-254. BARBADOS: St. John Parish, Conset Bay, no. 68-539B. 








t v* ■ -jm Yj M ^f * '■ *' v ' 



ft. • * - , 


■ T - ■ 


1 . f 

* * - + » », * 

Text-figure 25. Gracilaria cuneata Aresch. Lectotype specimen in the Naturhistoriska Riskmuseet, 

Sectionen for Botanik, Stockholm. The broad segments with bases tapering, margins entire but 
proliferous, and distally furcate, are distinctive. Pernambuco, Brazil. 

G. ornata Aresch.:— This species has been reported from St. Kitts, but nothing resembling 

the original plants from Brazil (kindly loaned by the Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet, 
Sectionen for Botanik) were found during our visit. These plants show strap-shaped 
branches with entire to locally erose or nearly ciliate-dentate margins, a feature 
hardly visible in the photographs as reproduced. Small blades are occasionally seen 
originating from the faces of the blades, and substellate outgrowths also. The 
structure corresponds to that of Gracilaria, and the cystocarps (see in other 
material) are in strongly projecting or stipitate outgrowths, forming the carpospores 
unilaterally about a sterile core. These features rule out Callophyllis, to which there 
is a superficial resemblance. As no specimen seems to have been designated the type 
of the species when described by Areschoug (1855, p. 351), his specimen from 
Pernambuco, Brazil in the Riksmuseet and illustrated in Text-figure 26 is designated 

the lectotype. 



G. foliifera (Forssk.) Borg., var foliifera:— ANTIGUA: St. John Parish, St. John Harbor, 

no. 67-279. BARBADOS: Christ Church Parish, Oistins, no. 66-1 13, Hastings, no. 
66-200. ST. VINCENT: St. Andrew Parish, Camden Beach, no. 66-333. GRENA- 
DA: St. Andrew Parish, Grenville Beach, no. 66-296. 

, var. angustissima (Herv.) W. R. Taylor: — GRENADA: St. George Parish, 

Grand Mai Bay, no. 66-253; St. Andrew Parish, Grenville Beach, no. 66-297. 

Text-figure 26. Gracilaria ornata Aresch. Lectotypc specimen in the Riksmuseet. The blades are in 

general strap-shaped, as would have been more evident had it been practicable to soak up and 
rearrange the specimen for photography. The dentate margins hardly show in the print at this 
scale. Pernambuco, Brazil. 

G. mammillaris (Mont.) Howe:— ANTIGUA: St. James Parish, Paynes Bay, no. 66-35. 

DOMINICA: St. Joseph Parish, south of the Macoucherie River, no. 67-415. 
BARBADOS: St. Peter Parish, Six Mens Bay, no. 67-800; Christ Church Parish, 
Oistins, nos. 67-743, 68-418. BEQUIA: Friendship Bay, no. 66-368. 

G. sjostedii Kylin:— ST. KITTS: St. Peter Basseterre Parish, Conaree Beach, no. 68-36. 

ANTIGUA: St. John Parish, St. John Harbor, causeway to Rat Island, no. 67-269; 
St. Philip Parish, Exchange Bay, no. 66-458. DOMINICA: St. John Parish, Prince 
Rupert Bay, Portsmouth Harbor, S&W no. 27834. BARBADOS: St. Michael 
Parish, Needham Point, no. 67-702; St. John Parish, Bath, no. 68-532; Christ 
Church Parish, Oistins, nos. 66-101, 67-628, Hastings, no. 66-205. BEQUIA: Adams 
Beach, no. 66-395. 

CORDYLECLADIA J. Agardh, 1852 

C. peasiae Collins:— Plants growing in close colonies, the axes arising from a small, thin 

crust to a height of 5.0-7.5 cm., with a diameter reaching about 1.0-1.5 mm., the 

branching sparse, irregularly forking below or above somewhat cervicorn, and 


throughout rather wiry in texture. Structurally showing a medulla of moderately 
large cells, somewhat smaller and with thicker walls outwardly, the surface layer of 
very small isodiammetric cells over a rather indistinct subcortex of 2-3 cell layers. 
The cells of the surface layer may develop outwardly in tiers of 4-7 thickening this 
tissue, but this is not everywhere present, nor could I find it in the type material. 
Collins (1901, p. 255) mentions very prominent cystocarps, but the structures 
which on my material seemed to fit turned out to be epiphytic foraminifera. The 
basal crust, which seems to be an important characteristic of the genus, is not 
present on the type material in the Farlow Herbarium. For the opportunity to 
examine this I am indebted to Prof. I. Mackenzie Lamb, the Curator. The type 
locality is Manchioneal, Jamaica, and isotype material is present in the Phyc. 
Bor.-Amer. as no. 791. BARBADOS: St. Andrew Parish, Chalky Mount area, on 
intertidal rocks, no. 58-468. 


AGARDHIELLA Schmitz, 1896 

A. tenera (J. Agardh) Schmitz:- NEVIS: St. Thomas Lowland Parish, Pinneys Beach, no. 

68-141. ANTIGUA: St. John Parish, causeway to Rat Island, no. 67-274. 
DOMINICA: St. Joseph Parish, south of the Macoucherie River, north of Mero, nos. 
67-358, 67416, just south of the river, no. 67-389; St. Paul Parish, south of the 
Layou River, no. 67-369. ST. VINCENT: St. George Parish, Calliaqua Bay, G. R. 
Proctor no. A.2596. BARBADOS: St. Michael Parish, Kensington, A. Vickers, 
Algues de la Barbade no. 123; St. Joseph Parish, Bathsheba, Vickers, ibid., also 

called no. 123! GRENADA: St. Andrew Parish, Grenville Beach, no. 66-298. 

As I have explained in a paper particularly dealing with Dominican algae (now in 
press) I long ago suspected that a West Indian plant called A. tenera was not the 
same alga as that which, coming from southern New England, has also passed under 
this name. The history of these plants is explained at length in that paper. In short, 
it appears that the West Indian plants have the best right to the name tenera, while 
that of baileyi is available for the northern specimens. The generic situation is 
unhappy, for Schmitz's generic definition seems to have been based on the northern 
specimens while A. tenera was designated the nomenclatural type. It is probable 
that the two so-called Agardhiellas do not belong to the same genus, or possibly the 
same family. Pending a fuller study of the cystocarp development of the tropical A 
tenera a generic reallocation is held in abeyance. 

EUCHEUMA J. Agardh, 1847 

E. schrammii (Crouan) J. Agardh:- DOMINICA: St. Andrew Parish, Woodford Hill Bay, 

no. R-236. 

E. echinocarpum Aresch.:- NEVIS: St. Thomas Lowland Parish, Pinneys Beach, no. 

68-138; St. James Windward Parish, Mosquito Bay, no. 68-174. DOMINICA: St. 
Andrew Parish, Calibishie Bay, nos. 67-558, 67-575; St. Andrew Parish, Woodford 
Hill Bay, Pointe La Soie, no. R-235. The distinctions between this species and E. 
gelidium are by no means clear. 

E. gelidium (J. Agardh) J. Agardh:- NEVIS: St. James Windward Parish, Sea Haven Estate, 

no. 58-216. ST. KITTS: St. Peter Basseterre Parish, North Frigate Bay, no. 68-77. 
BARBADOS: St. Michael Parish, Gravesend, no. 67-779; St. John Parish, Conset 
Bay, no. 68-543; Christ Church Parish, Oistins, nos. 67-619, 67-737, Welches, no. 
68-495, St. Lawrence Bay, nos. 66-193, 67-717, Hastings, no. 66-204. 


E. denticulatum (Burm. /) Coll. & Herv.:— ANTIGUA: Si. Paul Parish, Mamora Bay, no. 

67-310. (E. isiforme in Taylor 1960; see Collins & Hervey 1917, p. 106 and Dixon 

1962, p. 251). 

MERISTOTHECAJ. Agardh, 1872 

M. floridana Kylin:- BARBADOS: Christ Church Parish, Oistins, no. 67-618 


CATENELLA Greville, 1830 

C. repens (Lightf.) Batt.:- GRAND BAHAMA: Settlement Point, no. 68-31. 

While no special effort was made to search for this species, it is remarkable that 
it did not appear at other stations in 1966-68. Doubtless the scarcity of mangrove 
areas visited is partly responsible, but the species is not restricted to them. 


HYPNEA Lamouroux, 1813 

H. spinella (C. Agardh) Kiitz.:- NEVIS: St. Thomas Lowland Parish, Pinneys Beach, no. 

68-147B; St. George Gingerland Parish, Indian Castle Estate, no. 68-245. 
ANTIGUA: St. Paul Parish, Crawle Bay, no. 67-221 . DOMINICA: St. Joseph Parish, 
south of the Macoucherie River, no. 67402. BARBADOS: St. Peter Parish, 
Heywoods Beach, no. 68-426; St. John Parish, Bath Bay, no. 67-669. BEQU1A: 
Adams Beach, no. 66-393. 

H. cervicornis J. Agardh:- GRAND CAYMAN: South Shore east of Boddentown on 

Tlialassia flats near "Joe Conyers", no. 67-28. ANTIGUA: St. John Parish, St. John 

Harbor, no. 67-272, Hodge Point, no. 664 19C. BARBADOS: St. James Parish, 

Paynes Bay, no. 66-37. GRENADA: St. Andrew Parish, Grenville Beach, no. 

H. musciformis (Wulf.) Lamx.:- GRAND CAYMAN: North Shore, Grape Tree Point, no. 

GRP-A.2188; East End, Gun Bay, no. 67-55. ST. KITTS: St. John Capisterre 
Parish, Dieppe Bay, no. 68-59B. NEVIS: St. James Windward Parish, Sea Haven 
Estate, no. 68-218B. ANTIGUA: St. John Parish, Soldiers Bay, no. 67-153, Port 
Royal Bay, no. 6649 I, Hodge Point, no. 66446; St. George Parish, Judge Bay, no. 
66466; St. Paul Parish, Crawle Bay, no. 67-211. DOMINICA: St. Joseph Parish, 
400 m. south of the Layou River, no. 67-345, south of the Macoucherie River, no. 
67-399; St. John Parish, Prince Rupert Bay, no. 67470; St. Andrew Parish, 



Quarter, Laborie, no. 68-344B. BARBADOS: St. Michael Parish, Needham Point, 
no. 67-703; St. James Parish, Paynes Bay, no. 68-560; St. Peter Parish, Heywoods 
Beach, no. 68-430, Six Mens Bay, no. 66-645; St. Lucy Parish, River Bay, nos. 
66-67, 67-648; St. Joseph Parish, Cattle Wash, no. 664; Christ Church Parish, 
Rockley Beach, no. 67-708A, Hastings, no. 66-202. ST. VINCENT: St. Patrick 
Parish, Barrouallie Beach, no. 66-327. BEQUIA: Adams Beach, no. 66-392. 
GRENADA: St. George Parish, Grand Mai Bay, no. 66-25 1. 


GYMNOGONGRUS Martins, 1828 


G. tenuis (J. Agardh) J. Agardh:— NEVIS: St. Thomas Lowland Parish, Pinneys Beach, 

no. 68-147A. DOMINICA: St. George Parish, Roseau, no. 67-351 ; St. Paul Parish, 

1.6-3.2 km. south of the Layou River, no. 67-326; St. Joseph Parish, south of the 

Macoucherie River, nos. 67-380C, 67404. St. John Parish, Douglas Bay, no. 
67-494; St. Mark Parish, Soufriere Bay, no. R-283. ST. LUCIA: Gros Islet Quarter, 

La Brellotte Bay, no. 68-280. BARBADOS: St. Michael Parish, Bridgetown at 

"Pelican Village", no 67-755; Christ Church Parish, Silver Sands, no. 66-129. ST. 

VINCENT: St. Patrick Parish, Barrouallie Beach, no. 66-322. 



B. pyriformis (Borg.) Kylin:- BARBADOS: St. James Parish, from 60-70 m. depth off 

Miramar Hotel near Holetown, no. 66-138. 

B. occidentalis (Borg.) Kylin:- DOMINICA: St. Andrew Parish, Calibishie Bay, no. 

R-193. BARBADOS: St. Lucy Parish, River Bay, no. 67-830; St. John Parish, Bath 
Bay, no. 66-149, 67-664, Conset Bay, no. 66-211, 68-537. GRENADA: St. George 
Parish, Point Salines, Black Bay, no. 66-260; St. Andrew Parish, Marquis Beach, no. 



LOMENTARIA Lyngbye, 1819 
(Harv.) Farl.:- BARBADOS: St. Michael Parish, Gravesend, no. 67-777 

COELOTHRIX Borgesen, 1 920 

C. irregularis (Harv.) Borg.:- GRAND CAYMAN: West Bay Village, no. 67-104. 

ANTIGUA: St. John Parish, Hodge Point, no. 664 19B, 67-135. DOMINICA: St. 
George Parish, Roseau, no. 67-354. ST. LUCIA: Laborie Quarter, Laborie, no. 
68-346. BARBADOS: St. James Parish, at 2.5 m. depth off the Coral Reef Club 
near Holetown, no. 67-751, at 8 m. depth off the Colony Club near Holetown, no. 
66-11 A; St. Peter Parish, Six Mens Bay, no. 67-798; St. John Parish, Conset Bay, 

no. 66-218. 

CHAMPIA Desvaux, 1808 

C. parvula (C. Agardh) Harv.:— NEVIS: St. Thomas Lowland Parish, Pinneys Beach, no. 

68-147B (p.p., with Hypnea). ANTIGUA: St. George Parish, Judge Bay, no. 
67-1 75B; St. Paul Parish, Crawle Bay, no. 67-223. DOMINICA: St. Andrew Parish, 
Woodford Hill Bay, no. R-237A. BARBADOS: St. Michael Parish, Gravesend, no. 




CROUANIA J. Agardh, 1842 

C. attenuata (C. Agardh) J. Agardh:- ANTIGUA: St. George Parish, Judge Bay, no 

67-174; St. Paul Parish, Crawle Bay, no. 67-208 (p.p., with Dohrniella). 


DOHRNIELLA Funk, 1922 

D. antillarum (W. R. Taylor) Feldm.-Maz.:- ANTIGUA: Si. John Parish, Port Royal Bay, 

no. 66-492; St. George Parish, Judge Bay, no. 67-164 (p.p., with Chondria), no. 
67-166 (p.p., with Callithamnion); St. Paul Parish, Crawle Bay, no. 67-208 (on 


WRANGELIA C. Agardh, 1828 

W. argus Mont.:- ST. K1TTS: St. John Capisterre Parish, Black Rocks, no. 68-122A. 

NEVIS: St. Thomas Lowland Parish, Pinneys Beach, no. 68-122B. DOMINICA: St. 
John Parish, Douglas Bay near Tanetane village, no. 67497; St. Mark Parish, 
Soufriere Bay, no. 67-424, R-304; St. Luke Parish, 0.8-1.2 km. south of Pointe 
Michel, no. 67-419. ST. LUCIA: Gros Islet Quarter, La Brellotte Bay, nos. 68-261, 
68-314. BARBADOS: St. James Parish, Paynes Bay, no. 68-652; off Coral Reef 
Club near Holetown, nos. 66-12, 67-748 (at 2.5 m. depth), 67-790; St. Peter Parish, 
Ileywood Beach, no. 68-427, Six Mens Bay, no. 67-643. 

W. biscuspidata Borg.:- GRAND CAYMAN: West Shore near West Indian Club, no. 67-9. 

ST. LUCIA: Gros Islet Quarter, La Brellotte Bay, no. 68-287. BARBADOS: St. 
James Parish, off Coral Reef Club near Holetown, no. 67-790; Christ Church Parish, 
Oistins, no. 67-612. 

W. penicillata C. Agardh:- GRAND CAYMAN: West Shore, near West Indian Club, no. 

67-4. NEVIS: St. Thomas Lowland Parish, Pinneys Beach, no. 68-126. BARBA- 
DOS: St. Andrew Parish, Chalky Mount, no. 67-848; St. John Parish, Conset Bay, 

no. 66-22 1 . 

CALLITHAMNION Lyngbye, 1819 

C. cordatum Borg.:— ANTIGUA: St. George Parish, Judge Bay, no. 67-166 

HALOPLEGMA Montague, 1842 

H. duperreyi Mont.:- NEVIS: St. James Windward Parish, Sea Haven Estate, no. 68-204. 

BARBADOS: St. Lucy Parish, River Bay, no. 67-808, Little Bay, no. 67-832; St. 
Andrew Parish, Chalky Mount, no. 68-486; St. John Parish, Bath Bay, nos. 66-144, 
67-857, Conset Bay, nos. 66-217, 68-535. GRENADA: St. George Parish, Salines 
Point, Black Bay, no. 66-262. 

GRIFFITHSIA C. Agardh, 1817 

G. schousboei Mont. (?):- GRAND CAYMAN: West Shore, near West Indian Club, no 


G. tenuis C. Agardh:— ST. LUCIA: Vieux Fort Quarter, Anse des Sables, no. 68-333 

BARBADOS: Christ Church Parish, Oistins, nos. 66-1 15, 67-731 , Silver Sands, no 


CERAMIUM Roth, 1797 

C. fastigiatuni (Roth) Harv. (?):- BARBADOS: Christ Church Parish, Oistins, nos. 


C. brevizonatum Peters., var. caraibica Peters. & Borg.:— ANTIGUA: St. John Parish, 

Soldiers Bay, no. 67-150. BARBADOS: St. Michael Parish, Carlisle Bay, no. 67-758; 
Christ Church Parish, Oistins, no. 67-608. 


C. subtile J. Agardh:- DOMINICA: St. Andrew Parish, Calibishie Bay, no. 67-571(7). 

BARBADOS: Christ Church Parish, Oistins, nos. 66-1 16, 67-609. 

C. byssoideum Harv.(?):- BARBADOS: Christ Church Parish, Oistins, no. 67-609. 

C. corniculatum Mont.:- BARBADOS: St. Peter Parish, Six Mens Bay, nos. 66-18, 


C. tenuissimum (Lyngb.) J. Agardh:- BARBADOS: St. Michael Parish, Carlisle Bay, no. 

67-758; Christ Church Parish, Oistins, nos. 67-608, 67-610. 

C. nitens (C. Agardh) J. Agardh:- GRAND CAYMAN: West Shore, near West Indian 

Club, no. 67-2. ST. KITTS: St. George Basseterre Parish, Frigate Bay, no. 68-1 19; 
St. John Capisterre Parish, Dieppe Bay, no. 67-53. DOMINICA: St. Paul Parish, 1.2 
km. south of the Layou River, no. 67-361; St. Joseph Parish, south of the 
Macoucherie River, no. 67-384; St. Andrew Parish, Calibishie Bay, no. R-190; St. 
Mark Parish, Scotts Head on the Atlantic side, no R-296. BARBADOS: St. James 
Parish, off the Coral Reef Club area, near Holetown at 21 m. depth, no. 67-750, off 
the Colony Club near Holetown, at 8 m. depth, no. 66-1 IB. 

CENTROCERAS Kutzing, 1842 

C. clavulatum (C. Agardh) Mont.:- GRAND CAYMAN: West Shore, near West Indian 

Club, no. 67-1 3 A; North Sound, Botabano, no. GRP-A.2506; East End, Gun Bay, 
no. 67-56; South Shore, Boddentown, no. 67-46. ST. KITTS: St. John Capisterre 
Parish, Black Rocks, no. GRP-A.3207, 68-1 22C. ANTIGUA: St. John Parish, 
mangrove swamp behind Pinchin Bay, no. 67-284B; St. John Harbor, causeway to 
Rat Island, no. 67-278; Hodge Point, nos. 66444, 67-135; St. Philip Parish, 
Fanneys Cove, no. 67-247; St. Paul Parish, Crawle Bay, no. 67-217, Mamora Bay, 
no. 67-311. DOMINICA: St. Paul Parish, 1.2 km. south of the Layou River, no. 
67-361; St. Joseph Parish, 400 m. south of the Layou River, no. 67-341; St. 
Andrew Parish, Calibishie Bay, no. 67-586, Woodford Hill Bay, Pointe La Soie, nos. 

R-206, R-221; St. Mark Parish, Soufriere Bay, no. 67-439A. ST. LUCIA: Castries 
Quarter, Castries Harbor, no. 68-402, Gros Islet Quarter, Jack Beach, no. 684 13B; 
Laborie Quarter, Laborie, no. 68-336. BARBADOS: St. Peter Parish, Six Mens Bay, 
nos. 66-22, 67-649; St. Lucy Parish, River Bay, no. 67-688, Little Bay, no. 68-444; 
Christ Church Parish, Oistins, no. 67-614A. ST. VINCENT: St. Patrick Parish, 
Barrouallie Bay, no. 66-326A. BEQUIA: Adams Beach, no. 66-379A, Friendship 

Beach, no. 66-369B. 

SPYRIDIA Harvey, 1833 

S. filamentosa (Wulf.) Harv.:- GRAND CAYMAN: West Shore near Pageant Beach Club, 

no. 67-79, near West Indian Club, no. 67-10; North Sound, Botabano, no. 
GRP-A.2503; South Shore, Red Bay, no. 67-111. ANTIGUA: St. John Parish, 
mangrove swamp behind Pinchin Bay, no. 67-284A; St. George Parish, Judge Bay, 
no. 67-190; St. Paul Parish, Crawle Bay, no. 67-216. ST. LUCIA: Castries Quarter, 
Grande Cul de Sac, no. 68-371, Castries Harbor, no. 68-403; Gros Islet Quarter, La 
Brellotte Bay, no. 68-285. BARBADOS: St. Lucy Parish, Little Bay, no. 67-835; 
Christ Church Parish, Oistins, no. 66-1 10. 

S. clavata Kutz.:- BARBADOS: Christ Church Parish, Oistins, no. 67-607. 

S. aculeata (Schimp.) Kutz., var. aculeata: — ST. KITTS: St. Peter Basseterre Parish, North 

Frigate Bay, no. 68-80. DOMINICA: St. Joseph Parish, south of the Macoucherie 
River, no. 67-406; St. Andrew Parish, Woodford Hill Bay, Pointe La Soie, no. 
R-212. ST. LUCIA: Castries Quarter, La Toe Bay, no. 68413A. BARBADOS: St. 
John Parish, Bath Bay, no. 66-190. 


? var. disticha Borg.:— BARBADOS: Christ Church Parish, Oistins, no. 67-6 1 1 . 

, var. hypneoides J. Agardh:— GRAND CAYMAN: West Shore near Pageant 

Beach Hotel, no. 67-90. NEVIS: St. George Gingerland Parish, Indian Castle Estate, 
no. 68-236. ANTIGUA: St. John Parish, Port Royal Bay, no. 66493; St. George 
Parish, Judge Bay, no. 67-165. 


CALOGLOSSA (Harvey) J. Agardh, 1876 

C. leprieurii (Mont.) J. Agardh:- GRENADA: St. George Parish, Lower Woburn, no 

66-3 1 2. The remarks regarding Catenella apply here also. 

TAENIOMA J. Agardh, 1863 

T. nanum (Kutz.) Papenf.:- CUBA: Camaguey Prov., Tarifa, E. Y. Dawson no. 7613 (= 

T. perpusillum Phyc. Bor.-Amer. no. 1935 from Bermuda, non J. Agardh; as T. 
macrounim Thuret in Taylor 1960 p. 548). 

MARTENSIA Hering, 1841 

M. pavonia (J. Agardh) J. Agardh:- ANTIGUA: St. George Parish, Judge Bay, no. 

67-162. BARBADOS: St. James Parish, 8 m. depth off the Colony Club, near 
Holetown, no. 66-10 (coll. J. B. Lewis). 


D ASY A C. Agardh, 1824 

D. rigidula (Kutz.) Ardis.:- GRAND CAYMAN: West Shore near West Indian Club, no. 

67-3; North Sound near Botabano, no. GRP-A.2507. ANTIGUA: St. George Parish, 
Judge Bay, nos. 67-170, 67-185; St. Paul Parish, Crawle Bay, no. 67-213. ST. 
LUCIA: Gros Islet Quarter, La Brellotte Bay, no. 68-378. 

D. collinsiana Howe:— BAHAMAS: Grand Bahama L, West End, occasional large tufts on 

the shoal behind the hotel, no. 68-8. GRAND CAYMAN: West Shore near West 
Indian Club, no. 67-3. ANTIGUA: St. George Parish, Judge Bay, nos. 67-1 63B, 

Plants here, and in Florida, may reach a height of over 5 cm. 

D. sertularioides Howe & Taylor:— JAMAICA: Kingston Parish, Palisadoes, no. GRP- 


This represents a notable extension of range for the species, Brazil being the 
type locality. 

D. ramosissima Harv.:— ANTIGUA: St. John Parish, Soldiers Bay, no. 67-149. 

D. pedicellata (C. Agardh) C. Agardh:- GRAND CAYMAN: North Sound, Georgetown 

Embarcadero, no. 67-121. NEVIS: St. James Windward Parish, Mosquito Bay, no. 
68-1 72. BARBADOS: Christ Church Parish, Oistins, no. 67-601 . 

HETEROSIPHONIA Montague, 1842 

H. wurdemanni (Bail, ex Harv.) Falk.:- ANTIGUA: St. Paul Parish, Crawle Bay, no. 

67-213. BARBADOS: Christ Church Parish, Oistins, no. 67-734. 


H. gibbesii (Harv.) Falk.:— ST. KITTS: St. George Basseterre Parish, North Friars Bay, 

no. GRP-A.3183; St. Peter Basseterre Parish, North Frigate Bay, no. 68-78, 

HALODICTYON Zanardini, 1843 
H. mirabile Zan.:- BARBADOS: St. Lucy Parish, River Bay, no. 67-686B 

RHODODICTYON W. R. Taylor, 1961 

R. bermudensis W. R. Taylor:- BARBADOS: St. James Parish, from 60-70 m. depth off 

the Miramar Hotel near Holetown, no. 66-142. 

DICTYURUS Bory, 1836 

D. occidentalis J. Agardh:- BARBADOS: St. Lucy Parish, River Bay, no. 66-71; St 

Andrew Parish, Chalky Mount, no. 68-477. 

THURETIA Decaisne, 1843 
T. bornetii Vick.:- BARBADOS: St. Lucy Parish, River Bay, nos. 66-70, 67-686A. 


FALKENBERGIA Schmitz, 1897 

F. hillebrandii (Born.) Falk.:- GRAND CAYMAN: North Sound, Botabano, no. 

GRP-A.2512. ANTIGUA: St. John Parish, Soldiers Bay, no. 67-151, Hodge Point, 
no. 67-237; St. George Parish, Judge Bay, no. 67-168. DOMINICA: St. Andrew 
Parish, Calibishie Bay, no. 67-528. 

POLYSIPHONIA Greville, 1824 

P. subtilissima Mont.:- ST. KITTS: St. Peter Basseterre Parish, Conaree Beach, no. 

GRP-A.3152. ANTIGUA: St. John Parish, Loblolly Bay, no. 67-293B, St. John 
Harbor, no. 67-280. 

P. sphaerocarpa Borg.:- ANTIGUA: St. John Parish, Loblolly Bay, no. 67-295A. 

DOMINICA: St. Joseph Parish, south of the Macoucherie River, no. 67-403; St. 
Mark Parish, Soufriere Bay, no. 67-427 (both det. by G. W. Hollenberg). 

BARBADOS: St. James Parish, off Coral Reef Club near Holetown, no. 67-745. 

P. binneyi Harv.:- ANTIGUA: St. John Parish, Loblolly Bay, no. 67-295 (?); St. Paul 

Parish, Crawle Bay, no. 67-228 (?). DOMINICA: St. Joseph Parish, south of the 
Macoucherie River, no. 67-400. 

P. ferulacea Suhr:- GRAND CAYMAN: East End, Old Isaacs, no. GRP-25 IV 56. ST. 

KITTS: St. George Basseterre Parish, South Friars Bay, no. GRP-A.3177; St. Peter 
Basseterre Parish, Conaree Beach, no. GRP-A.3119. ANTIGUA: St. John Parish, 
Hodge Point, nos. 66-437, 66-445. DOMINICA: St. Andrew Parish, near the mouth 
of the Woodford Hill River, nos. R-244, R-249 (det. G. W. Hollenberg). 
BARBADOS: St. Peter Parish, Six Mens Bay, no. 66-23 (det. G. W. Hollenberg); St. 
Joseph Parish, Cattle Wash, no. 66-5; Christ Church Parish, Oistins, no. 67-613. 

P. denudata (Dillw.) Kiitz.:- BARBADOS: Christ Church Parish, Oistins, no. 67-613. 

P. howei Hollenb.:- BAHAMAS: Grand Bahama I., West End, Settlement Point, no. 

68-2. ST. KITTS: St. George Basseterre Parish, Frigate Bay, no. 68-1 13 A. 
ANTIGUA: St. John Parish, Hodge Point, nos. 66-408, 67-103. ST. LUCIA: Gros 


Islet Quarter, La Brellotte Bay, no. 68-304C. BARBADOS: St. Lucy Parish, Fryer 
Well Point, no. 66-14. 

BRYOCLADIA Schmitz, 1897 

B. thyrsigera (J. Agardh) Schmitz:- DOMINICA: St. Andrew Parish, Woodford Hill Bay, 

nos. R-222, R-245;St. David Parish, Rosalie, no. 67459. 

B. cuspidata (J. Agardh) DcToni:- DOMINICA: St. Andrew Parish, Woodford Hill Bay, 

no. R-251. BARBADOS: St. Andrew Parish, Chalky Mount, no. 66-478; St. John 
Parish, Bath Bay, no. 66-143A, Conset Bay, no. 68-549. 

BRYOTHAMNION Kutzing, 1843 

B. seaforthii (Turn.) Kutz.:— ST. K.ITTS: St. Peter Basseterre Parish, Conaree Beach, no. 

GRP-A.3130. NEVIS: St. George Gingerland Parish, Red Cliff, no. GRP-A.3211. 
DOMINICA: St. Andrew Parish, Calibishie Bay, no. 67-574, Woodford Hill Bay, 
nos. R-210, R-230B. ST. LUCIA: Dauphin Quarter, Grand Anse Beach, no. 68-372. 
BARBADOS: St. Lucy Parish, River Bay, nos. 66-78, 67-815; St. John Parish, Bath 
Bay, no. 67-659; Christ Church Parish, Oistins, nos. 66-106, 67-603, 67-740, St. 
Lawrence Bay, nos. 66-194, 67-718. ST. VINCENT: Charlotte Parish, Peruvian 
Vale, no. 66-354. GRENADA: St. George Parish, Point Salines, Black Bay, no. 

B. triquetruin (Gmel.) Howe:— GRAND CAYMAN: West Shore, near Pageant Beach 

Hotel, no. 67-88. ST. KITTS: St. John Capisterre Parish, Dieppe Bay, no. 68-66; St. 
Peter Basseterre Parish, Conaree Beach, no. 68-42. NEVIS: St. Thomas Lowland 
Parish, Pinncys Beach, no. 68-146; St. James Windward Parish, Sea Haven Estate, 
no. 68-221. ANTIGUA: St. John Parish, Loblolly Bay, no. 67-287. DOMINICA: St. 
Joseph Parish, 185 m. south of the Layou River, no. R-3 16; St. Andrew Parish, 
Calibishie Bay, nos. 67-539, R-177. ST. LUCIA: Castries Quarter, Grande Cul de 
Sac, no. 68-375; Gros Islet Quarter, La Brellotte Bay, no. 68-310. BARBADOS: St. 
James Parish, Paynes Bay, no. 66-41; St. Lucy Parish, River Bay, no. 67461; St. 
John Parish, Bath Bay., no. 67-658, Conset Bay, no. 68-547; Christ Church Parish, 
Oistins, no. 67-637, St. Lawrence Bay, no. 67-724. GRENADA: St. Andrew Parish, 
Marquis Beach, no. 66-273. 

In Solander's paper (1786, pi. 26, fig. 1) there is what appears to be a good 
illustration of/?, triquetrum, but is is not identified in the text. 

DIGENIA C. Agardh, 1863 

D. simplex (Wulf.) C. Agardh:- GRAND CAYMAN: West Shore, near Pageant Beach 

Hotel, no. 67-118. ST. KITTS: St. George Basseterre Parish, Frigate Bay, no. 
68-107; St. Peter Basseterre Parish, Conaree Bay, nos. 6748B, 67-51. NEVIS: St. 
James Windward Parish, Mosquito Bay, no. 68-167, Sea Haven Estate, no. 68-207B. 
ANTIGUA: St. John Parish, Soldier Bay, no. 67-152, Hodge Point, no. 67-137. 
DOMINICA: St. Andrew Parish, Calibishie Bay, no. 68-549, R-192. ST. LUCIA: 
Gros Islet Quarter, La Brellotte Bay, no. 68-321 . BARBADOS: St. Michael Parish, 
Needham Point, no. 67-699; St. Lucy Parish, River Bay, no. 66-87, Wickes Bay, no. 
67-674B, Little Bay, no. 66-57, 67-843; St. John Parish, Bath Bay, no. 67-661; 
Christ Church Parish, Hastings, no. 66-206. BEQUIA: Adams Beach, no. 66-383. 
GRENADA: St. Patrick Parish, Levera Beach, no. 66-288A. 

LOPHOCLADIA Schmitz, 1893 
L. trichoclados (Mert.) Schmitz:- NEVIS: St. Thomas Lowland Parish, Pinneys Beach, 


no. 68-1 23 ; St. James Windward Parish, Mosquito Bay, no. 68-1 7 1 

MURRAYELLA Schmitz, 1893 

M. periclados (C. Agardh) Schmitz:- GRAND CAYMAN: West Shore, West Point, no 

67-107; North Sound, Botabano, no. GRP-A.2505; South Shore, Red Bay, no 
67-111. ANTIGUA: St. Paul Parish, Mamora Bay, no. 67-314. GRENADA: St 
George Parish, Lower Woburn, no. 66-3 1 1 . 

BOSTRYCHIA Montagne, 1842 

B. rivularis Harv.:- ANTIGUA: St. Philip Parish, FanneysCove, no. 67-250. DOMINICA: 

St. Andrew Parish, Woodford Hill River about 185 m. from the bay, no. R-248. 

B. moritziana (Sond.) J. Agardh: ANTIGUA: St. Paul Parish, Mamora Bay, on 

mangroves, no. 67-315. 

B. binderi Harv.:— JAMAICA: Clarendon Parish, Holmes Bay, no. 56-454; Hanover 

Parish, Lucea, no. 56-633; St. James Parish, Long Bay, no. 56-571 ;St. Ann Parish, 
Priory, no. 56-46. ST. KITTS: St. John Capisterre Parish, Black Rocks, no. 
68- 120 A. ANTIGUA: St. John Parish, Hodge Point, no. 67-241 . 

B. tenella (Vahl) J. Agardh:- GRAND BAHAMA: West End, Settlement Point, no. 68-1. 

ANTIGUA: St. Philip Parish, Fanneys Cove, no. 67-249. BARBADOS: St. Lucy 
Parish, River Bay, no. 66-86, Little Bay, no. 66-50. BEQUIA: Adams Beach, no. 



H. secunda (C. Agardh) Ambronn:— NEVIS: St. Thomas Lowland Parish, Pinneys Beach, 

no. 68-141 (p.p., with Agardhiella). ANTIGUA: St. George Parish, Judge Bay, no. 

67-164 (p.p., with Chondria). DOMINICA: St. Mark Parish, Soufriere Bay, no. 

H. tenella (C. Agardh) Ambronn:— BARBADOS: St. Lucy Parish, Wickes Bay, no. 


LOPHOSIPHONIA Falkenberg, 1 897 

L. subadunca (Kiitz.) Falk.:- GRAND CAYMAN: West Shore near West Indian Club, no. 


L. cristata Falk.:- GRAND CAYMAN: West Shore, near Pageant Beach Hotel, no. 

67-98(7). ANTIGUA: St. John Parish, Loblolly Bay, nos. 67-292, 67-300, Hodge 

Point, no. 67-140. 

AMANSIA Lamouroux, 1809 

A. multifida Lamx.:— NEVIS: St. James Windward Parish, Sea Haven Estate, no. 

68-208B; St. George Gingerland Parish, Indian Castle Estate, no. 68-231. 
DOMINICA: St. Andrew Parish, Calibishie Bay, no. 67-556, Woodford Hill Estate, 
Pointe la Soie, no. R-230A. GRENADA: Charlotte Parish, Peruvian Vale, no. 


VIDALIA Lamouroux. 1824 

V. obtusiloba (Mert.) J. Agardh:- NEVIS: St. Thomas Lowland Parish, Pinneys Beach, 

no. 68-142, Jones Bay, no. 68-155; St. James Windward Parish, Mosquito Bay, no. 
68-168, Sea Haven Estate, no. 68-220; St. George Gingerland Parish, Indian Castle 


Estate, no. 68-232. DOMINICA: St. Andrew Parish, Calibishie Bay, no. 67-582. ST. 
VINCENT: Charlotte Parish, Peruvian Vale, no. 66-353. GRENADA: St. George 
Parish, Point Salines, Black Bay, no. 66-263. 

ENANTIOCLADIA Falkenberg, 1 889 

E. duperreyi (C. Agardh) Falk.:- ST. KITTS: St. Peter Basseterre Parish, North Frigate 

Bay, no. 68-75. NEVIS: St. Thomas Lowland Parish, Pinneys Beach, no. 68-133, 
Jones Bay, no. 68-156; St. George Gingerland Parish, Indian Castle Estate, no. 
68-244. DOMINICA: St. George Parish, Roseau, no. 67-359; St. Joseph Parish, 
south of the Macoucherie River, nos. R-308, 67-382. GRENADA: St. Patrick 
Parish, Levera Beach, no. 66-287A. 

CHONDR1A C. Agardh, 1817 

C. littoralis Harv.:— ST. KITTS: St. Peter Basseterre Parish, Conaree Beach, no. 68-35, 

North Frigate Bay, no. 68-70. ANTIGUA: St. John Parish, Hodge Point, nos. 
66-440, 67-138; St. George Parish, Judge Bay, no. 67-164. DOMINICA: St. Joseph 
Parish, 185 m. and 400 m. south of the Layou River, nos. R-315, 67-346, south of 
the Macoucherie River, no. 67-391. 

C. atropurpurea Harv.:— GRENADA: St. Andrew Parish, Grenville Beach, no. 66-282. 
C. sedifolia Harv.:- ANTIGUA: St. George Parish, Judge Bay, no. 67-159, 67-173. 
C. curvilineata Coll. & Herv.: — ANTIGUA: St. George Parish, Judge Bay, no. 67-175. 

ACANTHOPHORA Lamouroux, 1813 

A. muscoides (L.) Borg.:- ANTIGUA: St. Paul Parish, Crawle Bay, no. 67-222. 

DOMINICA: St. Paul Parish, between Layou and Goodwill, no. S&W-27843. 
BARBADOS: St. Peter Parish, Six Mens Bay, no. 66-20; St. Lucy Parish, Little Bay, 
no. 62-842. GRENADA: St. Andrew Parish, Grenville Beach, no. 66-300. 

A.spicifera (Vahl) Borg.:- GRAND CAYMAN: North Sound, Botabano, no. 

GRP-A.2495; North Shore, Grape Tree Point, no. GRP-A.2484; South Shore, 
Boddentown, no. 67-45. NEVIS: St. James Windward Parish, Mosquito Bay, no. 
68-184. ANTIGUA: St. Philip Parish, Exchange Bay, no. 66460. DOMINICA: St. 
Joseph Parish, south of the Macoucherie River, no. 6741 2; St. John Parish, Douglas 



Quarter, Laborie, no. 68-339. 

BARBADOS: St. Michael Parish, Needham Point, no. 67-707; St. James Parish, 

Paynes Bay, 


Adams Beach, no. 66-388. GRENADA: St. Andrew Parish, Grenville Beach, no. 


LAURENCIA Lamouroux, 1813 

L. nana Howe (?):- ANTIGUA: St. Paul Parish, Crawle Bay, no. 67-220. 

L. corallopsis (Mont.) Howe:- ST. KITTS: St. Peter Basseterre Parish, Conaree Beach, 

no. 68-50. DOMINICA: St. Andrew Parish, Calibishie Bay, nos. 67-547,67-563. 
BARBADOS: Christ Church Parish, Oistins, no. 66-98. 

L. papillosa (Forssk.) Grev.: - GRAND CAYMAN: South Shore, Boddentown, no. 6749. 

ST. KITTS: St. Peter Basseterre Parish, Conaree Beach, no. 6845, North Frigate 
Bay, no. 68-82. NEVIS: St. James Windward Parish, Sea Haven Estate, no. 68-206. 
ANTIGUA: St. John Parish, Hodge Point, no. 66410. DOMINICA: St. Joseph 


Parish, south of the Macoucherie River, no. 67417; St. John Parish, Prince Rupert 
Bay, no. 67-478 ; St. Andrew Parish, Calibishie Bay, nos. 67-557, 67-563 ; Woodford 
Hill Bay, Pointe La Soie, no. R-207; St. Mark Parish, Soufriere Bay, no. 67-442. ST. 
LUCIA: Gros Islet Quarter, La Brellotte Bay, no. 68-322; Laborie Quarter, Laborie, 
no. 68-347. BARBADOS: St. Peter Parish, Six Mens Bay, no. 66-21A. BEQUIA: 
Adams Beach, no. 66-382. GRENADA: St. George Parish, Martins Bay, no. 

L. gemmifera Harv.:- GRAND CAYMAN: West Shore, near the West Indian Club, no. 

67-19. NEVIS: St. Thomas Lowland Parish, Pinneys Beach, no. 68-148; St. James 
Windward Parish, Sea Haven Estate, no. 68-202. DOMINICA: St. Andrew Parish, 
Calibishie Bay, no. 67-589(7). 

L. poitei (Lamx.) Howe:- DOMINICA: Woodford Hill Bay, Pointe La Soie, no. R-234. 

BARBADOS: St. Lucy Parish, River Bay, no. 67-818 (?). 

L. scoparia J. Agardh:- DOMINICA: St. Andrew Parish, Woodford Hill Bay, no. R-255. 

L. obtusa (Huds.) Lamx.:- GRAND CAYMAN: West Shore, West Indian Club, no. 67-18; 

East End, Old Isaacs, no. GRP-A.2465; South Shore, east of Boddentown, no. 
67-35. ANTIGUA: St. John Parish, Goat Hill Bay, no. 67-304, Wetherell Point, no. 
66-476; St. George Parish, Judge Bay, no. 67-176; St. Philip Parish, Exchange Bay, 
no. 66-451. DOMINICA: St. Joseph Parish, south of the Macoucherie River, no. 
67-413; St. Andrew Parish, Calibishie Bay, no. 67-588; St. Mark Parish, Soufriere 
Bay, no. 67-444. ST. LUCIA: Vieux Fort Quarter, no. 68-335. BARBADOS: St. 
James Parish, Coral Reef Club, no. 67-788. 

L. intricata Lamx.:- GRAND CAYMAN: South Shore, Boddentown, no. 6744. ST. 

KITTS: St. John Capisterre Parish, Black Rocks, no. 68-121A. DOMINICA: St. 



L. microcladia Kiitz.:- GRAND CAYMAN: West Shore near Pageant Beach Hotel, no. 

67-92. NEVIS: St. James Windward Parish, Sea Haven Estate, no. 68-201. 
ANTIGUA: St. John Parish, Hodge Point, nos. 66411, 67-142. ST. LUCIA: 
Castries Quarter, La Toe Beach, no. 68406. 




(For publications issued before 1959 see also Taylor 1960) 

Abbott, I. A., & M. S. Doty. 1960. Studies in the Helminthocladiaceae, Trichogloeopsis. Amer. 

Journ. Bot. 47(8): 632-640, 23 text-figs. 

Agardh, J. G. 1854. Nya algformer. Ofvers. K. Vetensk.-Akad. Forhandl. 11(4): 108-111. 

Almodovar, L. R. 1964. Observations on the deep-water algae off La Parguera, Puerto Rico. 

(Abstr.) Amer. Journ, Bot. 51(6): 682. 

. 1965. The unnamed Rhodophyta of the Marshall A. Howe collection of marine algae 

from Puerto Rico. Nova Hedwigia 9(1-4): 1-19. 

, & H. Blomquist. 1959. The benthic algae of Bahia Fosforescente, Puerto Rico. Quart. 

Journ. Florida Acad. Sci. 22(3): 163-168. 

, & . 1961. Notes on marine algae of Cabo Rojo, Puerto Rico. Quart. Journ. 

Florida Acad. Sci. 24(2): 81-93, 1 text-fig. 

,& . 1965. Some marine algae new to Puerto Rico. Nova Hedwigia 9(1-4): 


, & F. A. Pagan. 1967. Notes on the algae of Barbados. Nova Hedwigia 13(1-2): 

11 1-115, map. 

Anonymous. 1824. Corallina; or, a classical arrangement of flexible coralline polypidoms selected 

from the French of J. F. V. Lamouroux, D. E. S. xxxvi + 284 pp., 19 pi. London & Bath. 


Areschoug, J. E. 1855. Phyceae novae et minus cognitae in maribus extra-Europaeis collectae, quas 

descriptionibus observationibusque illustravit. Nova Acta Reg. Soc. Sci. Upsaliensis iii, 1: 
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Bodard, M. 1965. Le Gracilaria occidentalis (B<£rg.): une espece de Rhodophycee pantropicale 

Atlantique. Bull. Mus. Nat. d'Hist. Nat. II. 6: 870-878. 1964. 

Campa de Guzman, S. de la. 1965. Notas preliminares sobre un reconocimiento de la flora marina del 

Estado de Veracruz. An. Inst. Nac. Invest. Biol. Pesq. 1: 7-49. 

Chapman, V. J. 1961. The marine algae of Jamaica, Part L Myxophyceae and Chlorophyceae. 159 

pp., 178 text-figs., map. Kingston. 

. 1963. The marine algae of Jamaica, Part II. Phaeophyceae and Rhodophyceae. 201 

pp., 186 text-figs. Kingston. 

Colinvaux, L. H., & E, A. Graham. 1964. A new species of Halimeda. Nova Hedwigia 7(1-2): 5-10, 

4 pi. 

Dawes, C. J., S. A. Earle, & F. C. Croley. 1967. The offshore benthic flora of the southwest coast of 

Florida. Bull. Marine Sci. 17(1): 211-231, 2 text-figs. 

Dfaz-Pifferer, M. 1955. Resultados de la primera investigation sobre posibilidades industrials con 

algas marinas de las costas de la Provincia de Oriente. Univ. de Oriente 1955, no. 13: 1-9, 1 

. 1961a. Acido alginico en algunas especies de algas pardas cubanas. Bol. Inform. Instit. 

Cubano Invest. Tecnol. 5(1): 3-7, 3 text-figs. 

. 1961b. Taxonomia, ecologia y valor nutrimental de algas marinas cubanas: III. Algas 

productoras de Agar. Inst. Cubano de Invest. Tecnol., ser. Estud. Trav. de Invest, no. 17: 
1-84, 37 text-figs. 

, & H. Lopez. 1959. Taxonomia, ecologia y valor nutrimental de algas marinas cubanas: I. 

Algas productoras de Agar. Inst. Cubano de Invest. Tecnol., ser. Estud. Trab. de Invest, no. 6: 
1-49, 18 text-figs. 

, J. M. Navia de la Campa, & C. Saavedra Losa. 1961. Taxonomia, ecologia y valor 

nutrimental de algas marinas cubanas: II. Utilisation de algas en alimentation de aves. Inst. 
Cubano de Invest. Tecnol., ser. Estud. Trab. de Invest, no. 16: 1-87, 16 text-figs. 



Dixon, P. S. I960. Taxonomic and nomenelatural notes on the Florideae, II. Bot. Notiser 113(3): 


. 1962. Taxonomic and nomenelatural notes on the Florideae, III. Bot. Notiser 115(3): 

245-260, 1 text-fig. 

. 1967. Notes on important algal herbaria, V. The herbaria of Bonnemaison and the 

brothers Crouan. Brit. Phycol. Bull. 3(2): 213-218. 

, & H. M. Parkes. 1968. Miscellaneous notes on algal taxonomy and nomenclature, 

II. Bot. Notiser 121: 80-88. 

Eaile, L. C, & H. J. Humm. 1964. Intertidal zonation of marine algae in Beaufort Harbor. Journ. 

Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 80(1): 78-82, 1 fig. 

Ellis, J. 1755. An essay towards a Natural History of the Corallines and other marine productions of 

like kind commonly found on the coasts of Great Britain and Ireland. Frontisp., xvii + 10 + 103 
+ 1 pp., 38 + 1 pi. London. 

, (transl.) 1756. Essai sur Phistoire naturelle des Corallines Frontisp., xvi + 125 + 3 

pp., 39 pi. The Hague. 

■ 1767. Extract of a letter from John Ellis Esq., F.R.S., to Dr. Linnaeus of Upsal, F.R.S., 

on the animal nature of the genus of zoophytes called CoraUina. Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. 

London 57: 404-427, pis. 17, 18. Also in the abridged issue of 1809, 12: 458-468, pis. 11, 

Euphrasens, B. A. 1 798. Reise nach dcr schwedisch-west-indischc Insel St. Barthelemi und den Inseln 

St. Eustache und St. Christoph. 308 + 19 pp. Gottingen. 

Feldmann, G. 1945. Revision du genre Botryocladia Kylin (Rhodophycees-Rhodymeniacees). Bull. 

Soc. dTIist. Nat. de PAfrique du Nord 35: 49 61, 5 text-figs. 1944. 

. 1967. Le genre Cordylecladia J. Ag., et sa position systematiquc. Rev. Gen. de Bot. 

74: 357 375, 8 text-figs., 2 pi. 

Feldmann, J. 1931. Remarques sur les genres Gelidium Lamour., Gelidiopsis Schmitz et Kchino- 

cauloti (Kiitz.) emend. Rec. de Trav. Crypt, ded. a Louis Mangin, pp. 1-16, 4 text-figs. Paris. 

. 1958. Les Cyanophycees marines de la Guadeloupe. Rev. Algol. II. 4(1): 25-39, 1 


Feldmann, J., & Feldmann, G. 1966. Sur le Gymnothamnion elegans (Schousb.) J. Ag., et la situation 

des organes femelles chez les Ceramiacees. Rev. Gen. de Bot. 73: 5 17, 6 text-figs., 1 pi. 

Fcrreira, M. M., & F. C. Pinheiro. 1966. Primeira contribucao ao inventario das algas marinhas 

bentonicas do nordeste Brasileiro. Arq. Est. Biol. Mar. Univ. Fed. Ceara 6(1): 59 66, 1 


Gaillard, J. 1967. Etude monographique de Padina (etrastroniatica (Hauck). Bull. Inst. Fund. 

d'Afrique Noire 29 (A, 2): 447 463, 6 figs. 

Gessner, F., & L. Hammer. 1967. Die litorale Algenvcgetation an den Kiisten von Ost-Vene- 

zuela. Int. Rev. Ges. Hydrobiol. 52(5): 657-692, 13 text-figs. 

Glynn, P. W., L. R. Almodovar, & J. G. Gonzalez. 1964. Effects of Hurricane Edith on marine life in 

La Parguera, Puerto Rico. Caribbean Journ. Sci. 4(2-3): 335-345, 5 text-figs. 

Grieve, S. 1909. Note on some seaweeds from the island of Dominica, British West Indies. Trans. 

Bol. Soc. Edinburgh 24(1): 7 12. 

Hillis, L. W. 1969. A revision of the genus Halimeda (Order Siphonales). Inst. Marine Sci. 6: 

321-403, 12 pi. 

Hodge, W. H. 1954. Flora of Dominica, B.W.I. Llcydia 17(1-3): 1-238, 1 12 text-figs. 

Huerta Muzquiz, L. 1958. Contribucion al conocimiento de las algas de los bajos de la Sonda de 

Campeche, Cozumcl e Isla Mujeres. An. Esc. Nac. Ci. Biol. [Mexico] 9(104): 115-123, pis. 
6 9. 

. 1960a(-?). Lista preliminar de las algas marinas del litoral del Estado de Veracruz. Bol. 

Soc. Bot. Mex. 25: 39-45. 

. 1960b. [List of Veracruz Marine Algae.] Guia de la Excursion, Primer Congr. Mex. de 

Bot., 1960. pp. 25-26, 15 figs. 

--. 1961. Flora marina de los alrededores de la Isla Perez, Arrecife Alacranes, Sonda de 
Campeche, Mexico. An. Esc. Nac. Ci. Biol. [Mexico] 10(1 4): 1 1-22. 


, & M. A. Garza Barrientos. 1966. Algas marinas del litoral del Estado de Campeche. Ci- 

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Humm, H. J. 1956. Rediscovery of Anadyomene menziesii, a deep-water alga from the Gulf of 

Mexico. Bull. Marine Sci., Gulf & Carib. 6(4): 346-348. 

. 1963a. Some new records and range extensions of Florida marine algae. Bull. Marine 

Sci., Gulf & Carib. 13(4): 516-526. 

. 1963b. Algae of the southern Gulf of Mexico. Proc. 4th Internat. Seaweed Sympos. 

pp. 202-206. 

. 1963c. Dictyota dichotoma in Virginia. Virginia Journ. Sci. II. 14(3): 109-1 11, 1 fig. 

. 1964. Epiphytes of the sea-grass Thalassia testudinum in Florida. Virginia Journ. Sci. 

II. 14(2): 306-341, 3 text-figs. 

, & M. J. Cerame-Vivas. 1964. Struvea pulcherrima in North Carolina. Journ. Elisha 

Mitchell Sci. Soc. 80(1): 23-24, 1 text-fig. 

, & R. M. Darnell. 1959. A collection of marine algae from the Chandeleur Islands. Inst. 

Marine Sci. 6: 265-276, 3 text-figs. 

, & H. H. Hildebrand. 1962. Marine algae from the Gulf Coast of Texas and 

Mexico. Inst. Marine Sci. 8: 227-268. 

, & C. R. Jackson. 1955. A collection of marine algae from Guantanamo Bay, 

Cuba. Bull. Marine Sci., Gulf & Carib. 5(3): 240-246. 

, & S. E. Taylor. 1961. Marine Chlorophyta of the upper west coast of Florida. Bull. 

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Joly, A. B. 1954. The genus Bostrychia Montagne, 1838, in southern Brazil. Taxonomic and 

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. 1963. Generos de algas de agua doce da cidade de Sao Paulo e arredores. Rickia, suppl. 

1: 186 + 2 pp., 125 text-figs. (Freshwater). 

. 1964. Extensao da flora marinha tropical no sul do Brasil. Bol. Inst. Biol. Marina 7: 


. 1965a. Flora marinha do litoral norte do Estado de Sao Paulo e regioes circum- 

vizinhas. Bol. Fac. Filos. Univ. Sao Paulo 294(Bot. 21): 393 pp., 59 pi. 

. 1965b. Marine flora of the tropical and subtropical western South Atlantic. Anais da 

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. 1967. Generos de algas marinhas da costa atlantica Latino-Americana. 461 pp., 227 

pi. Sao Paulo. 

, & Y. Y. Braga. 1966. Primera nota sobre algas coletadas durante as viagens do navio 

oceanografico "Almirante Saldanha." Nota Tech. Inst. Pesq. da Marinha 34: 1-11, 2 pi. 

, & M. Cordeiro. 1962. Additions to the marine flora of Brazil, II. Bol. Fac. Filos. Univ. 

Sao Paulo 257(Bot. 18): 223-228, 4 pi. 

, & . 1963. Two new species of Acrochaetium from southern Brazil. Bol. 

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, , M. L. Mendoza, N. Yamaguishi, & Y. Ugadim. 1963. Additions to the 

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, , & N. T. Yamaguishi. 1963. Antithamnion tristichum and Ophiocladus 

heterosiphonioides, two new Rhodophyceae from southern Brazil. Bol. Fac. Filos. Univ. Sao 
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, , & . 1964. La estructura y reproduction de Acanthococcus 

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, M. Cordeiro-Marino, N. Yamaguishi-Tomita, Y. Yugadim, E. C. de Oliveira F., & M. M. 

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, , & Y. Ugadim. 1965. New marine algae from Brazil. Arq. Est. Biol. Mar., 

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, & E. C. de Oliveira F. 1966. Spyridiocolax and Heterodasya, two new genera of 

Rhodophyceae. Sellowia 18: 115-125, 4 pi. 


, & . 1967. Notes on Brazilian algae I. -New finding confirming uncertain 

records. Bol. Fac. Filos. Univ. Sao Paulo 305(Bot. 22): 313-320, 1 pi. 

, & . 1967. Two Brazilian Laminarias. Inst. Pesquisas da Marinha, Publ. 004. 

13 pp., 3 pi., map. 

, F. C. Pinheiro, & M. M. Ferreira. 1967. Additions to the marine flora of Brazil, 

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, & Y. Ugadim. 1963. Note on the occurrence of one species of Ceramiella in American 

South Atlantic. Bol. Fac. Filos. Univ. Sao Paulo 288(Bot. 20): 41-48, 2 pi. 

, & . 1966. The reproduction of Ochtodes secundiramea (Mont.) Howe. Bol. 

Inst. Oceanogr. 15(1): 55-64, 3 pi. 

, , & E. C. de Oliveira F. 1967. The structure and reproduction of Periphykon 

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, , , & M. C. Marino. 1967. Additions to the marine flora of 

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, , , F. C. Pinheiro, & M. M. Ferreira. 1966. Additions to the 

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, & N. T. Yamaguishi. 1963. The life history of Porphyra atropurpurea (Olivi) DeToni, 

L. Bol. Fac. Filos. Univ. Sao Paulo 288(Bot. 19): 115-132, 4 pi. 

, & N. Yamaguishi-Tomita. 1967. Dawsoniella bostrychioides, a new parasite of mangrove 

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. 1813. Essai sur les genres de la famille des Thalassiophytes non-articulees. Ann. Mus. 

Hist. Nat. 20: 21-47, 115-139, 267-293. PI. 7-13. (Reprinted and paged 1-84). 

. 1816. Histoire des Polypiers coralligenes flexibles .... Ixxxiv + tab. + 559 + 1 pp., 19 

pi. Caen. 

. 1821. Exposition methodique des genres de l'ordre des Polypiers. viii +115 pp., 84 

pi. Paris. 

Papenfuss, G. F. 1940. Notes on South African marine algae, I. Bot. Notiser 1940: 200-226, 16 


. 1960. On the genera of the Ulvales and the status of the order. Journ. Linn. Soc. 

London (Bot.) 56: 303-318, 9 text-figs., 6 pi. 

Parke, M., & Dixon, P. S. 1968. British marine algae: Second Revision. Journ. Marine Biol. Assoc. 

U.K. 48: 783-832. 

Phillips, R. C. 1958. Notes on the development of Anadyomene stellata (Wulf.) C. Agardh. Quart. 

Journ. Florida Acad. Sci. 21(2): 145-148, 6 text-figs. 

. 1959. Notes on the marine flora of the Marquesas Keys, Florida. Quart. Journ. Florida 

Acad. Sci. 22(3): 155-162, 6 text-figs. 

. 1960a. Ecology and distribution of marine algae found in Tampa Bay, Boca Ciega Bay 

and Tarpon Springs, Florida. Quart. Journ. Florida Acad. Sci. 23(3): 222-260. 

. 1960b. The ecology of marine plants of Crystal Bay, Florida. Quart. Journ. Florida 

Acad. Sci. 23(4): 328-337. 

. 1960c. Report on the hydrography and marine plants of the Caloosahatchee River and 

adjacent waters, Florida. Florida State Board of Conserv., Marine Lab., Spec. Sci. Rep. 5: 
4-19, 1 fig. 

. 1961. Seasonal aspect of the marine algal flora of St. Lucie Inlet and adjacent Indian 

River, Florida. Quart. Journ. Florida Acad. Sci. 24(2): 135-147, 1 text-fig. 

. 1963. Ecology of floating algal communities in Florida. Quart. Journ. Florida Acad. 

Sci. 26(4): 329-334. 

, & R. M. Ingle. 1960. Report on the marine plants, biotypes and hydrography of the St. 

Lucie estuary and adjacent Indian River, Florida. Florida State Board of Conserv., Marine 
Lab., Spec. Sci. Rep. 4: 1-75, 6 figs. 


, & V. G. Springer. 1960. Observations on the offshore benthic flora in the Gulf of 

Mexico off Pinellas County, Florida. Amer. Midi. Nat. 64(2): 362-381. 

Pinheiro, F. C, & A. B. Joly. 1966. The sexual male plants of Gracilaria cearensis (Joly & Pinheiro) 

Joly & Pinheiio. Arq. Est. Biol. Mai., Univ. Ceara 6(2): 131-134, 4 text-figs. 

Post, E. 1965. Caloglossa beccarii im Golf von Mexico. Hydrobiologia 26(1-2): 184-188, 2 


Sanchez-Rodriguez, E. 1963. Datos relativos a los manglares de Mexico. An. Esc. Nac. Ci. Biol. 

[Mexico] 12(1-4): 61-72, illus. 

. 1967. Flora marina de Monte Pio, Edo. de Veracruz, Mexico. An. Esc. Nac. Ci. Biol. 

[Mexico] 14: 9-18. 

Schmidt, O. C. 1934. Pringsheimia Reinke jetzt Pringsheimiella v. Hoehn. Hedwigia 74: 29. 

Schnetter, R. 1966. Meeresalgen aus der Umgebung von Santa Marta, Colombien. Botanica Marina 

10(3-4): 1-4. 

, & M.-L. Schnetter. 1967. Notas sobre unas especies del Orden Gigartinales en la costa 

atlantica de Colombia. Mitt. Inst. Colombo-Aleman Invest. Cient. 1: 45-52, 15 text-figs. 

Silva, P. C. 1960. Codium (Chlorophyta) of the tropical western Atlantic. Nova Hedwigia 1(3-4): 

497-536, pi. 107-123. 

Solander, D. 1786. The natural history of many curious and uncommon zoophytes collected from 

various parts of the globe by the late John Ellis .... systematically arranged and described by 
the late Daniel Solander. [i-v] , vi-xii + 208 pp., 63 pi. London. 

Taylor, Wm. Randolph. 1959. Associations algales des mangroves d'Amerique. Colloq. Internat. 

Centre Nat. Recherche Sci. 81, Dinard, 1957. Pp. 143-152. 

. 1960. Marine Algae of the Eastern Tropical and Subtropical Coasts of the Americas, ix 

+ 870 pp., 14 photos, 80 pi. Ann Arbor, Mich. 

. 1961a. Distribution in depth of marine algae in the Caribbean and adjacent 

seas. Recent Advances in Botany 1: 193-197. Toronto. 

. 1961b. Notes on three Bermudian marine algae. Hydrobiologia 18(4): 277-283, 21 


. 1962a. Marine algae from the tropical Atlantic Ocean, V. Algae from the Lesser 

Antilles. Contr. U. S. Nat.- Herb. 36(2): 43-62, pis. 1-4. 

. 1962b. Observations on Pseudobryopsis and Trichosolen in America. Brittonia 14(1): 

58-65, 23 text-figs. 

. 1962c. A note on Bryopsis in the West Indies. Phycologia 2(1): 233-237, 1 text-fig. 

. 1962d. Two undescribed species of Halimeda. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 89(3): 172-177, 

14 text-figs. 

. 1964. A valuable old collection of Florida marine algae. Quart. Journ. Florida Acad. 

Sci. 27(1): 1-8. 

. 1967. A "Caulerpa" newly recorded for the West Indies. Le Botaniste 50: 467-470, 4 


Valet, G. 1966. Les Dicty osphaeria du groupe versluysii (Siphonocladiales, Valoniacees). Phycologia 

5(4): 256-260, 2 text-figs. 

Vroman, M. 1967. A new species of Stichothamnion from the West Indies. Acta' Bot. Need. 15: 

557-561, 3 text-figs., 4 pi. 

. 1968. The marine algal vegetation of St. Martin, St. Eustatius and Saba (Netherlands 

West Indies). Dissertation, 120 pp., 20 text-figs., 10 pi. Utrecht. 

Zaneveld, J. S. 1958a. The Caribbean Marine Biological Institute, Piscadera Bay, Curasao 

(Netherlands Antilles). Turtox News 36(12): 284-285, 1 text-fig. 

. 1958b. A lithothamnion bank at Bonaire (Netherlands Antilles). Caribbean Marine 

Biol. Inst. Coll. Pap. 10: 206-219, 6 text-figs. 

. 1966. The marine algae of the American Coast between Cape May, N.J., and Cape 

Hatteras, N.C. Bot. Marina 9(3-4): 101-128, 7 pi. 




7 *. ^^7; 


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PLATE 1 . 

Figure 1. Algal habitats on a highly dissected coast with exposed (far left) and sheltered rocky shores, 

as well as beaches (lower right) and beds of turtle-grass. Widely accessible for algae of shallow 
water. Antigua. 

Figure 2 (lower). A rock-bordered deep bay, mostly sheltered from surf, readily accessible by boat for 

the intertidal rock vegetation. Antigua. 




Figure 1. A long, sandy beach without significant rocky outcrops or an off-shore reef, and 

so no algae growing near shore or in the littoral belt, and few washed ashore. Nevis. 

Figure 2 (lower). The vegetation of shelving beach-rock below a sandy beach. Darkening the rock a 

heavy growth of Enteromorpha with other algae indicating a substantial pollution. Barbados. 







> * 





... V 


Figure 1. A sandy beach in front of a copse of the ill-famed manchineel trees, interrupted with 

frequent calcareous beach-rock outcrops, with neither pollution nor an off-shore reef. Barbados. 

Figure 2 (lower). A characteristic association on such beach-rock, here consisting of tufts of individual 

clavate Ectocarpus breviarticulatus plants over a dark brown crust, probably of Ralfsia. 




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Figure 1. Extensive shelving calcareous beach-rock witli tide-pools which, in right and left foregrounds, 

show dark colonies of Cystoseira, a very unusual occurrence in the West Indies. Grand Bahama. 

figure 2 (lower). Detail of a colony of Cystoseira myrica. Grand Bahama. 



: . . ■■ ?■ ■ 

PLATE 5 . 

Figure 1. The maigin of an inshore rock outcrop on a coast with moderate surf, showing the thick 

border of Sargassum as a mound on the edge. Barbados. 

Figure 2 (lower). Detail of a similar border of the less common Turbinaria from a quieter shore. 






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Figure 1. An abrupt shofe-line difficult of access dropping to a border of non-calcareous rocks fully 

exposed to wave action, worn smooth and too unstable to support a good algal flora. Grenada. 

Figure 2 (lower). A wide rocky shoal of partly cemented rock, calcareous or coaled with lithothamnia, 

not exposed to severe wave action, and supporting a substantial intertidal and upper sublittoral 
flora. Bequia. 





Figure 1. A moderately abrupt shore-line with large fixed non-calcareous boulders not exposed to 

particularly heavy surf, and not unstable. St. Kitts. 

Figure 2 (lower). A characteristic vegetation on such rocks, usually consisting of small, wiry species 

2-7 cm. tall, and here showing dentate branches of Acanthophora (chiefly at the left) and paler, 

more slender Gelidiella (toward the center). Barbados. 




Figure 1. Extensive rocky shelves below cliffs exposed to very severe surf action. These are only 

accessible at low tide on relatively calm days. The Hat surfaces bear a dense mixed vegetation of 
dwarfed wiry species hardly 1-3 cm. tall, often over crusts of lithothamnia. In crevices and surge 
channels these species can be found of normal stature, accompanying less resistant types absent 
from the exposed planes. Barbados. 

Figure 2 (lower). On the outer sides of the ledges and in the channels Sargassum platycarpum (shown 

here) often dominates, replacing the Sargassa found on less exposed shores. Barbados. 




Acanthophora, 186 
Acetabularia, 145 
Acicularia, 145 
Acrochaetium, 166 
Agardhiella, 177 
Amansia, 185 
Amphipleura, 134 
Amphiioa, 172 
Anadyomene, 148 
Asparagopsis, 168 
Avrainvillea, 151 

Bachelotia, 155 
Boodlea, 148 
Bostrychia, 185 
Botryocladia, 179 
Brachytrichia, 135 
Bryocladia, 184 
Bryothamnion, 184 
Bryopsis, 149 

Callithamnion, 180 
Caloglossa, 182 
CateneUa, 178 
Caulerpa, 149 
Centroceras, 181 
Ceramium, 180 
Chaetomorpha, 142 

Chamaedoris, 147 

Champia, 179 
Chnoospora, 162 
Chondria, 186 
Chrysophaeum, 154 
Chrysonephos, 154 
Cladophora, 143 
Cladophoropsis, 148 
Cladosiphon, 162 
Codium, 153 
Coelothrix, 179 
Colpomenia, 162 
Compsopogon, 166 
Corallina, 172 
Cordylecladia, 176 
Crouania, 179 
Cryptonemia, 173 
Cymopolia, 144 
Cystoseira, 163 

Dasya, 182 

Dasycladus, 144 
Dictyopteris, 160 

Dictyosphaeria, 147 

Dictyota, 158 

Dictyurus, 183 

Digenia, 184 

Dilophus, 156 

Diplochacte, 141 

Dohrniella, 180 

Ectocaipus, 155 
Enantiocladia, 186 
Enteromorpha, 141 
Ernodesmis, 146 

Erythxocladia, 166 
Erythrotrichia, 166 
Eucheuma, 177 

Falkenbergia, 183 
Fosliella, 171 

Galaxaura, 167 
GelidieUa, 169 
Gelidiopsis, 169 
Gelidium, 169 
Giffordia, 155 
Gracilaria, 173 
Grateloupia, 173 
Griffithsia, 180 
Gymnogongrus, 178 

Halicystis, 145 
Halimeda, 152 
Halodictyon, 183 

Haloplegma, 1 80 
Halymenia, 173 

Helminthocladia, 166 
Herposiphonia, 185 
Heterosiphonia, 182 
Hildenbrandia, 171 
Hydroclathrus, 162 
Hypnea, 178 

Jania, 172 

Laurencia, 186 
Liagora, 166 
Lomentaria, 179 
Lophocladia, 184 
Lophosiphonia, 185 

Martensia, 182 
Meristotheca, 178 
Microdictyon, 148 
Monostroma, 142 
Murray ella, 185 
Myrionema, 162 

Neomeris, 144 

Ochtodes, 171 

Padina, 161 
Penicillus, 152 
Petrosiphon, 148 
Peysonnelia, 171 


Pocockiella, 160 

Polysiphonia, 183 
Pterocladia, 170 


Ralfsia, 162 
Rhipilia, 151 
Rhipocephalus, 152 
Rhizoclonium, 143 
Rhododictyon, 183 

Rosenvingea, 162 


Sargassum, 163 
Siphonocladus, 147 
Spatoglossum, 160 
Sphacelaria, 156 
Spyridia, 181 
Struvea, 148 
Stypopodium, 161 

Taenioma, 182 
Thuretia, 183 
Trichogloea, 166 
Turbinaria, 164 

Udotea, 151 
Ulva ? 142 

Valonia, 145 
Vidalia, 185 

Wrangelia, 180 
Wurdemannia, 171 


_ * 






Volume 9, Nos. 3-7, pp. 205-522 

Botanical Exploration in Nueva Galicia, Mexico, from 1790 to the Present Time 


Compositarum Mexicanarum Pugillus ROGERS McVAUGH 359 

North American Counterparts of Sigesbeckia orientalis (Compositae) 


The genus Trigonospermum Less. (Compositae, Heliantheae) 


The Oaks (Quercus) Described by Nee (1801) and by Humboldt & Bonpland 

(1809), with Comments on Related Species 


University Herbarium, University of Michigan 

Ann Arbor, Michigan 



' L 


Rogers McVaugh, Editor 

Volume 9, Nos. 3—7, pp. 205-522, 65 figures in text, 2 maps 

Price Seven Dollars and Fifty Cents ($7.50) 

Contributions from the University of Michigan Herbarium, Nos. 1-8 (published 
1939-1942), with title-page and cumulative index (published 1966), and Vol. 9, Nos. 
1-2 (published 1966, 1969), are still available. For information address the Director, 
Herbarium of the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48104, U.S.A. 



from 1790 to the present time 



University of Michigan 


Volume 9, No. 3, pp. 205-357, two maps 

University Herbarium, University of Michigan 

Ann Arbor, Michigan 



Vol. 9, No. 1 30 September 1966 

Vol. 9, No. 2 1 December 1969 


In 1949, after my first visit to Jalisco, I entertained the idea of compiling a flora 
of the State. The preliminary work of discovering what was already known about the 
plants of the State soon made it clear that a more natural floristic region would 
include not only Jalisco but also the States of Colima and Aguascalientes; it would 
take in southern Nayarit as far north as the end of the highlands that fall off from 
near Tepic to the broad coastal plain north of San Bias; northeastern Nayarit, southern 
Durango and southern Zacatecas as far west as the Rio San Pedro and north to latitude 
23°; portions of Guanajuato and Michoacan, eastward to an ill-defined boundary that 
is marked by the western and northern fronts of the mountains from Cerro del Toro 
(about 50 km east of Lagos de Moreno) southward to the Sierra de Penjamo, Cerro 
Patamban, Cerro Tancitaro, and Sierra de Coalcoman. This region corresponds in a very 
general way to the old Spanish province or kingdom of Nueva Galicia, and for 
convenience' sake the title of Flora Novo-Galiciana is planned for the descriptive 
account of the plants. The boundaries of the area, and the principal vegetational 
features of Nueva Galicia in our sense, have been set forth in two publications. 1 

As in most preliminary floristic studies, botanical fieldwork in Nueva Galicia has 
stressed the collection of herbarium specimens. Summary publications resulting from 
the work were few indeed in 1949, including one long obsolete, 2 and two more local 
floras. 3 Except for what could be gleaned from such general works as P. C. Standley's 
monumental Trees and Shrubs of Mexico, it was necessary to search the taxonomic 
literature to find (mostly incidental) references to the work of collectors in the area. It 
transpired that approximately 5000 different collections of vascular plants had been 
cited in floras, monographs and revisions, but the information that could be obtained 
from such sources was incomplete from the standpoint of any floristic list, and 
unsatisfactory because of the high incidence of errors and inconsistencies of citation. A 
necessary preliminary to a revised floristic list therefore seemed to be an index to 
localities at which plants had been collected in Nueva Galicia, and an account of the 
work of the collectors to give body to the list of localities. 

In the preparation of the following lists I have had the help of many friends and 
acquaintances, and it is a pleasure to extend thanks to all of these. Hardly any of the 
sketches of living collectors could have been completed satisfactorily without the 
cooperation of the persons directly concerned, and an equal measure of assistance has 
been received from the institutions who have been the recipients of letters and other 
documents, and plant-materials of all kinds. Needless to say I am wholly responsible 
for any errors that may have been introduced into the following pages. 

Most of the initial work of compilation was done between 1954 and 1956, when I 
received favors on many separate occasions from botanical friends who happened to be 
strategically located. In this connection I want to mention the contributions made by 

^cVaugh, Rogers. Euphorbiaceae novae novo-galicianae. Brittonia 12: 145-205. 1961. 
Rzedowski, Jerzy, and Rogers McVaugh. La vegetaci6n de Nueva Galicia. Contr. Univ. Mich. 
Herb. 9: 1-123, 28 figs., map. 1966. 

2 Florula del departamento de Jalisco escrita en el ano de 1859, por el Sr. Dr. Leonardo Oliva 
y communicada a esta sociedad, por el Sr. Dr. Alfredo Duges. La Naturaleza 5: 88-99, 127-133. 

°Castarieda, Alfonso Manuel. La flora del estado de Jalisco. Bol. Junta Aux. Jal. Soc. Mex. 
Geog. & Est. 3: 113-160. 1933. G6mez y Gutierrez, Agustin. Flora silvestre del valle de 
Guadalajara. Bol. Junta Aux. Jal. Soc. Mex. Geog. & Est. 8: 185-260. 1945. 




the late Maximino Martinez, then of the Institute de Biologia; of C. 0. Erlanson, then 
of the U.S. Department of Agriculture; of Mrs. Roxana S. Ferris, then of Stanford 
University; and of C. V. Morton and A. C. Smith, then both of the U.S. National 
Museum. I am especially grateful to the authorities of the Museum National d'Histoire 
Naturelle, Paris, who loaned for my study the entire collection made by Leon Diguet 

in Nueva Galicia. 

More recently 1 was assisted greatly by Dr. Emilio Fernandez Galiano, who made 
it possible for me to study the Sesse and Mocino manuscripts at Madrid in 1963, and 
by the late Faustino Miranda, who placed the archival materials of the Instituto de 
Biologia at my disposal and aided me in other ways. A grant from the Field Museum 
supported my travel in Spain in 1963, and a grant from the National Science 
Foundation has supported the publication of this paper. 

After 1950, and even earlier, as new roads began to stretch to every part of 
Mexico, and as automobile transportation became easier, the number of casual 
collectors rapidly increased. I have not been able to keep pace with them, and do not 
claim to have included the name of everyone who has collected a herbarium specimen 
in Nueva Galicia. I have included the names and collecting localities of recent 
collectors as these have come to my attention, but have not been able to work out 
sequences of localities, dates, and collection-numbers as completely as for the older 
collectors. I should be glad at any time to receive further information about recent 
collectors, or about any others who have worked and collected in Nueva Galicia. 

Historical Summary of Fieldwork in Nueva Galicia 

Spanish settlements were formed at Guadalajara, at Colima, at Tepic, and 
elsewhere in the western parts of Mexico, within a few years after the Conquest, so the 
native vegetation has been subject to modification by Europeans for more than four 
hundred years. Major changes have been brought about, especially in the vicinity of the 
larger cities, where heavy demand for fuel has caused the virtual extermination of the 
forests over large areas. Although the early chronicles included some mention of plants, 
no botanical work which is significant from our standpoint seems to have been done in 
this part of Mexico before the time of Charles III and the Royal Botanical Expedition 
to New Spain (1790-1792). Brand (I960 1 ) remarks that Francisco Hernandez (in 
Mexico 1570-1577) seems to have passed through the southern part of our area, via 
Uruapan, Apatzinga'n, Coalcoman, Colima, Jilotlan, Sayula, Jiquilpan, Penjamo, 
Guanajuato, etc.; Brand also thinks it likely that the expedition led by Sesse in 
1790-1791 made an attempt to follow Hernandez 1 route in order to obtain illustra- 
tions of his plants, and to collect where he had collected. 

Whether or not Brand is correct in this assumption, the party that included three 
botanists (Sesse, Mocino, and Castillo) and two competent artists (Echeverria and 
Cerda), left Mexico City in May, 1790. Passing through Guanajuato and central 
Michoacan, they spent some weeks in Apatzingan. Here and in other localities a little 
farther west, they studied and collected specimens of more than 140 species. Finally 
they passed on to the coast at Coahuayana, then circled around the Nevado de Colima 
on the eastern side and went on through Zapotlan and Sayula to Guadalajara, where 
they stayed for about four months before moving down to Tepic and northward along 
the coast into Sinaloa, probably in late August or September, 1791. Sesse and Castillo 
returned to Mexico, while Mocino was taking part in an expedition to the Pacific 

1 References cited by author and date only may be found in the bibliography at the end of 

this paper. 


After the work of the Botanical Expedition to New Spain, there seems to have 
been no botanical exploration in Nueva Galicia until 1825—1827, when Thomas 
Coulter collected a few specimens in the course of rather hurried trips across country. 
Botanists of two British naval expeditions collected along the coast at Manzanillo and 
San Bias, and inland to the mountains around Tepic (see Barclay, Beechey, Collie, Lay, 
Hinds, Sinclair, 1827—1839), and Seemann, also a member of a British naval 
expedition, explored along a transect from Mazatlan to Durango and from Durango 
nearly to Tepic (1849-1850). 

Some collections were made in the interior about the same period. Mendez, who 
was apparently a native of Guanajuato, collected extensively near Leon and 
Villalpando, probably about 1830. Leonardo Oliva lived in Guadalajara and collected 
near there soon after 1850. Several travelers passed through Nueva Galicia and made 
collections on the way, including the Belgian Galeotti (1836—1837), the collector for 
the Horticultural Society of London, Hartweg (1837-1839), and the North American 
amateur of botany, Josiah Gregg (1849). 

Two whose collections were disappointing from the botanical standpoint were the 
Hungarian Xantus, who lived at Manzanillo from 1862 to 1864, and the incredibly 
industrious horticultural collector, Benedict Roezl, who visited Manzanillo and other 
localities on the Pacific Coast at various times from 1868 to 1875. Almost equally 
unrewarded was the work of Kerber, who spent at least two years in Colima 
(1878—1881) and made many collections there; unfortunately most of the collections 
were destroyed in Berlin in 1943. 

The Modern Period, 1886-1950 

Edward Palmer, a professional collector, visited Guadalajara, Tequila, and Chapala 
in 1886, and as his specimens were widely distributed, and were studied and reported 
upon immediately by Sereno Watson and Asa Gray, word of the richness and diversity 
of the flora of western Mexico began to reach other collectors. Cyrus Guernsey Pringle, 
even more active than Palmer as a professional botanical collector, visited Jalisco more 
than 20 times from 1888 to 1908, making the flora of the vicinity of Guadalajara as 
well known as that of any other part of Mexico. Palmer returned to Nueva Galicia, to 
Tepic in 1892, to Colima and Manzanillo in 1890-1891, and to the city of Colima 

again in 1897. Mexican botanists were active during the heyday of Palmer and Pringle; 
Barcena and Juan Oliva, both natives of Jalisco, did some collecting in that state. 

About 1890 also began the influx into Mexico that has continued to the present day, 
of travelers who have collected a few (or sometimes many) plants in connection with their 
principal work, or merely as a hobby. W. G. Wright, primarily an entomologist, 
collected plants near San Bias in 1889. Marcus E. Jones, traveling in Jalisco and Colima 
as a consulting geologist, made important collections of plants in 1892 (Jones returned 
to Jalisco and Nayarit, this time solely for the purpose of collecting plants, in 1927 
and 1930). Frank Lamb, when a university student, made a collection in several sets, 
in Sinaloa and Nayarit (1895), planning to sell the duplicates to make expenses of his 
trip. The German archeologists Eduard and Caecilie Seler visited Nueva Galicia in 1887 
and again in 1897, and collected a few vascular plants, as did the mycologist Holway 
(1898-1903), the zoologist Hans Gadow (1904), and Hermann Ross (1906), who was 
a specialist on plant-galls. 

Two important botanical collectors at the turn of the century were Leon Diguet 
and J. N. Rose. Diguet, a Frenchman perhaps best described as an ethnobotanist, made 
seven expeditions to Mexico (1889-1913), and collected extensively, if haphazardly, in 
Nueva Galicia. His principal interest in this region was in the life of the Cora and 
Huichol Indians, and he made at least three long trips into northern Jalisco and 



Nayarit to visit these Indian communities. His collections from these remote areas are 
still the largest ever made there, although those of Rose have become more important 
because they were studied by specialists within a short time after their collection. 

Rose, a botanist of the United States National Herbarium, travelled with the 
zoologists Nelson and Goldman from early August to late September, 1897, during 
which time the party crossed the Sierra Madre Occidental from Acaponeta, Nayarit, to 
Guadalajara. Rose made a collection of more than 1500 gatherings, many of them 
from localities never visited by botanists before or since. Rose returned to Mexico on 
several trips after this one, and visited Nueva Galica in 1899, 1901 and 1903. 

Nelson and Goldman usually collected plants in the course of their extensive 
wanderings throughout Mexico for other purposes. In Nueva Galicia the most 
interesting collections were those made by Nelson, early in 1897, on a trip from 
Ameca, via Mascota and San Sebastian, to the coast o( Jalisco and on to Tepic. Nelson 
also collected around the (then relatively undisturbed) east end of Lake Chapala in 
1902-1903, and in the high mountains of western Michoacan a few weeks thereafter. 

During the first decade of the 20th Century several North American visitors 
collected in different parts of Nueva Galicia. Goldsmith came to Mexico for the 
Peabody Museum in Salem, Massachusetts; his collections, made in 1905, included a 
series from the Nevado de Colima and another from the country of the Cora and 
Huiehol Indians above Jesus Maria. Emrick collected plants, apparently as a hobby, in 
the lowlands of Colima and Michoacan. Two scientists from the University of Chicago, 
Barnes and Land, accompanied Pringle in Jalisco for a time in 1908. Orcutt, naturalist 
and collector, travelled in Jalisco and Colima in 1910, and in the same year A. S. 
Hitchcock, the well known agrostologist, pursued his specialty by collecting at selected 
localities in Colima, Jalisco, and Aguascalientes. 

After 1920, when political conditions in Mexico became somewhat more settled, 
opportunities for general botanical collecting became more frequent. Mrs. Ferris made 
a large collection in southern Nayarit in 1925, and Mrs. Mexia an even larger collection 
in Nayarit and western Jalisco in 1926-1927. Her collection from around San 
Sebastian is still the only large one ever taken from that part of Jalisco. I have already 
remarked on Marcus Jones' visits of 1927 and 1930. Howell collected briefly along the 
Pacific Coast in 1932 (as did Elmore in 1939), and Pennell worked in Nayarit and 
adjacent Jalisco in 1935. In 1940-1941 several botanists, including Mrs. Langman, 
Cutler, Moore, and Leavenworth and Hoogstraal, were active in Jalisco and Michoacan, 
after which there were no very sizeable collections in Nueva Galicia for almost a 


Botanists resident in Mexico have with few exceptions been based in Mexico City, 
and with the exception of Barcena and Oliva none until recent years has collected 
actively in Nueva Galicia. Altamirano, Reiche, and Martinez visited Jalisco, as did 
Miranda in 1959. Hernandez, in connection with his work on cultivated plants, has 
taken many specimens in Colima, Nayarit and Jalisco (1943-1944, 1946-1949, and 
thereafter). Rzedowski, who has participated in the planning for a Flora Novo- 
Galiciana for more than a decade, has travelled many times in Nueva Galicia, and has 
made collections in a number of interesting and seldom-visited localities. Sra. de Puga 
has also been able to reach several localities that have produced interesting finds, 
notably the mountains above San Juan Cozala, and her colleague Diaz Luna has been 
active especially near Guadalajara. In 1958 Ladislao Paray made a 5-day trip for 
collecting, to Tepic and the nearby mountains. 

Collections Since 1950 

The first University of Michigan expeditions to Jalisco were in fact in 1949 (see 
Crum and Wilbur, or McVaugh). These and the later ones are described under the 


names of W. R. Anderson, Denton, Dieterle, Feddema, Graham, King, and McVaugh. 
Collectors from Michigan have made an effort to reach as many parts of Nueva Galicia 
as possible, and the total number of new collections (gatherings) accumulated has been 
about 20,000. During the same period notable collections, either large in size or from 
especially interesting localities, have been made by Clarke (1967-1969), Cronquist 
(1962, 1965, 1970), Detling (1961-1962), Gentry (1951 and subsequently), Gregory 
and Eiten (1956), litis et al (I960), Muller (1951), Norris (1970), Puga (from about 
1960 to the present), Reeder (1950, 1953), Rowell (1947), Rzedowski (1960 to the 
present), Turner (1950), Weintraub and Roller (1955), and others whose names are 
listed below. 

Index to Names of Collectors 

The names of collectors are arranged alphabetically, except for some of those who 
collected with others whose names are ordinarily cited first; e.g. in the case of Sesse 
and Mocino, the principal entry is under Sesse, with a cross-reference under Mocirio. 
The alphabetical list also includes the names of persons erroneously reported to have 
worked in Nueva Galicia. Notes on itineraries and collections, and notes on the 
ultimate disposal of the collections, have been included in as much detail as seemed 
possible and useful. No attempt has been made to give the dates of birth of collectors 
that are thought to be still living. 

Aguirre, S. E. A specimen of Neomammillaria occidentalis, according to Britton 
and Rose, 1 was obtained by this collector at Manzanillo in October, 1922. 

Alaman, Lucas (1792-1853). A native of Guanajuato, Alaman as a youth lived 
through the moving and tragic events of the Mexican Revolution. After completing his 
education in Europe, he returned to Mexico in 1819 to take a prominent part in the 
affairs of the new nation, and to become well known as statesman and historian. 2 In 
spite of his preoccupation with political affairs, he maintained strong interests in 
mineralogy and botany. When after the death of his father he moved with his mother 
to live in Mexico City, he studied under Vicente Cervantes, probably in 1812. He 
travelled widely in Europe from 1814 until 1819. In Madrid his interest in natural 
science was stimulated through early acquaintance with such men as Pablo la Llave, 
Casimiro Gomez de Ortega and Mariano de la Gasca, botanists all. In August, 1817, on 
a brief visit to Geneva, he met the elder DeCandolle, who extracted from him a 
promise that upon his return to Mexico he would send to Geneva a collection of the 
plants of Guanajuato. How well this promise was kept may be inferred from the 
discussion below. Alaman carried on a long correspondence with DeCandolle, and 
considered him a good friend. 

The pages of DeCandolle's treatments of the Compositae, in the fifth, sixth, and 
seventh volumes of the Prodromus, abound with references to plants from the State of 
Guanajuato, collected and communicated by the author's friend Lucas Alaman, or by 
one Mendez, or apparently in some cases by the two men jointly. Specimens attributed 
to Alaman usually have the general locality "Guanajuato, 5 ' or merely "Mexico," 
although some few are stated to have come from Oaxaca or from the vicinity of the 
city of Mexico. About half of Mendez' collections, on the other hand, are said to have 
come from the "province of Leon," "west of the city of Guanajuato"; many of the 
others are from Villalpando, a mining center just east of Guanajuato. 

According to a list kindly sent me by the late Dr. L. H. Shinners, there are in the 
fifth volume of the Prodromus 43 references to plants collected by Alaman. This 
would suggest that if the number of references in volumes 6 and 7 is correspondingly 
large, Alaman sent at least 100 species of Compositae to DeCandolle, and presumably 
specimens of other things as well. 

References to Mendez, in the pages of the Prodromus, are approximately as 
numerous as those to Alaman. For this information I am likewise indebted to Dr. 
Shinners. Neither from the Prodromus, however, nor from any other source, have I 

^Cactaceae 4: 161. 1923. 

See Valadds, Josd C. Alaman [:] Estadista e Historiador. XII, 576 pp., frontisp., 15 plates. 
Mexico, J. Porrua e Hijos, 1938. 




been able to learn anything else definite about Mendez. The only suggestion I can 
make is the following: In the Valades biography of Alaman are two references (pp. 24, 
29) to Juan Mendez, who was the school-companion of Don Lucas during his early 
days in Guanajuato. It may be that this is the same Mendez who in later years 
collected plants in the Province of Leon for DeCandolle. 

It does seem clear from statements in the Prodromus that there was some 
association between Alaman and Mendez, and apparently at least a part of the 
specimens collected by Mendez were sent to DeCandolle by Alaman. Under Baccharis 
sulcata, for example (Prodr. 5:419), is the following: "circa Villalpando legit cl. 
Mendez ... (v. s. 6 comm. a cl. Alaman)." 

In another place it may be inferred that the two men had worked or collected 
together (Prodr. 5: 603, under Bidens foeniculi folia)', "ad occid. urbis Guanaxuato in 
prov. Leonina leger. et mecum comm. cl. Mendez et Alaman." 

As noted above, I have not been able to find any biographical notes on Mendez, 
and on Alaman little has been published in botanical works except brief notes by L^on 
(Bibl. Bot.-Mex. 8. 1895), Rose (Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 5: 187. 1899), and Standley 
(Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 23: 639. 1923). Neither man is noticed in the Phytographie of 
Alphonse DeCandolle, and in the first published part of the proposed index to 
collectors (Regnum Veg. 2, pt. 2, 1954), AlamaVs name does not appear. Fortunately 
for the historian, he was eminent in fields other than botany; he was, in fact, an 

outstanding public figure in the early history of the Mexican Republic. The wonder is 
that he had any time left for his avocations in the midst of his many responsibilities. 
It may be inferred from the pages of the Prodromus that Alaman was more than a 
mere collector, for in several cases reference is made to new species and even new 
genera proposed by him, in a letter written in 1831 (e.g. DC. Prodr. 5: 169; 5: 172; 
5: 565; 6: 428; 6: 431). On at least one occasion DeCandolle specifically acknowledges 
his indebtedness to Alaman; in writing of Eupatorium triangulatum (Prodr. 5: 172) he 
says: "a Mexico misit cl. Luc. Alaman cum plur. aliis rarissimis." 

Alava, Reino. In December, 1957, Alava passed through Colima, Jalisco, and 
Nayarit, making (with Stanton A. Cook) a collection of about 300 numbers under the 
auspices of the Associates in Tropical Biogeography, University of California (UC). A 
duplicate set of the collections is at the University of Michigan (MICH). 

Altamirano, Fernando (71850—1908). Altamirano was director of the Instituto 
Medico Nacional, of Mexico, and collected botanical material, especially of medicinal 
plants, in southern Mexico. His no. 20, collected at Guadalajara in October, 1891, was 
made the type of Eryngium altamiranoi Hemsl. & Rose. 

Anderson, Christiane Eva (Seidenschnur). See William Russell Anderson. 

Anderson, Edgar (1897—1969). Anderson, then Geneticist at the Missouri 
Botanical Garden, worked in Jalisco for several months in 1943—1944 and collected 
some herbarium specimens which are now in the permanent collection at the Garden 
(MO). He supplied the following statement in regard to his botanical activities in 

I lived in Guadalajara, or to be more precise, its suburb San Pedro Tlacquepaquc, from the 8th 
of October, 1943 until the last week in March, 1944. I was mainly concerned with studying plant 
to plant and variety to variety differences in maize and making a record of them including 
herbarium specimens. The methods worked out at that time form the basis of my method 
'Tictorialized scatter diagrams" which 1 have since adapted to herbarium use. 

I traveled mostly on foot but also used the train and the autobuses. 1 went in the fall to 
Tuxcacuesco on the headwaters of the Rio Armeria. In the spring I went up to Tapalpa and to 
Ameca. I have no idea how many herbarium specimens of the conventional sort I brought back 
with me. The only time 1 made a real effort to get any was when 1 went to Tuxcacuesco, since I 
knew that area had not been collected yet. 


Anderson, William Russell. See also McVaugh (1965). While a graduate student at 
the University of Michigan, Anderson made three extended collecting trips that 
included Nueva Galicia. In 1966, working with Chester W. Laskowski, he made an 
effort to get material for a revision of Gaudichaudia and related Malpighiaceous genera, 
while Laskowski concentrated on the genus Montanoa (Compositae). They came into 
Jalisco from the north, via Valparaiso, Huejuquilla, and Mezquitic, crossed to 
Aguascalientes via Huejiicar, returned to Jalpa and continued to Guadalajara. 

Collections were nos. 3586-3651 (Aguascalientes, northern Jalisco, Zacatecas, September 
11-16); 3652-3702 (near Guadalajara and Etzatlan, and on a trip to Tepic, September 18-21); 
3703-3777 (Guadalajara to Autldn and Barra de Navidad, September 24-26); 3778-3780 (La 
Huerta to Cuautitldn, September 27); 3781-3847 (trip from Autldn to Sierra de Manantldn 
["Cerro de Muneco"] via El Chante, September 28-30); 3848-3874 (Cocula, Guadalajara, and 
vicinity of Lake Chapala, October 1-3); 3875-3885 (Guadalajara to Zapotlanejo and La Piedad, 
October 5-6). After a sojourn in eastern Mexico, Anderson and Laskowski returned via Jiquilpan, 
Mazamitla, Barra de Navidad, Juchitldn, Guadalajara, and Tepic (nos. 4534-4552, December 

In August 1968, with his wife Christiane Anderson and Melinda Denton, on an 
excursion primarily devoted to a search for material of the genus Oxalis, Anderson 
collected nos. 5071—5112 (August 9, slopes of the barranca north of Guadalajara), 
5113-5155 (August 11, Volcan de Tequila), 5156-5179 (August 13, hills near Lake 
Chapala, and between Chapala and Guadalajara). 

In December, 1969, primarily to collect material for a revision of the genus Trixis 

(Compositae), William and Christiane Anderson returned to Nueva Galicia, coming in 

via Villanueva, Jalpa, Calvillo, Encarnacion de Diaz, and Lagos. They collected nos. 

5239-5281 (December 30-31, in Zacatecas), 5282-5284 (December 31, east of 

Calvillo), 5285-5291 (January 1, 1970, in Jalisco). After collecting in southeastern 

Mexico for about 7 weeks, they returned to western Michoacan late in February and 

collected nos. 5873-5898 (February 25-26, mostly on the slopes below Dos Aguas, 

west of Aguililla), 5899-5900 (February 27, on the road to Los Reyes and Cotija), 

5901-5986 (March 1-3, near Mascota and along the road to San Sebastian), 

5987-6001 (March 3, vicinity of San Sebastian and road to Puerto Vallarta), 

6003-6005 (March 5, 5 km E of Las Palmas), 6006-6056 (March 7, near the ocean S 

of Puerto Vallarta), 6057-6137 (March 7, hills E and SE of Cabo Corrientes, [vicinity 

of El Tuito]), 6138-6154 (March 8, northwest of Chamela to Cihuatlan); 6155-6163 

(March 9, 10 km N of Juchitlan), 6164-6165 (March 10, west of Amatitan, road to 

The numbers used by Anderson are those of his own series, but the specimens 
collected in 1966 were distributed under the names of Anderson and Laskowski, and 
those taken in 1968 and 1969-70 under the names of Anderson and Anderson. The 
principal set of the collections is at the University of Michigan (MICH). 

Arroyo F., . See Muller. 

Avalos, Wenceslao. See McVaugh (1960). 

Azcon, Ernesto. Collected pines, as cited variously in Martinez' Los Finos 
Mexicanos, edition 2, 1948. In Jalisco Azcon collected chiefly between Talpa and 
Bahia de Bandera, near Cuale and Mesa de Corazon. 

Baad, Michael Francis. See McVaugh (1965). 

Barcena, Mariano (1842-1899). A native of Ameca, Jalisco, Barcena was widely 
known in his time as a student of the natural sciences. He is probably best known to 
botanists as the author of the "Ensayo Estadistico del Estado de Jalisco" (Mexico, 
1888; also in An. Min. Fom. Rep. Mex. 9: 1-729. 1891). This work includes chapters 
on the flora, on agriculture, horticulture, naturalized plants, and lists of characteristic 



and well known species of various climates and soils. Barcena also contributed to La 
Naturaleza and to other publications a number of notes on botany, geology, 
mineralogy and anthropology. He was especially interested in the relations between 
plants and environment, and the adaptation of new plants to Jalisco. 

Barcena formed a private herbarium, which passed into the hands of Dr. Manuel 
Urbina and ultimately became a part of the National Herbarium of Mexico (MEXU), 
now in the custody of the Instituto de Biologia, of the National University. In Urbina's 
Catdlogo de Plantas Mexicanas ( Fanerogamas ) (Mexico, 1897) were cited approximately 
400 collections made by Barcena, mostly in Jalisco in 1886 and 1887. The Jalisco 
collections include about 70 which are un-numbered, and more than 300 which are 
serially and more or less chronologically numbered (nos. 3—767). The localities at 
which Barcena collected in Jalisco, as cited by Urbina, are nearly all in the vicinity of 
Guadalajara except for a series from Ahualulco and Santa Cruz de Ahualulco, and 
additional series from localities along the way between Guadalajara and the Nevado de 
Colima. When Barcena was compiling geological and meteorological information for his 
Emayo Estadistico, he made at least one long visit to the volcano, by way of the road 
to Zapotlan, the valley of Tuxpan and the Hacienda San Marcos. He seems to have 
made the ascent of the Nevado on at least two occasions, and to have explored the 
upper slopes with interest; Urbina cited about 50 collections made on the mountain by 
Barcena, and Barcena himself published a sketch of the vegetation and a list of species 
characteristic of different habitats and elevations, between the summit and the lower 
slopes of the Barranca de Beltran (Ensayo Estadistico, pp. 366—368). 

The precise dates of Barcena's collections may differ in some instances from the 
dates published by Urbina. Sometimes the published dates seem to represent dates of 
flowering, rather than the actual days on which the collections were made; in other 
instances the published dates seem to be erroneous. Nos. 51—57, for example, are all 
reported as from Belen near Guadalajara, all dated September 24, but the year given as 
1885 (once), 1887 (twice), and 1886 (4 times). Plants from the Nevado de Colima are 
assigned flowering dates which include 16 of the 24 months of 1886 and 1887, but it 
is not to be inferred from Barcena's published writings that he visited the mountain on 
very many occasions. 

From meteorological data published by Barcena (An. Min. Fom. Rep. Mex. 
9: 329-349. 1891), and for which the actual observations are stated to have been 
made by him, the following itinerary may be established for him in October, 1886: 
Santa Ana Acatlan (October 13); Sayula (October 14); Zapotlan (October 14-15); 
Santa Cruz de Duque (October 16); [San Marcos, about October 18]; summit of the 
Nevado de Colima (October 20); Tonila (October 22—23); summit of the Nevado de 
Colima (October 28); Hacienda de la Conception del Volcan (October 28); Atenquique 
(October 30); Zapotlan (October 31). At the time of Barcena's visit the Volcan de 
Fuego was in active eruption, and one of the purposes of his ascents of the Nevado 
was to observe the activity from a superior vantage point (Mem. Soc. Cient. Alzate 
32:476-480. 1915). 

A biographical sketch of Barcena, with a portrait, appeared at the time of his 
death (La Naturaleza II. 3: 1-V, [563]. 1903). 

Barclay, George. Barclay was selected "from among the young men employed in 
the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew" to act as Botanical Collector attached to H. M. S. 
Sulphur, which left Portsmouth on December 19, 1835, on a "surveying expedition 
destined for the Pacific &c &c." The Sulphur reached Rio de Janeiro on February 19, 
1836, passed on to the south and rounded Cape Horn, anchoring in Valparaiso Bay on 
June 9 after a passage of 61 days from Montevideo. She worked on slowly up the west 
coast of South America. The expedition reached Gorgona Island, site of numerous 
collections, on January 10, 1837, and remained in the region of Panama until 
mid-March. They continued northwestward along the coast of Central America for the 


next six weeks. Barclay kept a journal, whose day-by-day records provide much 
information about the botanical activities of the botanists of the Sulphur. The diary 
includes full accounts of Barclay's own botanical excursions, and it is apparent from 
his statements that he must have been responsible for a large part of all the 
plant-materials secured by the expedition, for he made plant-collecting a full-time job 
whenever he was allowed to land. Sometimes he notes that he was accompanied by Dr. 
Sinclair (q. v.). The original set of Barclay's plants, largely unstudied until recent years, 
is in the British Museum (BM; cf. Regnum Veg. 2, pt. 2: 55. 1954). A second set, that 
studied by Bentham in the preparation of the "Botany of the Voyage of the Sulphur," 
is in Sir William Hooker's herbarium, now at Kew (Bot. Sulph. 182). 

The following excerpts from Barclay's journal 1 pertain to the periods when the 
expedition was on the Pacific Coast between San Bias and Manzanillo, beginning with 
the month of May, 1837 (Volume 1, p. 132): 

The month of May brought us moderate weather and light variable winds which was rather 
tantalizing as our water was getting short. Many boobies flocked about the Ship, and at times 
almost took possession of the rigging, and at length the Captain turned the hands up to kill 
boobies, when in less than a quarter of an hour 2 Doz of them lay dead on deck. In consequence 
of the light and variable winds retarding our progress so much, our allowance of water was reduced 

to 4 Pints a day on the 17 th. 

This reduction although necessary was not very welcome, as the weather was very hot and our 
water was of all things what we wanted most. On the 18th we had a splendid view of the Volcano 
of Colima-one of the most active of its kind in South America. - Towards evening we opened the 
large bay of Manzanilla and a boat was manned under the command of an officer who was sent to 
search for water meanwhile the Ship was anchored outside in 20 fms. The boat soon returned and 
the /p. 133/ officer in charge reported that fresh water could be obtained and that a Mexican 
Barque lay at anchor inside the bay. We got under way on the 20th and run into the proper 
anchorage where we came to, in 12 fms. about % of a mile off shore. I was allowed to land with 
the watering party opposite to the Ship where they commenced filling the Casks from a dirty hole 

mis named "a well." 

The bay of Manzanilla is situate in latitude 18°59' north, and longitude 104° west; it is about 

5 miles in depth, and sheltered by a high range of reddish coloured hills covered with cactii and 

brush wood. The landing is good and the anchorage considered safe; but the fresh water is all but 

unfit for use. This however might be improved by either digging a proper well, or bringing the 

water from the interior by an aqueduct such as are met with in the highlands of Peru: the present 

well or rather "hole" is a mere reservoir for filth, and moreover is below the level of the stagnant 

Lake of Cuyutlan, which swarms with alligators &c and being only about 200 yards from the well 

in question, the water must filter through the sandy beach from the Lake in to it. 

From Manzanilla to the City of Colima is a distance of 33 leagues along a very rugged road. 

/p. 134/ The city and its Suburbs are said to contain a population of 30,000 souls. Two men are 

stationed in Manzanilla to look out for the arrival of vessels, and to carry such intelligence to the 

Captain of the Port who resides in the City as may be necessary. The Captain then starts post haste 

for the Port in order to afford such assistance in forwarding goods to the City and in procuring 

supplies of fresh provision which are only to be obtained by a days notice previous to their being 

wanted. The people appear to be industrious, for they think nothing of coming from the City to 

the Port when vessels are lying there, to sell a few Poultry, fruits, Eggs or some similar triffle, and 

as there are no houses in the Port each person erects a temporary bower made of branches to 

protect them from the dew at night. 

The people wear the Mexican Costume -The men wear velvet breeches open at the knees & 
worn over white linnen drawers which reach down to the ancle which is protected by a pair of 
leather gaiters and Mexican boots. A large felt hat, embroidered with a roll of gold or silver lace, is 
worn by all classes and when travelling the Body is covered by a Serape which is a blanket like 
Covering some what resembling a Poncho but longer /p. 135/ 

The Country is hilly and rugged-the Soil ferugineous and rocky, and in many places little of 
any kind exists. The botany is poor excepting the Cactii family which are numerous. Cactus 
hexagonus attains the height of 40 ft. The Melo [?] cactus and C. prolifer are abundant and 


Barclay, George (mss.) Journal / of / a voyage round the world / including / excursions to 
the north west coast of America / and among the / islands in the Pacific and Eastern Seas / &c &c 
&c / in the years / 1836, 1837, 1838, 1839, 1840 and 1841. 

Original in the British Museum (Natural History). Photostatic copy loaned by F. G. Meyer, 
Missouri Botanical Garden, 1954. Volume 1, 268 pp.; volume 2, 256 pp.; volume 3, 102 pp. 



handsome. - Acacia vera yields a gum which the people use for healing recent wounds which it is 
said to accomplish most effectually. 

We sailed from Manzanilla Bay on the 21st at 4 a.m. and on the 26th we doubled Cape 
Corrientes in latitude 21° north. - Mount Juan which according to Captain Beechy is 6000 feet 
above the level of the sea appeared in the distance on the 27th and on the 28th the Sulphur was 
anchored off the Port of San Bias, which we entered during the day. 

San Bias is an island situate in latitude 21°32' and longitude 105°13'33" west; surrounded by 
a salt marsh— a powerful agent for fever and a complete hotbed for the most annoying insects. - 
The Port or Playa is a straggling group of low houses built of mud and whitewashed. There are a 
few small "European stores" for the sale of dry goods particularly French. - /p. 136/. 

The Port of San Bias like most Spanish towns has an immence proportion of [Pulquerias] or 
grog ships, which might at first lead strangers to believe that the people lived upon "Suction." 

The upper town of San Bias is built upon a rock which is inaccessible upon all its sides, but 
one, and is about a mile distant from the Port. Never did I see such a dilapidated place 
inhabited- the Arsenal a building of stone, and once the pride of the Spaniards, is now disused and 
fast crumbling into decay. - The church unroofed and but for the temporary remains of an altar 
yet standing within its ruins we would be at a loss to know to what purpose the building had been 
originaly destined. 

The population of the upper and lower towns is estimated at 1100, but in the rainy season 
when fever prevails, the people remove to Tepic, leaving only servants & the very poorest class of 
people behind perhaps about 250 altogether. - 

I employed myself botanizing in the vicinity of the Port during the 29th and 30th with very 
bad success. On the evening of the 30th Captain Belcher intimated his intention of going to the 
City of Tepic and said I might take /p. 137/ an excursion with him if I chose, which of course I 
was very happy to accept. I had only to pack up some paper and my mill boards before I was 
ready to join him in the Port where we remained all night. 

Wednesday May 31st the horses were ready at 3 a.m. according to order, we were all ready to 
start a few minutes after. The party consisted of the Captain and 3 of the officers, myself and a 
guide. Our road led us over a [word illegible] marshy country for the first five hours, but passing 
the village of Guadestemba [Huaristemba] , we ascended rapidly and the track became at once 
mountainous and picturesque. 

We breakfasted at the Rancho of a well known dame, Dona Manuela, where travellers to and 
from San Bias and Tepic always put up at; and then continued our journey to the city. 

The road continued our ascent upon the rugged hills partially covered with vegetation chiefly 
Palms Astrocaryum aculeatum and Chamaerops gracileps. - Opuntia cochinilifera and O. 
nonacantha formed fences in many parts along the line of road, which now led us over a precipice 
of considerable height whose base was washed by a small, but rapid mountain stream. I gathered 
specimens /p. 138/ of a very handsome Zinnia, several kinds of Tagetes and a scarlet flowered 
Euphorbia. Since leaving the Rancho de Dona Manuela we passed the villages of Navarette and 
Rancho Guarra, and at 4 PM opened to view the City of Tepic pleasantly situate in a valley 
surrounded by a chain of volcanic mountains terminating with San Juan. We entered the City in 
the evening and took up our residence at the house of Alexander Forbes Esqr a countryman of my 
own, where we were received in the most kindly manner possible. - 

Thursday June 1st [1837] I set out from the City early upon a Botanizing excursion to 
mount San Juan. The road led me through the village of Santa Cruz, whence 1 crossed the sierro 

[?] of Halisco near which our Consul has a Country seat. The low land is so dry at this season of 
the year that scarce a blade of grass is to be seen. The surrounding country is quite free from the 
imcumbrance of wood excepting San Juan which is covered on the high ridges with a forrest of 
Pine. The ground between the City & this mountain is much broken up by the periodical rains and 
in many /p. 139/ places exhibits fearful chasms. In these openenings [sic] I found many interesting 
and beautiful Plants particularly Salvias, Syngenesious plants, Euphorbias &c. I reached the top of 
San Juan about mid-day and gathered specimens of the Pinus. The trees are not large but 
handsome, from 18 to 40 feet high: leaves in fives and the cones from 8 to 12 inches in length. I 
was fortunate enough to procure cones, full of fine seeds which I forwarded to Kew. Two very 
handsome species of Lupinus grew under the shade of the Pine trees, one of which with straw 
coloured flowers, the other with Blue and Purple, but I was unable to procure good specimens of 
either. The Soil on San Juan is a brownish coloured loam upon a bed of Marie. - I returned to the 
City in the evening and laid out my specimens into dry papers, and arranged my few seeds. 

Friday June 2d I renewed my botanizing duties again this morning by commencing upon the 
banks of the river Tapic, and continuing near the course for several miles but was much less 
fortunate than yesterday. A few water plants collected near the 'Salto de agua* or water fall, was 
nearly all that I met with during the day. 

The 'Salto de agua* is a cold cascade /p. 140/ in the river Tapic, where the whole body of 
water has an uninterupted fall of 98 feet. The roar of the water when close to the Cascade, the 


mist flying over it and the surrounding objects which are very picturesque, affects the mind with a 
pleasing astonishment, and detains the Spectator in a voluntary bondage. 

The City of Tapic stands in a hollow upon the border of an extensive fresh water marsh, 
which might have easily been avoided without any local disadvantage for had it been but a quarter 
of a mile nearer San Juan it would have insured a dry foundation for it, as well as removed it from 
the malaria always attendant upon marshy land. There is nothing worthy of notice in the City, the 
ground plan being the same as in all Spanish America. The Plaza is neatly laid out, with a fountain 
in the centre, and the area surrounded by a row of trees, which overhangs a promenade with its 
stone benches, which are much frequented in the Evening; 

There is a good market which is in general much frequented by visitors for the sake of seeing 
the Indians from the interior in the dress peculiar to their respective tribes, /p. 141/. 

The esculent roots are very small, perhaps on account of the volcanic qualities of the Soil. - 
Good crops of Maize and wheat are raised in the neighborhood, and a spirituous liquor called 

ct» r . „ O) 

Mescal is distilled from the roots of Agave Mexicana. 

The population according to the Register kept here is 8000 and the deaths 1 in 25. Captain 
Belcher told me that he would be ready to start for San Bias on Saturday the 3d and accordingly 
at 3 AM. the horses were brought to the door. I attended and saw my specimens carefully placed 
upon the luggage horse, and in a few minutes we were all mounted. The morning was dark and but 
for occassional twinkling of a solitary star, not an object was to be seen. - With the break of day 
we put our horses to a round trot, and by sun rise we were crossing the bare topped mountains 
surrounded by scenery of the most romantic kind. The hills re-echoed the melodious songs of the 
birds— squirrels and monkeys leaped joyously from tree to tree either for amusement or in quest of 
food -the peasants hummed [?] their 'Ave Maria' and all the Creation seemed to rejoice in the 
return of day. Occassionally /p. 142/ an Equestrian pranced past us on his gallant stead 
[sic] -careless of the world and its concerns and puffing a cigaretto with the most perfect 'Sang 
froid' invariably bestowed the usual salutation of 'Adios Senores* and then resumed his easy 
posture. We met with few female travellers a circumstance which we must regret since it is not 
every day an Englishman sees a Lady honouring each side of the horse with a pretty foot and 
ancle, deffended by a huge pair of iron spurs, only equalled in sharpness by the wit and vivacity of 
the wearer. 

Our mornings ride furnished us with a tolerable appetite for breakfast and on that account the 
sight of Dona Manuela's house was rather welcome. Breakfast was soon ready and our hostess 
regreted much that our stay was so short, and thinking no doubt that there was little chance of our 
returning that way again, charged us more than double for our breakfast, no doubt considering that 
the most beneficial mode of taxing [. . .] us. I botanized here 2 hours while the horses were 
feeding, after which we set out for the unenviable Port of San Bias, which may aptly be called the 
Purgatory of the /p. 143/ Pacific, for there is no place in the world less free from Comfort, or 
more infested with annoying insects than this. 

My collection claimed my attention on board immediately upon our arrival in the Port and on 
the 5th we sailed for a cruize outside until the 8th when we took our departure for the Sandwich 

[The expedition made the island of Hawaii on the 7th of July, 1837. They 
returned to the North American coast at the end of August, and spent September and 
part of October in the Alaskan region. After a stay in California they continued 
southward, and reached San Bias for the second time, on December 20, 1837. The 
journal continues: /p. 201/] 

We made the Tres Marias" on the 18th and at length after considerable trouble in searching 
for anchorage, we espied the object of our pursuit on the north side of Saint Georges island. 

These 3 islands called 'three Marys' by the Spaniards, are situate about 50 miles off the 
western coast of Mexico, and are all well wooded, but difficult of water in the dry season. I landed 
upon the island of Saint George, where I had an opportunity of botanizing for a few hours, but did 
not find many plants in flower. 

The land birds are very tame & suffered themselves to be caught by the hand. The landing is 
dangerous on account of the myriads of ground sharks which are constantly lurking about the 
shore. The tiger Shark /p. 202/ is also very abundant, but does not come in to so shallow water as 
the other, but too much caution cannot be used in landing or allowing men to wade off to the 
boat. - We sailed the evening of the 19th for San Bias, where we arrived the following day to 
await the arrival of the English mail; but the Captain unwilling to lose time, determined to Survey 
a part of the Coast to the Southward, rather then remain in the miserable Port. 

I was landed on the 21st with permission to remain until the 26th and the Sulphur sailed 
upon a surveying cruize down the Coast. 

I employed myself between San Bias and Navarette-a place about 35 miles distant from the 
Coast, and notwithstanding that the Country was very dry I made a good many additions to my 



former collection from this place, and returned on board of the Ship on the 26th according to 
order, and lost no time in putting my collection to rights; & as the Mail had not yet arrived, 
requested farther leave - Dr. Sinclair did so like wise which we obtained until the arrival of the 
Mail from England via Mexico. We set out the same day for the Mountains of Tepic /p, 203/ and 
by dint of spurring reached the City the same night. 

I pursued my researches in the neighborhood until the 1st of Jany [1838] with very good 
success and added 130 species of plants to my former collection from this place. The high 
mountain ridges of San Juan afforded me many very interesting plants, but few seeds. 1 

Everything was packed up in traveling order on the evening of the 1st and as the Mail had 
arrived I directed the guide to bring the horses by 4 am. on the 2d which strange to say he did 
punctually! and it is difficult to get a Spanish servant to keep his word. The Dr. and myself again 
set out for our journey. I dismounted at day light-gave my horse to the guide, and Botanized to 
the halfway house where we arrived in the evening. 

After supper we lay down upon a hide [?] stretched out upon four posts, and passed the 
night as we best could, and set out for San Bias at 3 am on the 3d where we arrived in time for 

breakfast. - 

The Sulphur was just come into harbor again and a boat was sent on shore to enquire about 

the Mail &c so that we had an opportunity of embarking soon /p. 204/ after our arrival and as 

there were no dispatches for Captain Belcher, he made sail as soon as the sea breeze set in and by 

sun set we were a considerable way down the Coast on our way to Acapulco. 

[The Sulphur reached Acapulco on January 12 and stayed there until the 19th; 
she passed slowly down the coast of Central America, came to Cocos Island on April 
4, and Callao on June 3. The return voyage began on August 6; the expedition reached 
Panama on October 18, 1838. End of Vol. L] 

[For nearly six months the Sulphur explored the Central American coast. On April 
8, 1839 she left for the Hawaiian Islands. On June 17 she left Hawaii for the Alaskan 
Coast, where she spent a part of the summer. Gradually working her way south, she 
was at San Diego on October 16, at Cabo San Lucas on November 21, heading for San 
Bias. The journal resumes (Volume 2, p. 144)] : 

As we only remained a few hours at San Bias there was little time lost by our trip there for 
on the 26 tli [November 1839] the Sulphur was anchored in the port of Mazatlan in the Gulph of 
California, where we found the Actaeon a Liverpool vessel, by which I sent some of my collections 

to England. 

Mazatlan lies in 23°10' north latitude, longitude 106°-21' west. The anchorage is lined [?] 
upon either side with small islands, which /p. 145/ gives an air of gaiety to the sceenery, but the 
South East gales so prevalent from June to December and the shallowness of the water for two or 
three miles off Shore Counterballances every thing. The rainy season is said to Continue through 
July August & Sept some times Octr & November may be added to the list as was the case this 
year. During our stay a great deal of rain fell, and some sickness prevailed among the poorer 
inhabitants who were exposed alternately to the sun and wet. Like San Bias it is terribly infested 
with marshes in the neighborhood and at times it is by no means an enviable place. 

The population fluctuates from 2000 to 7000. Captain Belcher gave me permission to go from 
this place to San Bias by land but limited me to 'Ten days' when he would be at that place in the 
Sulphur, but upon making the necessary inquiry on shore 1 was obliged to relinquish every idea of 

attempting it for these reasons. In the first place the distance by the road is 405 miles and the 
expenses exclusive of my food would have been nearly 200 dollars or -C40 Stg which was mucli 
more than such a journey /p. 146/ performed in the face of time Could be worth for botanical 
purposes and in justice 1 was obliged to relinquish it. - 

I packed two Boxes of dried specimens of plants for the Royal Gardens-Chiefly Collected 
in 1837 and shipped these on board the Actaeon of Liverpool-George Fielding Master, and 
would have been glad to have sent all my collection Could I have obtained boxes, but in that very 
important object 1 was dissapointed. My time was employed during our stay here in collecting in the 
Neighboarhood and writting. The vegetation was luxuriant but a scarcity of f[l]ower & fruit, and 
in Consequence of the wet weather I brought very little away from the Port of Mazatlan to show 
that I had been there. I have also to provide myself with a fresh supply of Stationary and Brown 
paper for drying plants, and last though not least- to renew my wardrobe which had dwindled 
almost into nothing during a four years voyage notwithstanding the sums which I have expended 

following entry: ". . . the 1st of January 183£ 
in Mexico, at an elevation of 6000 feet. . . ."] 


upon it since leaving London. Few people are more unfortunate than voyagers in this respect. Upon 
two occassions I have lost everything belonging to me -the Expence and difficulty of replacing 
them /p. 147/ is truly vexing-ten prices would not induce a Spaniard to go one jot out of his way. 

The Stores being all on board we sailed on the 3d Deer to water at San Bias, as Mazatlan has 
no very accessible watering place. Several American Gentlemen going to the United States overland 
from San Bias took a passage in the Sulphur took a passage to the Port of our destination where 
we anchored on the 4th. 

Captain Belcher and several of the officers set off for Tepic, and as I had been so fortunate as 
to procure another box, I in the first place finished packing it: in order that it might be forwarded 
by H. M. S. Fly at this time at Guaymas in the Gulph of California taking treasure on board for 
England but would call at this port upon her return for the 'freight' as it's called. The Chest or 
Box contained Six bundles of plants Collected at Cocos island-Panama-Libertad-San Blas-Tepic 
and Acapulco. - Also sections of tree Fern from the island of Tumaca-Pandanus fruit & 2 pieces 
of native Cloth from the Sandwich islands-9 spms of wood from Central America & Equinoctial 
Do. Pine Cones from— California-Columbia River— & Sitka and Lichens from Central America, /p. 
148/ The chest was adressed as usual to W. L. Aiton Esqr and left in charge of Senr Don Frs° 
Castillo Consular Agent in San Bias, and I further took the precaution to write to Fran s Barron 
Esqr H. B. V. [?] Consul requesting that the same might be forwarded to England by the 
Fly-failing that by the first eligible opportunity. — I wrote also to Mr. Aiton informing him of the 
same & of my proceedings generally as Connected with my mission. — 

These several affairs occupied a good deal of my time here which however I Could hardly have 
employed to greater advantage as the Season for Botanizing was unfavourable upon the low land 
and the expense of going to the mountains more than a day or two was worth especially as I had 
seen the productions, at an elevation of 6000 feet at two different seasons of the year viz June & 
January as well as those in this vicinity. 

We sailed from this unenviable place on the 21st [December 1839] and finally bad adieu to 
the Western Coast of America, where if we had many unhappy days, we had a very healthy and 
Expensive station for four years. A new sceene now lay before us; it was indeed the Commence- 
ment of a second voyage. 


[The Sulphur, heading for the South Pacific, crossed the Equator on January 14, 
1840. She reached the Marquesas in the same month, Tahiti in April, Fiji and New 
Hebrides in June. End of Volume 2.] 

[Volume 3 begins in the New Hebrides, June 23, 1840, and continues via New 
Guinea, July and August; Borneo, Amboyna, and Macassar, September; Singapore, 
October; Coast of Africa, December 9; Cape of Good Hope, December 15; England, 
February 14, 1841.] 

Barkley, Fred Alexander. See Rowell, Chester M., Jr. 

Barnes, Charles Reid (1858-1910). With William Jesse Goad Land (1865-1942), 
also of the University of Chicago, Barnes made an expedition to the American tropics 
in the fall of 1908. The two men worked for several days in company with C. G. 
Pringle near Guadalajara and near Etzatlan. Their itinerary for this period, as set forth 
in Pringle's published diary (Davis, 1936, p. 247), is as follows: between Atemajac and 
the upper part of the Barranca of Ibarra (September 26); Rio Blanco and the Sierra de 
San Esteban (September 28); Falls of Juanacatlan (October 2); Barranca of Ibarra 
(October 3); trip to Etzatlan (October 5); mountains above Etzatlan (October 6); 

return to Guadalajara (October 7). 

Barnes and Land, according to Pringle, "returned to Guadalajara" while he kept on 
to Mexico City. They joined him at Mexico at least by October 13, but in the 
meantime made a trip south by rail from Guadalajara at least to Tuxpan, where they 
collected along the railroad on October 9 (at least nos. 321—337). Their numbers for 
their entire stay in Jalisco, as far as I have been able to learn, run from no. 135 
(Oplismenus hirtellus, collected in the Barranca de Oblatos, Sep. 25), to 337. The 
original set of their collections is in the Field Museum, Chicago (F), where it is listed 
in the accession records beginning with volume 46, page 84, and continuing at intervals 
through volume 57, pp. 572 ff. The collections of 1908, including many bryophytes, 
totalled 617 numbers. 



Beaman, John Homer. In connection with studies on high-altitude vegetation in 
Mexico and Central America, Professor Beaman ascended the Nevado de Colima in 
1958. He collected nos. 2349—2388, on August 26 and 27, mostly at or above 
timberline. His specimens are deposited at Michigan State University, East Lansing 

Beechey, Captain F. W. The first large botanical collection in Nueva Galicia (if we 
except that made by the Royal Botanical Expedition to New Spain) was that made 
during the winter of 1827—1828 by the naturalist and the officers of H. M. S. 
Blossom. The Blossom lay in the harbor of San Bias from December 8, 1827 until 
some time the following February. George Tradescant Lay ( —1845), the naturalist 
of the expedition, during this time "visited and remained for a long time at Tepic," 
and presumably collected most of the plants secured by the expedition. The ship's 
surgeon, Dr. Alexander Collie ( —1835), is credited with some of the collections, 
and the officer in charge of the voyage, Capt. F. W. Beechey, has often been cited as 
the collector of individual species. Actually, it would appear that most of the 
specimens were secured by Lay, either near Tepic or at the nearby village of Jalisco. 
Officially, however, all the botanical specimens taken in the course of the voyage of 
the Blossom seem to have been handled by Captain Beechey, and transmitted by him 
to Sir William Hooker who, with G. A. Walker Amott, published 'The Botany of 
Captain Beechey's Voyage" (pp. 1-485, pi 1-99. 1830-1841). On the title-page of 
this publication principal credit is expressly given to Messrs. Lay and Collie for the 
collection of the plants on the entire voyage, and an acknowledgment is made to 
Captain Beechey, "under whose auspices, and by whose zealous encouragement, the 
plants . . .were chiefly collected." On p. ii, the following statement appears (with no 
special mention of Captain Beechey): "The Botanical Collections were made by Mr. 
Lay the Naturalist, and by the officers of the ship generally; but in particular by Mr. 
Collie, who, during the temporary absence of Mr. Lay, zealously undertook the care of 
the department with which that gentleman was entrusted, and whose notes, as well as 
those of Mr. Lay, have been of much service in drawing up the following account." All 
this suggests that Captain Beechey, although encouraging and assisting the naturalists, 
took little if any active part in the collecting. In spite of this, doubtless because of 
Beechey's part in transmitting the collections to Hooker, his name appears on perhaps 
a majority of at least the Mexican collections, the principal set of which is in Hooker's 
herbarium, now at Kew. Many, if not most of the specimens bear simply the notation 
"Mexico, Beechey" in Hooker's hand, and only occasionally is a specimen credited to 
Lay or Collie. 

Approximately 325 species, of which about 70 were new to science, were listed by 
Hooker and Arnott from Tepic or from the nearby village of Jalisco (which because of 
a mis-interpretation of some hand-written notation they always spelled Talisco). The 
list includes a representative proportion of the winter flora of the foothill country 
around Tepic. The collection as a whole remains the basic one for the study of the 
plants of this part of Mexico, in spite of a series of mixtures of specimens which 
occurred before the plants were studied. The authors noted (p. 275) that "there seems 
to have been a considerable mixture of the specimens collected at Loo Choo and 
Bonin with those of Mexico, the same species occasionally occurring in both packets." 
They mentioned the discovery of what they took to be two Asiatic species among the 
Mexican collection, and also cited (p. 276) the Asiatic Corydalis ambigua from 

In addition to the species which they suspected of having been misplaced, various 
other Old World species were attributed by them to Mexico; these include Sesbania 
tomentosa (habitat given as Acapulco, but now recognized as a Hawaiian species), 
Leptopetalum mexicanum, of the Rubiaceae (described as a new genus presumably 


from Tepic, but now thought to be a species of Hedyotis from the Bonin Islands), and 
Lysimachia glaucophylla (described as presumably from Tepic, but probably from the 
Bonin Islands). Furthermore, incomplete labelling of undoubted Mexican species has 
caused such anomalies as the report of maritime species (Rhizophora mangle, Avicennia 
tomentosa) from Tepic. Distribution records based on this collection should be used 
with discretion if they appear in any way unusual. 

For notes on the state of the vegetation in the vicinity of Tepic at the time of the 
Blossom's visit, and on the routes between Tepic and San Bias, see in the present paper 
under Barclay. The principal route and presumably that pursued by the botanists of 
the Blossom, ran northeasterly from San Bias, skirting the highlands as far as 
Huaristemba, where it turned easterly as far as Navarrete. Here it turned more toward 
the south, and followed up a stream-valley to approach Tepic from the north- 

Beetle, Alan A. See California, University of. 

Blanco, Luciano. A resident of Guadalajara, said by Munson to have discovered a 
species of Vitis in the "Sierra Madre Mountains" (Gard. & For. 3: 474. 1 Oct 1890). 

Bonisteel, W. J. See Gilly, Charles L. 

Bourgeau, Eugene (1813-1877). A collection by Bourgeau is reported from 
Zacoalco, Jalisco (Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 17:283. 1913). Bourgeau was the best- 
known of the collectors who were associated with the French Scientific Commission to 
Mexico, 1865-1866 (Biol. Centr. Am. Bot. 4: 136. 1887). Most of his collections were 
from near Mexico City, and these include others from Zacoalco, which is stated to be 
"near Mexico" (Biol. Centr. Am. Bot. 1:388. 1880). Evidently the reference to 
Zacoalco, Jalisco, is an error. 

Breedlove, Dennis Eugene. In January 1965 Dr. Breedlove collected on Cerro 
Sangangiiey. His specimens are at the California Academy of Sciences (CAS), with 
duplicates at the University of Michigan (MICH). 


Burnett, . Collected oaks on "Cerro Grande," Jalisco, at elevations 

ranging from 2000 to 2600 meters, in 1913, according to Trelease, 1 who cites four 

(Quercus candicans, colimae, pandurift 


Forest Service. The late Dr. Wm. A. Dayton informed me some years ago that none of 
the specimens cited by Trelease could be found in that herbarium, or in the U.S. 
National Herbarium, to which many dendrological specimens were returned by the 
Forest Service after G. B. Sudworth's death in 1927. 

The location of "Cerro Grande," is uncertain but very probably this name refers 
to the massif of the Nevado de Colima, on which all the cited species are known to 

California, University of. Expeditions to the Andes, sent out by the Botanical 
Garden of the University of California, Berkeley, touched at Manzanillo on at least 
three different occasions. The following data on their collections were furnished by Dr. 
T. H. Goodspeed, through the kindness of Miss Annetta Carter. First Expedition: 
September, 1935, 25 collections by James West (nos. 3501-3512, 3514-3515, 
3521-3522, 3524-3531, 3533). Second Expedition, August, 1938, 13 collections by 
Carleton R. Worth, Ovid B. Horton and John L. Morrison (nos. 8610-8622), and 26 
collections by Walter J. Eyerdam and Alan A. Beetle (nos. 8701-8725, 8746); May, 
1939, 26 collections by Eyerdam, H. E. Stork, Morrison and Horton (nos. 

^em. Nat. Acad. Sci. 20: 63, 175, 180, 204. 1924 



25184-25200, 25401-25409). The principal set of these collections is at Berkeley, in 
the University o( California Herbarium (UC), and duplicates have been distributed to 
various institutions in the United States and in Europe. 

Carter, Annetta. In March, 1959, Miss Carter and Francia Chisaki collected in the 
vicinity of Puerto Vallarta and near Quimixto. Their collections were numbered 
1177—1268 (in Chisakfs series) but were distributed under the names ''Carter and 
Chisaki." The principal set is in the herbarium of the University of California (UC). 

Castaheda, Alfonso Manuel. Author of a flora of Jalisco; see Leonardo Oliva. 

Castillo, Juan de (1774-1793). See Sesse. 

Castillo, M. S. del. Collected cytological material for Dr. L. 0. Gaiser, q.v., at El 
Colli and other localities west of Guadalajara, and near Tequila, in 1950 and 1952. ] 

Cerda, Juan de Dios Vicente de la. One of the artists attached to the Royal 
Botanical Expedition to New Spain. See Sesse. 

Charette, Leopold. See Weber, William A. 

Chisaki, Francia. See Carter, Annetta. 

Clarke, Oscar F. In two winter excursions from southern California to western 
Mexico (1967-1968, 1968-1969), Clarke and his students collected several hundred 
herbarium specimens, including several from the vicinity of San Bias. The first set is in 
the herbarium of the University of California at Riverside (UCR), and numerous 
duplicates are at the University of Michigan (MICH). 

Collie, Dr. Alexander ( —1835). See Captain F. W. Beechey. 

Collins, Guy N. (1872-1938). Guy N. Collins and James H. Kempton 
(1891— ), botanists of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, travelled in Jalisco in 
1921 and in Nayarit and Jalisco in 1923. Their primary interest on these journeys was 
in corn and corn relatives, including Tripsacum. They collected some herbarium 
specimens, which are in the U.S. National Herbarium. Through the kindness of the late 
Dr. S. F. Blake I had access to some of the field notebooks kept by Collins and 
Kempton on these two trips, and the following account has been reconstructed chiefly 
from these notebooks. 

In 1921 these investigators came by train from El Paso to Mexico City. After 
some work in Veracruz early in October, they went by train to Guadalajara, which 
they reached October 12; they went at once by train to Ciudad Guzman, and returned 
to Guadalajara on October 14; they collected in the Barranca de Oblatos on the 15th, 
and went to Chapala on the 16th and San Pedro on the 18th. They were at Cocula 
from October 19 to 21, at La Vega (the railroad junction east of Ameca) on the 22nd. 
On the same day they passed through Etzatlan and went to El Amparo, a ranch some 
three kilometers to the south, where they worked a part of the following day, October 
23. They returned to Guadalajara by train, and on October 24 visited Barranca de 
Ibarra, near the Experiencia cotton factory. On October 25 they were in Guadalajara, 
and on the 27th and 28th they undertook a second trip by train to Sayula and Ciudad 
Guzman. Returning to Guadalajara on the 29th, they left for Mexico City on October 
31, passing through Yurecuaro and Irapuato on this day. 

In 1923 Collins and Kempton came to Tepic on the evening of September 30, by 
train from the north, via Mazatlan and Ruiz. They worked in the vicinity of Tepic for 
five days, making one-day trips out to Cerro de la Cruz (October 1), to Fresno 

'Rhodora 55: 259, 266. 1953. 


(October 2), to Tecolote (October 3), and to Cerro de San Juan (October 3). On 
October 6 they started for Guadalajara by the usual road 1 through Ixtlan and Tequila. 
They reached Jala, near Ixtlan, on the 7th; Arenal, Jalisco, on the 9th; and on the 
12th they were collecting in the Barranca de Oblatos, near Guadalajara. On the 17th 
they had passed on into Michoacan. 

The specimens collected by Collins and Kempton in 1921 were not numbered, as 
far as I can determine, and I have not seen records of any from Jalisco except for the 
several collections of Tripsacum cited by Cutler in his monograph of the genus. 2 The 
collections made in 1923, however, were assigned serial numbers, and a list of these is 
preserved in Collins' notebook that deals with the trip of this year. A total of 97 
numbers is listed, including grasses and other flowering plants, ferns, and mosses. Nos. 
54—73 are from Mocorito, Sinaloa, and nos. 89—97 were collected after the botanists 
left Jalisco. The rest are from Nayarit and Jalisco, and are listed below: 

Nayarit: Cerro de la Cruz, October 1 (1-28); Fresno, south of Tepic, October 2 
(29-36); Tecolote, October 3 (37-51); Tepic, October 3 (74); Tepic, October 4 (53, 
75, 76); between La Labor and El Ocotillo, October 6, (77, 78); Jala, October 7 (80); 
Jalisco: El Arenal, at kilometer 52, October 9 (79); Barranca de Oblatos, October 12 

Kempton visited Nayarit again in 1931, and in 1940, but detailed records of the 
trips are not available, and I have seen no herbarium specimens collected in those 

Contreras, M. Collected at Rancho Don Tomas, north of Manzanillo, in 1952 
(An. Inst. Biol. [Mex.] 25: 116. 1954). 

Cook, Stanton A. See Alava, Reino. 

Cordoba M., . See Muller. 

Correll, Donovan Stewart. As an explorer for the U.S. Department of Agriculture, 
Correll visited many of the high mountains of southern Mexico in search of wild 
species of potatoes, in the autumn and early winter, 1947—1948. He left Washington, 
D.C., on October 15, 1947, and returned January 15, 1948. He reached Ciudad 
Guzman on December 17. On the following day he went by automobile, via 
Atequizatlan and Sayulapa, to the village of El Izote, on the northwestern slopes of 
the Nevado de Colima. He ascended nearly to the snow-line by following up the 
water-supply conduits above the village, then returned to Ciudad Guzman before night, 
with a few collections of potatoes (nos. 14340-14342, 14371). He spent December 19 
and 20 in Colima, where he obtained some potato tubers in the markets (nos. 
14343—14344 represent tubers purchased in Ciudad Guzman; nos. 14345—14347 in 
Colima). On December 21 he planned to return to El Izote but found the road 
impassable; on this day he collected no. 14348 near Ciudad Guzman, and nos. 
14349—14370, mostly ferns, in a barranca near Atequizatlan. The next day, December 
22, Correll drove from C. Guzman, via Zapotiltic and Tamazula, to Jiquilpan. Two 
collections (nos. 14372 and 14373) were made at a place called La Llorona. The ferns 
were identified by the late C. A. Weatherby and are deposited at Harvard (GH); the 
flowering plants are in the Herbarium of the United States National Arboretum 
(USNA). For reference to the work of the U.S.D.A. potato expedition of 1947-48, 
the reader is referred to the several accounts by Correll. 3 

1 The railroad was not completed until 1927. 

2 Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 28: 262, 266. 1941. 

3 Correll, Donovan S. Wild potato collecting in Mexico. Field & Lab. 16: 94-112, illus. 1948; 
Collecting wild potatoes in Mexico. U.S.D.A. Circular 797: 1-40, illus. 1948; Section Tuberarium 
of the genus Solarium of North America and Central America. U.S.D.A. Agr. Monog. 11: 1-243, 
illus. 1952. 



Cortina Rivas, Manuel. See McVaugh (1958). 

Coulter, Thomas (1793—1843). An Irish botanist and medical man, Coulter lived 
and travelled in Mexico for about ten years. He was employed for a part of this period 
by the Real del Monte Mining Company, but had ample opportunity to make botanical 
collections. His specimens, estimated at 50,000 in number, were distributed after his 
death from Trinity College, Dublin. He seems to have been most active, botanically 
speaking, in the vicinity of Zimapan, Real del Monte, and Zacatecas, in all of which 
places he was employed for long periods. His collections in Nueva Galicia were 
relatively few, but the exact number is not known. Much information about his travels 
is contained in his diary, of which an account appeared some years ago. 1 

In December, 1825, Coulter made a trip from the city of Zacatecas to Bolarios, 
Jalisco, and returned to Zacatecas after a stay of about ten days at his destination. In 
spite of the lateness of the season he made a number of collections at Bolahos; at least 
a score of these are recorded in the literature, including the very distinctive Bolanosa 
coulteri, which was first known from his specimens. Some details of the trip from 
Zacatecas to Bolahos are known from his diary: 

In response to an urgent letter from the mine superintendent at Bolahos, Coulter 
left Zacatecas the evening of December 12, to attend an employee who was stricken 
with a fever. In freezing weather (Coulter's thermometer stood at 12° F. when he 
reached Xeres at 4 a.m.) he travelled through the night and all next day, reaching Sta. 
Maria de los Angeles at 8 p.m. After a short night's sleep he started again at 5:30 a.m., 
and reached Bolahos by 8 p.m. on the 14th. The next item in his journal is undated: 

1 have suffered a good deal on this journey; both from the speed & from a half cured bowel 
complaint & during my stay at Bolanos 1 was accordingly able to do but little more than attend to 
Martin [the feverish employee] who gets better. 

After a series of compass-readings on various points around Bolahos, the journal 

Deer. 25th at midnight-That I might not travel on a Sunday I spend the evening at a ball in 
the priest's & at midnight start on my return to Zacatecas-Mr. Auld [the superintendent] comes 
with me as far as Tlaltenango. 

The return trip was easier than the hurried one out to Bolahos. Coulter apparently 
reached Tlaltenango on the 27th of December, and after a good rest left the following 
morning at 10. After "7 hours easy ride" he reached Colotlan, a distance estimated at 
25 English miles. Thursday morning (the 29th), with hired horses, he went out to the 
north from Colotlan before sunrise to ascend a nearby elevation some 320 yards long, 
the Mesita de Sta. Maria, whence he could take compass bearings on various elevated 
points (on the south end of the Mesita his reading on the Santa Maria church was 
72 l /2°, and on the church at Colotlan 179°). After returning to Colotlan for breakfast, 
he set out for Villa Nueva, crossing the high ridge between, and reaching his 
destination in nine hours. The journal continues: 

It need not be more than 8 hrs were it not for the potreros which a conde de Xaral has had 
public spirit enough to establish on the natural line of road-damn the rascal! 

From Villa Nueva the following day, December 30, Coulter reached Zacatecas 
after about nine hours' ride, travelling the line of the valley by way of the Hacienda de 

A year later Coulter passed across the northeastern corner of Nueva Galicia in the 
course of a trip from Zacatecas to Zimapan. He left Zacatecas on January 15, 1827 
and travelled generally southeastward as far as Sauceda, in the same state, then turned 

j McVaugh, Rogers. The travels of Thomas Coulter, 1824-1827. Jour. Washington Acad. Sci. 
33: 65-70. 1943. See also a summary, based in part upon family letters and other documents, by 
Alice M. Coats, The Plant Hunters (pp. 341-344. McGraw Hill, 1970). 



southward to Cienega Grande, just within the borders of the State of Aguascalientes. 
The following day (Thursday, January 18) he reached Letras after seven and one-half 
hours' riding, and the day after this he reached Ojuelos, Jalisco, in six hours. Letras no 
longer appears on ordinary maps, but in Coulter's time it was a ranch about eight or 
ten kilometers northwest of Ojuelos (British Museum additional ms. 17659A, Mapa del 
Reyno de Nueva Galicia Aho de 1812). Leaving Ojuelos on January 20, Coulter arrived 
in San Felipe, Guanajuato, on the 21st. 

On this trip Coulter covered a distance (by his own reckoning) of 28 leagues from 
Cienega Grande to San Felipe in four days. Ojuelos, which lies on this route, is on the 
high plateau of central Mexico, at an elevation of 2254 meters, in what is essentially 
an arid grassland; occasional rocky hills support a xerophytic shrub vegetation. In 
mid-winter practically all vegetation is dormant in this area, and it seems unlikely that 
Coulter collected any plants at this time. 

Almost nothing is known of Coulter's life and activities from 1828 to 1831, and 
he may have worked during this period in the mining centers in Hidalgo, in Zacatecas, 
or elsewhere. At the conclusion of his work in central Mexico, however, he travelled 
widely in the northwestern parts of that country, and made extensive collections in 
Sonora and in California. His later travels are fully discussed in a paper by F. V. 
Coville (Bot. Gaz. 20:519-531. pi 35. 1895). After terminating his affairs in 
Zacatecas and Hidalgo, he apparently crossed Mexico in 1831, and took passage on a 
ship from San Bias to California. He was in Guaymas, Sonora, in August of that year. 
When he returned from California, probably in 1833, he seems to have crossed to 
Mexico City by the main route from San Bias. His plant-specimens labelled as from 
"San Bias to Tepic" or "San Bias to Guadalajara" are occasionally cited in botanical 
literature, and most probably were collected along the highway during his return trip 
from California. I do not know the exact number of collections made at this time, but 
more than 30 were cited by Hemsley in the Biologia Centr all- Americana, and the total 
may be somewhat more than this. 

Cronquist, Arthur. See McVaugh (1962). Cronquist also visited Nueva Galicia in 
1965 and 1970. His collections were mainly Compositae. The first set is in the 
herbarium of the New York Botanical Garden (NY). Duplicates of the 1962 collection, 
and a part of those of 1965, are at the University of Michigan (MICH). 

Cruden, Robert W. In 1966, Cruden travelled in Mexico with Elwood Molseed 
(q.v.), and collected at least a few specimens in Nueva Galicia. 

Crum, Howard Alvin. See Wilbur. 

Cutler, Hugh Carson. While engaged in a field-study of the grass genus Tripsacum, 
and in studies of native agriculture, Cutler collected near Ciudad Guzman and at a few 
nearby points along the roads and railroads. His collections here were made chiefly on 
October 9 and 10, 1940, and are numbered from about 4011 to 4118. The specimens 
were distributed to various herbaria, including those at St. Louis (MO), Harvard (GH), 
and Washington (US). 

Deam, Charles Clemon (1865-1953). Deam collected at least a few specimens 
near Aguascalientes in 1898. 

DeLeon, Donald. Collected herbarium specimens in Nayarit and Jalisco in 1957, 
in connection with taxonomic studies of plant-feeding mites. A partial set of the 
collections is at the University of Michigan (MICH). 

Denton, Melinda Fay. Miss Denton travelled in Mexico in 1968 and 1970, 
primarily to collect material for a revision of Oxalis, sect. Ionoxalis. She collected 
briefly both times in Nueva Galicia. Her specimens are at the University of Michigan 



Detling, LeRoy Ellsworth (1898-1967). Professor Detling, then a member of the 
staff o( the University of Oregon, gathered a few specimens in Nayarit in 1959, and 
collected about 100 numbers in Jalisco in 1965, but his more important plant-collec- 
tions were made from July 1961 to May 1962, while he was engaged in a study of the 
plant communities of the Sierra Madre Occidental, with headquarters in Guadalajara. 
His collections in 1961-62 included nos. 8372-9018, of which about two-thirds were 
from Nueva Galicia and the rest mostly from Sinaloa and Durango. In 1965 he 
collected nos. 9487—9587 in Jalisco. His more important collecting localities were near 
Guadalajara, where he took more than 150 gatherings, including about 70 from the 
barrancas near the city; Ixtlahuacan de los Membrillos (about 100 gatherings); San 
Juan Cozala (about 30); barranca of the Rio Verde between Tepatitlan and Yahualica 
(about 35); between Aguascalientes and Calvillo (about 38). Other localities included 
Tapalpa, Puerto Vallarta, and the vicinity of Santiago, Colima. The first set of the 
collection is at the University of Oregon (ORE), and partial or nearly complete sets are 
at the Instituto de Biologia (MEXU), the University of Michigan (MICH), the 
University of Washington (WTU), and the U.S. National Herbarium (US). Some of the 
data from Detling's study, including lists of species making up several vegetation-types 
in Jalisco, were published in a posthumous paper. 1 

Dewey, Lyster Hoxie (1865-1944). The type of Agave palmaris Trel., said to be 
in the Missouri Botanical Garden (MO), was collected at "Mezetepec," Jalisco, by 
Dewey (no. 657). 2 Dewey, an employee of the United States Department of 
Agriculture, specialized in the study of plant fibers other than cotton, and traveled 
widely in Mexico to further this study. 

Diaz Luna, Juan Carlos. Resident in Guadalajara, Biol. Diaz Luna has collected in 
Jalisco since 1967. 

Dieterle, Jennie Van Akkeren. In 1963 Mrs. Dieterle accompanied Rzedowski 
(q.v.) and Feddema on a collecting trip in Mexico. Her collections included nos. 
3000—3181. She made a second trip in 1969, collecting nos. 3407-3588, mostly 
specimens of Cucurbitaceae, in Jalisco and Colima (September 11— October 2). Her 
specimens are at the University of Michigan (MICH). 

Diguet, Leon (1859-1926). Over a period of nearly 25 years (1889-1913), 
Diguet made seven trips to Mexico. His principal interests were in the fields of 
ethnobotany, anthropology, and geography. Most of his travels were undertaken in the 
interest of, and at the instigation of, the Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris. 
His contribution to the flora of Nueva Galicia was a unique one, because he collected 
plants on three long visits to the territory of the Huichol and Cora Indians of the 
Sierra de Nayarit. Although Hartweg and Seemann had visited this part of the country 
briefly, and J. N. Rose subsequently, in the summer of 1897, passed through on a 
profitable collecting trip, no botanist other than Diguet seems to have spent more than 
a few days in this remote part of Mexico. 3 

Diguet's first travels in Mexico (1889-1894) were in Baja California. They were 

1 Detling, LeRoy E. Historical background of the flora of the Pacific Northwest. Univ. Oregon 
Mus. Nat. Hist. Bull. 13: 1-57. 1968. (pp. 46-52 are entitled. Vegetation areas in western Mexico). 

2 Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 23: 116. 1923. 

3 Carl Lumholtz worked among the Coras, and especially with the Huicholes, in 1895-1896, 
and again in 1898, but as far as I know he collected few plants. His work was in the field of 
anthropology. See Unknown Mexico, by Carl Lumholtz. 2 vols., Scribners, 1902. 


primarily for geological and geographical exploration and resulted in various publica- 
tions on the peninsula and its resources. 1 

Diguet seems to have returned to Paris from Baja California in January, 1895. The 
following March (1896) he was planning a trip to Guanajuato, Jalisco, Nayarit, Sinaloa 
and Sonora, and apparently he left Paris in May, 1896. He spent two months in 
Guanajuato, but collected little except minerals because of the prevailing drought. He 
passed the months of September and October in Guadalajara, where he collected 
numerous plant-specimens for the herbarium. This summer and autumn, for the only 
time in his career, his specimens were serially numbered in the approximate order of 
collection. The collections in Paris include approximately 200 numbers, of which 
two-thirds are from the vicinity of Guadalajara and the remainder from the "territoire 
de los huicholes," in the Sierra de Nayarit. 

After the rains, which lasted until the end of October, Diguet set out on his first 
expedition to the Sierra de Nayarit. No details of his routes to and from the country 
of the Huicholes are known to me, but he stated that he began his work in the 

northeastern part" of the area, and it seems probable that he went in from 
Guadalajara by way of Bolanos and Mezquitic. At least one collection (no. 107, 
Phoradendron carneum) is from the valley of Mezquitic according to the label. Another 
collection (no. 199, Thevetia sp.) is labelled as from the Barranca de San Cristobal, 
north of Guadalajara, and may have been collected on the return trip from Bolanos. 
Unfortunately neither of the above is dated. A few of the collections from the Sierra 
de Nayarit are dated November, but the majority are dated December. Very few of the 
plants from this area are supplied with precise information as to locality; a few are said 
to have come from the eastern slope ("penchant oriental") of the Sierra de Nayarit, at 
elevations ranging from 2000 to 3600 meters. More than 30 numbers are labelled as 
from the "Sierra de los huicholes" or "territoire huichol." Two numbers only (nos. 
135 and 146), as far as I have seen, are labelled as from specific localities: these are 
the Ravin de Kiteni, and the Ravin de Rhaimota, neither of which appears on any map 
at my disposal. 

Because of an "advanced season" and excessive cold in the mountains, Diguet was 
disappointed in his hopes of making large botanical and zoological collections in the 
Sierra de Nayarit, and returned to Guadalajara in December. 

Soon after his return to Guadalajara, Diguet went on to Baja California, probably 
by boat, early in 1897. He was in or near La Paz until at least March 22, at which 
time he was preparing to return to Jalisco. He was collecting on the Cerro San Juan, 
near Tepic, in June, and he was in Guadalajara about the end of the year 1897, at 
which time he noted that he had finished his collection of plants. 

Diguet seems to have collected very few herbarium specimens in Tepic— his 
assembled collections at Paris include fewer than a half-dozen from that place. 
Apparently he spent some days or weeks in. the vicinity, however, either in 1897 or in 
1900. He collected in June, 1897, either on Cerro San Juan or at Compostela, or both, 
specimens of a Cnidoscolus, the chilte of local fame, which was described in 1906 as a 
species new to science, Jatropha tepiquensis. 2 Some years later Diguet himself 
published an article on a tree which produces the chilte gum of commerce, and it 
would appear from his remarks on distribution, habit, habitat, and methods of 
exploitation, that he had spent a fairly long time in the field-study of the problem, 

1 Cf. Rapport sur une mission scientifique dans la Basse-Californie. Nouv. Arch. Miss. Scient. 

9: 1-54. pi 1-10. 1899; also see various articles in Bull. Mus. d'Hist. Nat. 1:4, 28-30. 1895; 

articles cited in pp. 7-8 of Les Cactacees utiles du Mexique; and his popular work, Territorio de la 

Baja California Reseha geogrdfica y estadistica, pp. 40, illus., folded map, Librena Bouret, Paris & 
Mexico, 1912. 

2 Costantin & Gallaud, Rev. Gdn. Bot. 18: 391. 1906. 



chiefly in the vicinity of Tepic where the plant is abundant. 1 In the same article 
Diguet states that the principal centers of collection of the gum are at Jalcocotan, 
Valle de Banderas, Mazatan, Hacienda de Santa Rosa, Hacienda de las Varas, 
Compostela, and the immediate vicinity of Tepic. Whether or not he himself visited all 

these localities is unknown. 

I suspect, but cannot prove, that in the autumn of 1897 Diguet made an 
expedition, longer than his venture in 1896, to the western part of the Sierra de 
Nayarit. In the Paris herbarium is a series of approximately 135 plant-collections made 
by Diguet, completely lacking in identifying data except for a printed label which 
reads "Sierra del Nayarit, partie occidental. " Probably the collection was obtained at 
about the end of the rainy season, perhaps in August or September. Various 
Leguminosae, and Amaryllidaceae for example, are represented in the collection by 
specimens in early anthesis, as might be expected in these months. More specifically, 
such genera as Minkelersia (Leguminosae), Anthericum (Liliaceae), Lobelia 
(Campanulaceae), Buchnera and Escobedia (Scrophulariaceae), Neogoezia (Umbelli- 
ferae), Triumfetta (Tiliaceae), Cacalia, Centaurea, and Cosmos (Compositae), are 
characteristic members of the fall flora of the pine forests of the Jalisco mountains, 
and all are represented in the collection by flowering specimens. 

I have suggested that this fall collection was made in 1897, partly because Diguet 
is known to have been in Jalisco both before and after the months in question, and is 
now known to have made other collections in this period. It is probable that the 
collection as a whole was made on one of his early trips to Mexico, because practically 
all of his later specimens, beginning with those from the Oaxaca-Puebla trip of 
1902-1903, are supplied with the year and month of collection. Finally, this "partie 
occidentale" of the Sierra de Nayarit is the country of the Cora Indians, which Diguet 
apparently did not visit during his trip of 1896, or where at least he had no 
opportunity to collect in that year. His report on his mission to the Cora, however, 
was published in 1899, 2 and it seems most probable that his first long visit to the Cora 
was actually accomplished in the fall of 1897. In 1898 he was in France during the 
autumn months; in 1899 he was in Jalisco and could have visited and collected in the 
Sierra de Nayarit, but this seems unlikely not only because of the publication date 
noted above but also because of the known sequence of Diguet's activities in that year, 
when late summer rains caused him to return to San Luis Potosi and Zacatecas after 
beginning his work in Jalisco. 

At the completion of his work in Jalisco in 1897 Diguet apparently returned once 
more to Baja California, for he was in La Paz on February 17, 1898. He was back in 

France in June of the same year. 

The summer of 1899 saw the beginning of another expedition to Mexico. Diguet 
began work in Jalisco but because of the difficulty caused by the rains he spent some 
time in San Luis Potosi and Zacatecas before returning to Jalisco in the fall to 
complete a herbarium intended to supplement his earlier one. He was in Guadalajara 
and Ameca in December, and in the same region until near the end of January, when 
he was planning another trip to the Sierra de Nayarit. It was his intention to go from 
the Sierra de Nayarit to Mazatlan and Baja California before proceeding to Manzanillo 
and southern Jalisco. He is known to have been in the country of the Huichol Indians, 
in the eastern part of the Sierra de Nayarit, in March, 1900, and among the Coras, 
farther west, at various localities along the Rio San Pedro, in April. He may have 

Diguet, Ldon. L'Arbre k chilte et son exploitation au Mexique. Rev. d'Hist. Nat. Appliqude 
3: 237-249. pi II-III. 1922. 

2 La Sierra du Nayarit et ses indigenes. Nouv. Arch. Miss. Scient. 9: 571-630. pi. I -11. 1899. 
See also his Relation sommaire d'un voyage au versant occidental du Mexique. Bull. Mus. d'Hist. 
Nat. 3: 345-352. 1898, and Idiome Huichol, contribution d l'dtude des langues mexicaines. Jour. 
Soc. Americanistes Paris 8; 23-54, illus. (map). 1911. 


returned to civilization by way of Tepic, and carried out his plan to go on to Mazatlan 
from there. It is stated by Bois in his sketch of Diguet's life (Cact. Ut. Mex. 9) that 
during this expedition the traveler visited the states of San Luis Potosi, Jalisco, and 
Colima, and the Gulf of California. 

In the Paris herbarium is a series of approximately 75 plant-collections made by 
Diguet, each accompanied by a printed label reading "Sierra du Nayarit (Territoire 
Huichol) Etat de Jalisco (Mexique)." Most are without other identifying data, but a 
few are dated March, 1900, and at least one (Zanthoxylum sp.) has the additional 
locality, "cote du Mezquitic." At least six collections are from definitely stated 
elevations (from 190 m to 900 m) along the Rio San Pedro, and the labels on these 
have been changed to read "Territoire Cora," and the date is given as April 1900. 
Inspection of the plants in the collection as a whole strongly indicates that all the 
specimens were taken in the spring (dry) season. Such genera as Cochlospermum, 
Bombax, Inga, Combretum y Chimaphila and Cercocarpus, including members of both 
lowland and highland floras, are well represented in the collection in the spring 

The next (fourth) trip for the Paris Museum began late in 1902. Digue t was in 
Etla, Oaxaca, in December and in the State of Oaxaca at least until the end of 
January, 1903. Data on herbarium specimens indicate that during February and March 
he was in Oaxaca and also in Baja California; I suspect that the former only is correct. 
Late spring found him in Jalisco, but he seems to have collected few plants. In April 
he climbed the Cerro de Huejotitan, near the western end of Lake Chapala, and also 
botanized along the Rio de Tuzpan, near the southern border of the state. In May he 
made a few collections in the Sierra del Alo [Halo] , in southern Jalisco. 1 In June he 
was in Guadalajara, and about July 1 he moved to the region of Tehuacan, Puebla. He 
collected there and in other parts of the latter state until September; a much-collected 
locality in this last month was the Sierra Zacapoaxtla, on the northwestern borders of 
Puebla. In December Diguet was in La Paz, Baja California, planning to stay three 
months. In May, 1904, he was in San Bias, Nayarit; he probably returned to Paris in 
June or July. 

Herbarium materials collected in 1902 and 1903 were considerable, especially 
those from Puebla and Oaxaca; these remain for the most part in Paris, unsorted and 
unidentified. There are fewer than 20 collections from Jalisco. 

In 1907, from July to October, Diguet made a large collection of herbarium 

specimens, all as far as known in the State of Michoacan, and mostly in July and 
August on or near the Nevado de Toluca or in the Sierra Tlalpujahua. These, for the 
most part, remain unworked in the Paris herbarium. The collector himself was 
probably in Mexico until near the end of the year. 

Little is known of the details of Diguet's last trip for the Museum (1911 — 1913), 
except that he apparently made his center of operations for the field-season of 1912 
near the village of Huejotitan, Jalisco, northwest of Lake Chapala, and probably on the 
slopes of the mountain called El Viejo, which rises immediately above the lake to an 
elevation said to be 2960 meters. His botanical collections in this vicinity number 
approximately 160, of which about one-third were taken in July, one-third in October, 
and the rest in the months of May, June, August, November and December. 
Collections were also made in February in the Barranca de Tequila, and in the vicinity 
of Guadalajara in March, April, May, September and December. The total number of 
collections made in Jalisco is probably at least 200. 

I have not been able to locate this range of mountains on any map, but the name is well 
known locally; see the gazetteer. There is a ranch called Alo, listed as in the Municipalidad de 
Tecalitlan, in Bdrcena's index of populated places in Jalisco (An. Min. Fom. Rep. Mex. 9: 42. 



From the meager data attached to herbarium specimens it appears that Diguet 
remained in Mexico for most of the following year, 1913. He was in Colima in April 
and May, in Guadalajara in August, and in Baja California in September. 

The principal series of Diguet's herbarium specimens, comprising at least 1800 
individual collections, is deposited at the Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, at 
Paris (P). Through the kindness of the late Professor Humbert 1 was permitted in July, 
1954, to sort the collection and extract the materials from Nueva Galicia; these latter, 
including approximately 700 collections, are in the process of study. Some few 
duplicates had already been distributed to herbaria in Europe and the United States. 
The remainder of the specimens, including most of the series from Baja California, 
Michoacan, Puebla and Oaxaca, remain unstudied and undistributed at Paris. Although 
the collections as a whole, and especially those from little-collected areas like the 
Sierra de Nayarit, are of much interest to botanists, many are unfortunately incom- 
pletely documented. The majority bear no date except for month and year, and even 
these may be wanting. Locality-data are often wanting except for the name of the 
State; approximately one-tenth of the known specimens from Jalisco, for example, are 
otherwise completely without data. Except for the collections of 1896 they are not 
serially numbered, so it is ordinarily impossible to deduce the place of collection 

when this is wanting. 

Diguet's most important work was in ethnology and ethnobotany, and his 
continuing interest in these subjects led him to make numerous observations on the 
uses of plants in Mexico, and to the publication of several papers on the same subject. 
He was particularly interested in the cacti. His last work, the posthumous Les 
Cactacees utiles du Mexique, was published by the Societe Nationale d'Acclimatation 
de France, of which he had been a member and officer. 1 A portrait of Diguet forms 
the frontispiece of this volume, and a sketch of his life and work, by D. Bois, 
comprises pages 7 — 12, inclusive. 

Dodds, Donald. See Gilly, Charles L. 

Duges, Alfred Auguste Dalsescautz (1826-1910). A French botanist and entomol- 
ogist who lived many years in Mexico, and whose botanical work was done chiefly in 
the State of Guanajuato, Duges sent numerous botanical specimens for study to Asa 
Gray and Sereno Watson. The latter reported, 2 in a paper dealing chiefly with plants 
of northern Mexico, the occurrence of Aristolochia pardina in the following words: 
"At Colima, where it is known as c Huaco' (Duges)." This report was repeated by 
Hemsley, with the implication that Duges actually was the collector of this plant at 
Colima. 3 There may be some confusion with the specimens of the same species 
collected at Colima by Ghiesbreght. As far as I know Duges is not reported to have 
made other collections at Colima. 

Echeverria y Godoy, Atanasio. One of the artists attached to the Royal Botanical 
Expedition to New Spain. See Sesse. 

Eckfeldt, John W. (1851—1933). A list of lichens supposedly collected in Mexico 
by Dr. Eckfeldt, including seven species from Jalisco (without further locality), was 
published by Mueller Argoviensis in 1894. 4 It is implied that the collections from 
Jalisco, as well as others from Monterrey, Mexico, from Texas, from Hawaii, and from 
Bolivia, were made by Eckfeldt himself. Numbers assigned to the collections are those 

diguet, Ldon. Les Cactacdes utiles de Mexique. Arch. d'Hist. Nat. 4 [whole volume] : 1-551. 
figs. 136, frontisp. 1928. 

2 Proc Amer. Acad. 18: 148. 1883. 
3 Biol. Centr. Am. Bot. 4: 84. 1887. 

4 Lichenes Eckfeldtiani a cl. Dr. J. W. Eckfeldt Philadelphiensi, praesertim in Mexico lecti, 
quos enumerat Dr. J. Muiler. Bull. Herb. Boiss. 2: 89-93. 1894. 


of Eckfeldt. It appears, however, from Harshberger's account of Eckfeldt's life, 1 and 
from the biographical sketch published by Witmer Stone, 2 that Eckfeldt did not 
engage in extensive explorations, but rather increased his herbarium of lichens through 
correspondence. It is probable that the collections from Jalisco were obtained by 
someone other than Eckfeldt, and turned over to the latter for identification. 

Edmondson, J. See Powell. 

Ehrenberg, Carl August (1801-1849). Occasional records in literature refer to 
specimens collected by Ehrenberg or by C. J. W. Schiede at Encarnacion, "Jalisco." 3 
This locality is actually in Hidalgo, where both these men made large collections. As 
far as known neither worked in Jalisco. 

Eisen, Gustavus Adolphus (1847-1941). Collected a species of Fiats at "San 

Juan near Tepic" in September, 1894. 4 Eisen was an entomologist and naturalist with 

the broadest interests. For some years he was concerned with figs and the subject of 
caprification. 5 

Eiten, George. See David P. Gregory. 

Ellison, William Lee (1923-1971). In connection with studies on the genus Bahia, 
Ellison travelled in Mexico in 1960 and collected a few specimens in Nueva Galicia. 

Elmore, Francis H. The Allan Hancock Pacific Expedition, in the Velero III, 
touched at Tenacatita Bay, Jalisco, on May 8, 1939, and Elmore, the botanist of the 
expedition, collected nos. 1A1 to 1A24, comprising approximately 90 specimens, of 
land plants. The locality is discussed, and species are listed, by Howard Scott Gentry, 
in his report on the land plants of the Hancock Expeditions. 6 The specimens are 
preserved at the University of Southern California (USC); a duplicate set is at the 
University of Michigan (MICH). 

Emrick, George Monroe (71852—1906). A Chicago physician whose name was 
also spelled Emerich or Emerick, who received his diploma from the Chicago Medical 
College (later the medical school of Northwestern University) in 1873, Emrick died in 
Chicago December 12, 1906, very soon after his return from Mexico. According to 
Brand (1960, p. 229) he was probably interested in investing in agricultural lands in 
southwestern Mexico, and for this reason made several trips to Hda. Coahuayula. His 
specimens became the property of the Field Museum, Chicago (F). According to the 
Museum's records, kindly searched for me by Dr. Julian A. Steyermark, the herbarium 
received 557 specimens collected by Emrick. Apparently he used more than one set of 
collection-numbers. His numbers 1—229, all or nearly all obtained at Hda. Coahuayula 
in February, 1901, are listed in Vol. 24, pp. 174—195 of the Museum records. He also 
made a collection at Paso del Rio, Colima, in November, 1906; these are independently 
numbered from 1 to at least 211. Brand -also mentions herbarium specimens from 
Coahuayana and from Ostula, but I have not seen any of these. 

Erlanson, Carl Oscar. Erlanson and Max J. Souviron, explorers for the United 
States Department of Agriculture, made some botanical collections between December 
31, 1930, and January 6, 1931, in the barrancas near Guadalajara, and in the vicinity 
of Chapala. The specimens are in the United States National Herbarium (US). The 

*Harshberger, John W. The botanists of Philadelphia and their work. pp. 356-358. 1899. 

2 Bartonia 15: 57-59. pi 4. 1933. 

3 Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 23: 1085. 1924; Pflanzenreich IV. 251 (Heft 59): 66, 67. 1913. 

4 Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 20: 11. 1917. 

5 Essig, E. O. A history of entomology, pp. 615-617. 1931. 

6 Allan Hancock Pacific Exped. 13, pt. 2: 182-192. 1949. 



principal work of the expedition was the investigation of Ceiba acuminata as a possible 
fiber plant, and the location and collection of wild potatoes; no general botanical 
collection was attempted. The names of the collectors may appear on the labels in 
either order, but usually as "Souviron and Erlanson"; at least one specimen has been 
reported in literature with the collectors' names given as "S. & E." (Rhodora 41: 355. 
1939). Souviron was a horticulturist and most of the botanical collections were made 
by Erlanson. 

Estrada Faudon, Enrique. A physician of Guadalajara, who has long been 
interested in the plants of Jalisco. See McVaugh (1965). 

Eyerdam, Walter J. See California, University of. 

Feddema, Charles. While a graduate student at the University of Michigan, 
Feddema collected in Mexico in 1958 and 1959 (with King, q.v.), in 1960 (with 
McVaugh, q.v.), in 1961 (in company with Don Francoeur), and in 1963 (with 
Rzedowski, q.v., and Mrs. Dieterle). The first set of his specimens is at the University 
of Michigan (MICH). After collecting in Oaxaca in July 1959, Feddema and King came 
to Michoacan early in August. The joint collections for the rest of the season were 
assigned Feddema 's numbers, 1—1135. Major collections were made on Cerro Santa 
Maria (nos. 1—251, August 5—9), vicinity of Ahuacatlan and Tetitlan (nos. 252—534, 
August 11-15), southeast of Tepic, especially on and near Cerro Sanganguey and 
above the lake near Santa Maria del Oro (nos. 535-792, 914-954, August 16—20, 
August 24), north of Tepic, especially near Puga and near the Mirador del Aguila (nos. 
793-913, August 21—22), on the road to Miramar and San Bias (nos. 955—1027, 
August 25—26), and toward Compostela, Mazatan, and Las Varas (nos. 1028-1135, 
August 27-29). 

On Feddema's trip to Jesus Maria in 1960 he flew in a private plane from Tepic 
on September 17. The pilot put him down on the plateau above the village, and he 
went by mule to Jesus Maria and lodged there while collecting in the dry woodland, 
dominated by cacti and Bursera, in the river-valley (nos. 1200-1338, 1448-1465, 
September 17—20, 22). On September 20—21 he made an excursion into the hills east 
of Jesus Maria, where he collected nos. 1339—1447, mostly in the oak zone on the 
western slopes of the Sierra de los Huicholes. He returned to Tepic on September 24. 

In 1961, while gathering material for a revision of the genus Sclerocarpus 
(Compositae), Feddema began work in Texas late in July, passed into eastern Mexico, 
reached Nueva Italia and the vicinity of Apatzingan about August 15, then continued 
rapidly via Uruapan, Zamora, Guadalajara, Plan de Barranca and Tepic (August 
16—19), and on to Sonora. He collected approximately 70 numbers (at least nos. 
1707—1775) in western Michoacan, Jalisco, and southern Nayarit. 

In 1963, while traveling with Rzedowski (q.v.) and Mrs. Dieterle, Feddema collected 
independently, nos. 2119-2742. His localities were in the Sierra de los Corales (nos. 2119-2226, 
October 22-25); near Gallardo (2227-2243, October 26); Puerto de la Paja (2244-2268, 
2320-2331, October 30, November 1); Rancho Viejo, Arroyos del Agua, San Antonio, and 
elsewhere near Huejuquilla (2269-2319, 2332-2380, 2396-2401, October 31 -November 3); 
Tanque de los Rayos (2383-2395, November 3); Cerro Colorado, El Mortero and elsewhere near 
Mezquitic (2381-2382, 2402-2480, November 3-5); near Monte Escobedo (2481-2482, Novem- 
ber 6); vicinity of Puerto Vallarta (2483-2603, 2610-2614, November 11-17); near El Cuatante 
(2603A-2609, 2615-2652, November 17-18); near La Cucaracha (2653-2657, November 19); 
west of Mazatan (2658-2672, November 20); Rancho Chila (2682-2712, November 23); Cruz del 
Campo (2713-2729A, November 24); 2-3 km north of San Juan de Lima (2736-2742, November 
25); Coahuayana, and along the road to Colima from Tecoman (2732-2735, 2730-2731, 
November 25). The next collections were in Guerrero, November 30. 

Fernow, Bernhard Eduard (1851 — 1923). Two species of oaks collected by 
Fernow "near Colima" are reported by Trelease (Mem. Nat. Acad. Sci. 20: 180. 1924). 
Fernow did private consulting work in forestry, particularly in the period 1903—1907, 


during which time one of his projects was the investigation of an "oak property of the 
Sierra Madre" near Colima. Rodgers states that the same property was investigated in 
the spring of 1913 by H. N. Whitford; perhaps the same area was under consideration 
by one Arthur Wood of Colima, in November 1909, as a possible site of a planned 
forestry project. 1 Areas near Colima suitable for growth of oak and pine were almost 
certainly on the slopes of the Nevado de Colima above the city, but I have no definite 
information about the area visited by Fernow. 

Ferris, Roxana Stinchfield. With Mrs. Ynez Mexia, Mrs. Ferris (then of Stanford 
University) collected in Sinaloa in September, 1925, then came alone to San Bias, 
Nayarit, by boat. After exploration of the Tres Marias Islands, she returned to San 
Bias, walked to Tepic via Jalcocotan, collected around Tepic and the nearby village of 
Jalisco, went to Guadalajara by automobile and mule and thence to Manzanillo by 
train. She made large collections (about 650 numbers), the principal set of which is in 
the Dudley Herbarium, Stanford University (DS); a duplicate set is in the National 
Herbarium (US). A summary of dates, localities and numbers, kindly supplied by Mrs. 

Ferris, follows: 

San Bias, October 1-18, 1925 (nos. 5301-5562); San Bias to Jalcocotan and 

Tepic, October 31-November 1 (5672-5769); Tepic, November 2-18 (5770-5810, 
6001-6016); Jalisco, Nayarit, November 8-12 (5811-6000, 8023); toward Ixtlan, 20 
miles from Tepic (6018); Manzanillo, Colima, November 27-December 2 

Forman, Michael. See Straw. 

Furness, Dwight R. The herbarium of the Field Museum (F) contains approxi- 
mately 104 specimens, collected in Mexico in 1909. These bear a printed label giving 
the year but no additional information about the date of collection, and giving the 
collector's name as Dwight R. Furness. A specific locality of collection appears on 
most of the labels. The specimens were apparently sent to the Museum as a gift in 
return for identification, and are entered in the records of the Museum under 
Accession 1414 (specimens 251313-251325) and Accession 2260 (467611-467701). 

Most of the specimens are labelled as from Guanajuato; an undetermined number 
are from Guadalajara or from Ocotlan, Jalisco (in one case cited in literature as 
"Ocotlari")- I have not been able to learn anything more about the collector or his 
work in Mexico. 

Gadow, Hans (1855-1928). A zoologist from the University of Cambridge who 
had spent the summer in Mexico, Gadow came to Zapotlan by train in mid-September, 
1904, accompanied by Mrs. Gadow. Their purpose was to see the volcano, which had 
erupted in a spectacular manner only the year before, and to study the reptiles and 
amphibians in the vicinity. They took horses for the trip, and camped the first night at 
6600 feet, five hours from Zapotlan, near a spring at a ranch above the hamlet of Las 
Canoas. They spent a day trying to ascend through the heavy forest of the waterless 
east side of the Nevado, then retraced their steps, learned of the waterline which 
affords an easy passage around the northeastern shoulder, and followed this to their 
camp, near a water-tank at 9,500 feet. [It is possible that this tank was the Canoa de 
Leoncito which about 1952 marked the extreme upper limit of travel with a wheeled 
vehicle— RMcV] . The route toward the summit of the Nevado, as described by Gadow, 
led him up into the interior basin of the mountain, where the peak as seen from the 
north "rises there like the Matterhorn." [This must have been near the shelter at La 

dodgers, Andrew Denny, III. Bernhard Eduard Fernow. frontisp., [i-v] , 623 pp. Princeton 
University Press, 1951. cf. pp. 343, 463, 593. 



JoyaJ . At 11000 feet Gadow met a herdsman who guided them up through the pine 

forests toward the summit. 

After a few days on the mountain, amid plentiful rains, the Gadows descended 
and spent a part of a day in an excursion to the marshes around the Laguna de 
Zapotlan before taking the train again. 

The plant-specimens collected by Dr. and Mrs. Gadow during their travels in 
Mexico, in this and other years, were presented by Mrs. Gadow to the British Museum 
(Natural History) in 1929, after her husband's death. There were about 200 in all, 
mostly not critically determined. No list of determinations was made, and it is not 
possible to say how many were collected in Jalisco. At least one from the Nevado de 
Colima, Penstemon atropurpureus, has been cited in the literature (Kew Bull. 1938: 7. 
1938). Gadow himself wrote a charming popular account of his trip to the Nevado; 
this is Chapter XXIV of "Through Southern Mexico" (pp. xvi, 527. illus. Witherby & 
Co., London, 1908). The above description of his trip is taken from the book, which 
contains numerous references to plants and remarkably good descriptions of the 
plant-associations and zones of the Nevado. For a brief biographical note on Gadow, 
see Herpetologia 5 (Suppl. 1): 19. 1949. 

Gaiser, Lulu Odell (1896—1965). As a Research Fellow of the Biological Labora- 
tories, Harvard University, Dr. Gaiser travelled in Mexico and Guatemala from 
September to December, 1950, studying certain genera of Compositae. She collected 
herbarium specimens and material for cytological study from various localities. She 
visited Guadalajara and Rio Blanco during the last week in October, and her nos. 
57—73, representing the genera Brickellia, Barroetea, Carminatia, Ageratella and 
Eupatorium, were obtained at this time. 

The following notes on her itineraries were supplied by Dr. Gaiser at my request: By taxi, 
along the highway west of Guadalajara toward Ameca, near km. 38, in a little arroyo near Las 
Tortugas River, October 26 (nos. 57, 58); near km. 48, along the railroad west of Orendain, 
October 16, (60, 61); 16 km west of Guadalajara, roadside, October 26 (62); by taxi to the end of 
the road at the Old Baths in the barranca east of Guadalajara, thence by foot to the top, October 
27 (63-66); by taxi to the village of San Sesinto, thence on foot past Hacienda Magdalena toward 
Rio Blanco, October 28 (67, 68); continuing by taxi to Rio Blanco, thence on foot toward Sierra 
San Estdban, October 28 (69-71); returning by taxi via Zapopan, on a grassy slope about 13 km 
from Guadalajara, October 28 (72, 73). 

The principal set of Dr. Gaiser's collections is in the Gray Herbarium (GH) and 
duplicates have been distributed as noted in her paper on Brickellia. 1 Some of her own 
collections, and also some that were made at her request by M. S. del Castillo, are 
cited in this paper and in her other published works on the Kuhniinae. 2 

Galeotti, Henri-Guillaume (1814—1858). A Belgian-French geologist, botanist, and 
horticulturist, Galeotti first visited Nueva Galicia in the last weeks of 1836. His travels 
are less well documented than those of almost any of the major collectors of this 
period, but to a degree they can be reconstructed from one published account, that of 
Lesegue, 3 and from incidental references in papers published by Galeotti himself. Some 
information may be obtained from the citations of localities and dates of flowering in 

1 Chromosome studies in Kuhniinae (Eupatorieae). I. Brickellia. Rhodora 55: 253-267. 1953. 
Some rarely collected Mexican Brickellias. Rhodora 54: 229-232. 1952; Studies in the 
Kuhniinae (Eupatorieae) 11. Journ. Arnold Arb. 35: 87 133. 1954. 

3 Les6guc, Antoine. Musee botanique de M. Benjamin Delessert. pp. [xj , 588. Paris, 1845. The 
account of Galeotti is on pp. 209-211. Lesegue seems to have obtained his information directly 
from Galeotti, but the data as published are sometimes conflicting. All other contemporary 
accounts of Galeotti's work in Mexico seem to have been copied from Lesegue. I have not been 
able to locate any letters, fieldbooks or other notes, or any first-hand information about Galeotti. 
Even his herbarium specimens are deficient because many of them do not bear the year of 



the Enumeratio 1 and in the memoir on ferns 1 published by Martens and Galeotti. For 
example, Lasegue says Galeotti went to Real del Monte, Hidalgo, in July 1836, and 
botanized there for two or three months. This is corroborated by the statements in the 
papers by Martens and Galeotti, where about 175 species are cited from near Real del 
Monte, and the dates are almost all from August to October. 

After his sojourn at Real del Monte, Galeotti left for the Pacific Coast. Lasegue 
says he left at the "end of 1835" [i.e. 1836], and travelled to San Juan del Rio, 
Celaya, Salamanca, Leon, Guadalajara, and San Bias, after which he returned to 
Mexico, visiting Guanajuato and Santa Rosa on the way. Perhaps Galeotti's account of 
the geology of Guanajuato was prepared during this trip; it was sent to Brussels in 
August, 1837, and published the next year (Bull. Acad. Brux. 5: 196-202. 1838). 
Presumably his paper on the geology of Lake Chapala (op. cit. 6: 14-29. 1839) was 
prepared at this time also. We suppose from a date in this paper that he was at Lake 
Chapala on February 27-28, 1837. 

On a second trip to western Mexico, Galeotti left for Michoacan in July 1837 
(Lasegue); he was in Morelia on August 9, and left for Jorullo about August 24. 
Judging from the citations in the Enumeratio, he went from Morelia to Patzcuaro, 
Ario, and Jorullo, then returned to Ario (where he was on September 1 and 4), and 
continued by way of Taretan, Michoacan, past the foot of Tancitaro to Los Reyes and 
on to Guadalajara (where he was on November 22) (cf. Bull. Acad. Brux. 5: 150. 
1838; op. cit. 8:438. 1841). Perhaps it was at this time, before his arrival in 
Guadalajara, that he visited the Volca'n de Colima. 2 Lasegue says he left for 
Aguascalientes and San Luis Potosi in December, 1837, and returned to Mexico in 
April, 1838. 

Galeotti's richest collecting grounds were in Oaxaca and Veracruz; only about 35 
species of vascular plants were reported by Martens and Galeotti from Nueva Galicia. 
Of these, two were from San Bias and most of the rest from near Guadalajara. About 
half of the latter are cited as from the Great Barranca of the "Rio Grande de Lerma," 
and from elevations varying from 2500 to 3000 feet. The remainder are cited simply as 
from near the city, or from the "plains" of Guadalajara, or in a few instances from 
Chapala. I do not know the year of collection of the specimens from near Guadalajara, 
but in the Enumeratio the months are always given as December, January, or February 
for the species from Guadalajara, from Chapala, and from the localities (Ixtlan, Tepic, 
San Bias) west of Guadalajara. Judging from the little we know about the dates of his 
two trips, it seems likely that most of the plants were collected during the earlier one, 
in 1836-1837. 

Several new taxa were based by Martens and Galeotti on the latter's collections 
from Nueva Galicia, including Antigonon cinerascens, Buddleja pseudoverticillata, 
Erythraea tenuifolia, Evolvulus pilosissimus, Quamoclit coccinea var. hirsuta, and 
Quamoclit pedata. Among the ferns, new taxa were Cheilanthes Candida, Adiantum 
fragile var. pubescens, and Polypodium incanum var. fimbriatum. 

Galeotti's specimens have been widely distributed in the United States and in 
Europe. The first set (but by no means a complete one) is at Brussels, at the Jardin 

1 Enumeratio synoptica plantarum phanerogamicarum ab Henrico Galeotti in regionibus 
mexicanis collectarum; auctoribus M. Martens et H. Galeotti [title varies slightly]. Bull. Acad. Brux. 
9, pt. 1: 529-544. 1842; op. cit. 9, pt. 2: 32-47, 227-249, 372-393. 1842; op. cit. 10, pt. 
1: 110-134, 208-224, 341-360. 1843; op. cit. 10, pt. 2: 31-52, 178-200, 302-321. 1843; op. 
cit. 11, pt. 1: 121-137, 227-243, 355-376. 1844; op. cit. 11, pt. 2: 61-79, 185-196, 319-340. 
1844; op. cit. 12, pt. 1: 129-149. 1845; op. cit 12, pt. 2: 15-36, 257-278. 1845. 

Mdmoire sur les Foug^res du Mexique, et considerations sur la gdographie botanique de cette 
contr^e, par MM. M. Martens et H. Galeotti. Mdm, Acad. Brux. 15: 1-99. pi 1-23, 1842. 

2 cf. Biol. Centr. Am. Bot. 2: 213. 1881, and 3: 690. 1886. Hemsley cites here two collections 
from an elevation of 4000 feet, one from "Colima," the other from "Volcan de Colima." Probably 
these are from the same locality. 



Botanique National (BR). According to a report prepared by A. Cogniaux in 1875, 
there are at least 7297 numbered collections, of which no more than 4620 could be 
found at Brussels. The best duplicate sets, according to Cogniaux, were at Kew (K), 
Paris (P), and Vienna (W). 

Gentry, Howard Scott. As a plant explorer for the United States Department of 
Agriculture, Gentry worked in Mexico from late February until the end of the year 
1951, studying Dioscorea, Agave, Yucca, and other possible sources of cortisone. For a 
part of the time he was associated with Eugene C. Ogden and Charles L. Gilly. Their 
collections were principally of materials for propagation and for chemical analysis, but 
herbarium specimens were taken also, mainly as vouchers for the other mateirals. 
Collections were numbered in one continuous series including not only herbarium 
specimens but also living plants and materials for analysis. 

Gentry made a few collections in Jalisco in May (Tierra Blanca, May 17, nos. 
10464-10468; Tequila, and Plan de Barranca, May 19, nos. 10469-10478). He then 
proceeded to Tepic, where Gilly joined him on May 21. After several days of collecting 
near Tepic, Gentry and Gilly made a trip by automobile through southern Sinaloa to 
the highlands of Durango, returning to Tepic on June 17. They collected in Nayarit 
until July 15, when they returned to Guadalajara, and Gilly continued to Mexico City, 
which he reached July 23. Gentry continued by automobile to Autlan and to 
Tecomate, 32 miles southwest of that place; he then returned to Tepic by way of 
Guadalajara. The herbarium specimens taken by Gentry, and those collected jointly by 
Gentry and Gilly, were deposited in the Herbarium of the U.S. National Arboretum 
(USNA). The following general summary has been provided by Dr. Gentry: Gentry and 
Gilly collected on several occasions, between June 22 and July 15, along the road to 
Jalisco, Compostela, Mazatan, and Las Varas (Herbarium specimens representing 100 
numbers); similar short excursions were made along the road to Jalcocotan during the 
same period and also during their first visit in May (herbarium specimens representing 
60 numbers). Joint collections in all categories were as follows: Nayarit, May 22-26 
(nos. 10478-10513); Nayarit, June 22-July 15 (10644-10877); Jalisco, July 16-17 

Collections made by Gentry alone, after Gilly 5 s departure, were as follows: 
Between Cocula and Autlan, July 21—22 (nos. 10915 — 10941, including 17 numbers 
representing herbarium specimens); mountains southwest of Autlan, and lowlands as far 
west as Tecomate, July 23—26 (nos. 10942—11010, including 48 numbers representing 
herbarium specimens); Arroyo del Obispo, Nayarit, August 2 (nos. 1 1025—1 1031); 

Santa Maria del Oro, Nayarit, August 2 (nos. 11012-11024). 

On Gentry's return to Tepic he collected nos. 11037—11044, August 3, in the 
course of a last trip along the road to Compostela and Las Varas. He concluded his 
work in the Jalisco-Nay arit area with 13 additional collections in the vicinity of Tepic; 
the last number was 11052, taken on August 8. 

Ghiesbreght, Auguste Boniface (1810—1893). A Belgian botanist who lived many 
years in Mexico, Ghiesbreght is identified chiefly with the states of Chiapas and 
Tabasco. The best-known biographical sketch is that by Rovirosa. 1 There are a few 
records of specimens collected by Ghiesbreght at Colima, but I cannot substantiate 
these, and know nothing of the circumstances under which the collections may have 
been made. See, for example, the report of Aristolochia parduia (DC. Prodr. 15, pt. 
1: 450. 1865), and that of Cosmos sulphureus (Field Mus. Publ. Bot. 8: 409. 1932). 

The herbarium in Paris (P) contains many specimens collected by Ghiesbreght; 
most of them I have seen bear a printed label, with heading "HERB. MUS. PARIS.," 

^ovirosa, Josd N. Vida y trabajos del naturalista belga Augusto B. Ghiesbreght, explorador de 
Mdxico. Naturaleza II, 1: 211-217. 1891. 



and a line at bottom "Mexique-Province d'Oaxac^ M. Ghiesbreght. 1842." In this case 
1842 is almost certainly the date of receipt in Paris, not the date of collection; the 
practice of recording accessions in this way was common in Paris at this period. It is 
probable that this general printed label was distributed with the sets of Ghiesbreght's 
duplicates, without any attempt to add the real field data to the specimens. The 
specimens at Paris, however, commonly bear additional handwritten labels, often with 
precise information as to locality of collection. A sheet of Viguiera morelensis, for 
example, bears the "Oaxaca" label, with the hand-written locality "pres de Cuer- 
navaca." A specimen of Verbesina virgata from ''Oaxaca" is labelled "forets de pins sur 
le versant du Volcan de Toluca vers Cuernavaca." The extent of Ghiesbreght's travels 
into western Mexico is unknown to me but I have seen one specimen {Bolanosa 
coulteri) from Apatzingan, and there seems no reason to doubt that he collected near 
Colima also. 

Gilly, Charles Louis (1911-1970). With W. J. Bonisteel and Donald Dodds, Gilly 
collected in the State of Colima in March, 1943. Approximately 75 gatherings were 
distributed under the joint names of the three collectors. The principal collector was 
Gilly, but the serial numbers (1—75) are those of the joint collectors. Gilly began an 
independently numbered series of collections the same year, and began joint series with 
other collectors at about the same time, so that for precise identification of any given 
collection made by Gilly and his associates, one must cite the serial number and the 
names of all the collectors. Gilly's herbarium was purchased by the University of 
Michigan (MICH) in 1956. Most of the collections from the State of Colima were 
obtained near the city of the same name; a few came from the vicinity of Manzanillo. 
For additional collections made by Gilly, see under Gentry. 

Goldman, Edward Alphonso (1873—1946). See Nelson. 

Goldsmith, Peter Hair (1865-1926). Goldsmith, the minister of the First 
Unitarian Church in Salem, Massachusetts, undertook a trip to Mexico in the summer 
of 1905, primarily because of an interest in ethnology. He was aided by the Peabody 
Museum of Salem. As an incidental activity he took up botanical collecting. A 
collecting outfit was furnished for him by the Gray Herbarium, and he was authorized 
to collect plants at eight cents a specimen, "to include not more than five specimens 
of any one plant," the whole order not to exceed the sum of $100.00 (Robinson, 
letter of March 22, 1905). He was in Salem until at least June 20, 1905, when he went 
directly to Colima; his first collections were made at Hacienda San Marcos about July 
12. He obtained a total of 171 numbered collections, or 827 specimens in 1 — 14 sets 
(Gray Herb. Misc. Plant lists 7: 152—155). He ascended the Nevado de Colima to 
above timber line, then sometime about the middle of August went to Nayarit, where 
he collected in the foothills and in the valley of the Rio Jesus Maria until early 
September. A summary of his botanical collections, as far as known, follows: 

Hacienda San Marcos and vicinity, July 12-17 (nos. ?1— 33); east side of the Volcan de 
Colima, July 20-24 (8000-14000 feet; numerous collections are from Cuchilla, 10000-10500 
feet) (?34-85); Colima, July 28 (86); Hacienda San Bartolo, Tecomin, Colima, August 1 (94-99); 
Zapotldn, Jal., August 7-8 (91, 111-125); near Tepic, August 22 (126); near Pochotitlan, cari6n 

of Santiago River, 4000 feet, [Nayarit], August 23 (128); Coyultitas, Sierra Madre, "Tepic, 4000 
feet, August 24 (131); El Maguey, Sierra Madre, "Tepic," 2500 feet, August 26 (132); Can6n of 
Jesus Maria, "Tepic" (or Rio JesUs Maria), 1000 feet, August 29-September 4 (133-165); Juana 

Burra, "Tepic," 2000-4000 feet, September 5 (166-167); Cuesta de San Luisito, "Tepic," 4500 
feet, September 7 (168); Zapotlan (169); Los Bules, Caii6n de Jesiis Maria, 1400 feet, September 4 

Goldsmith's field-records, if any exist, have not been located, but evidently his 
numbers beginning with 128 were collected in the course of the trip described below. 
He went to Tepic primarily to carry out an expedition to the country of the Cora and 



Huichol Indians. This he accomplished successfully; I was informed by Dr. Ernest S. 
Dodge, then Director of the Peabody Museum, that their ethnological collections 
catalogued as numbers E8250 through E8445 were obtained by Dr. Goldsmith on this 
trip. He left Tepic apparently about August 22, and travelled northeasterly through 
Pochotitan, thence down and across the Rio Santiago, northeast to Coyoltita, and 
north to Guaynamota near the mouth of the Rio Jesus Maria. He ascended this river to 
the settlement of Jesus Maria, passing Los Bules en route. He collected at several 
localities, probably all small Indian settlements in this area, viz. El Maguey, San 
Luisito, Santa Barbara, Santa Rosa, Santa Clara, and La Mesa. The date of his return 
to Tepic is unknown to me. 

Gomez, Jose Perez. Guarda Forestal in Pihuamo. Collected pines in May 1938 or 
1939 for Professor Martinez; his collections from Pihuamo, from Cerro del Halo and 
from Tequila are cited by Martinez. His name is abbreviated by Martinez as J. P. 

Gomez y Gutierrez, Augustin. Longtime resident of Guadalajara, and author of 
the Flora silvestre del valle de Guadalajara (for which see the introduction to this 
paper). 1 am especially indebted to Ing. Gomez y Gutierrez for his help and guidance 
during the field-season of 1952. See McVaugh (1952). 

Graber, Richard R., and Jean Weber Graber. In the course of an ornithological 
trip in western Mexico in December, 1955, Dr. and Mrs. Graber collected approxi- 
mately 30 plant specimens, mostly in southern Nayarit. A set was presented to the 
University of Michigan (MICH) by Dr. B. L. Turner of the University of Texas (TEX), 
where the original set is preserved. Collections were made 2 miles east of Mazatan (11 
miles west of Compostela), December 25; 20 miles west of Compostela, December 
25-27; and 2.5-3 miles east of Las Varas, December 27-29. 

Graham, Shirley Ann (Tousch). Mrs. Graham travelled in Nueva Galicia in 1961 
and 1962, primarily to collect material for a revision of the genus Cuphea. The first set 
of her collections is at the University of Michigan (MICH). 

Graham, William Lyle. See McVaugh (1970). Graham also travelled to Nueva 
Galicia in July, 1971, primarily to collect material for a revision of the genus 
Dorstenia. The first set of his collections is at the University of Michigan (MICH). 

Gregg, Josiah (1806-1850). The author of the classic Commerce of the Prairies, 
Santa Fe trader, medical doctor, and amateur of botany, Gregg corresponded with his 
friend George Engelmann and sent to Engelmann many plant-specimens collected 
during his travels in Mexico, 1847-1849. Gregg served in a quasi-official capacity 
during the war between Mexico and the United States, practised medicine in Saltillo 
for a time, then finally decided to cross Mexico to the Pacific and travel thence to 
California. The "Diary and Letters of Josiah Gregg," edited by Maurice Garland Fulton 
(University of Oklahoma Press, 2 volumes, 1941, 1944), give a full and interesting 
account of the last decade of Gregg's life. The following summary is taken from 

volume 2, pp. 299—321. 

Gregg's party, consisting of himself and six other foreigners and a Mexican servant, 
left Mexico City on April 26, 1849. They reached Morelia, Michoacan, on May 3, and 
left on the 7th. Following a route nearly parallel to, but often somewhat north of, the 
modern highway, they reached Zamora and Ixtlan on the 13th of May. The following 
day Gregg visited the boiling springs near Ixtlan, and the party continued to La Barca, 
where they crossed the Rio Lerma on a ferry. On the 15th they crossed the river again 
near Ocotlan, and Gregg saw the Lake of Chapala from a convenient hill. The road led 
along the river as far as Atequiza, and thence to Guadalajara, which was reached on 

May 17. 



After a week in Guadalajara— with a delay occasioned by the death and burial of 
one of the party— travel was resumed on May 23. The route was almost that of the 
present highway to Tepic: Zapopan, Venta del Astillero, Rancho del Arenal (May 23); 
Amatitlan, Tequila, Magdalena (May 24); Quemada, Venta de Mochitiltic, Barrancas 
(May 25); Ixtlan, Mizpa [Mexpan] , Aguacatlan (May 26); a "malpais" [i.e. the recent 
lava-flows south of the volcano of Ceboruco] , Tititlan [Tetitlan] , Santa Isabel, 
Ocotillo (May 27); San Leonel, Tepic (May 28). 

Gregg's account shows a lively interest in the people and scenery along the route. 
He discussed briefly the manufacture of the famous mezcal of Tequila, and described 
at some length the impressive gorge at Las Barrancas. 

From Tepic the route led Gregg's party rapidly into the lowlands on May 31, by 
way of Hacienda de Ingenio (the notes say "310° 18 or 20 miles to Hac. de Ingenio"). 
On June 1 they forded the Rio Grande at Santiago, and made their way into the 

lowlands toward Mazatlan. 

Gregg's botanical specimens are numerous and well-documented, and many of 
those from northern Mexico have been studied and cited in taxonomic papers. His 
collections from southern and western Mexico, however, have received less attention 
and for the most part have not been critically studied. The principal set of his plants, 
comprising nos. 1—918 (collected in 1847), and a second series, nos. 1 — 1250 
(collected mostly in 1848 and 1849), formed a part of the Engelmann herbarium, now 
incorporated into that of the Missouri Botanical Garden (MO). No list of the 
collections was ever published, but Engelmann kept a summarized account of the 
numbers, dates and localities and, for part of the collection of 1848-49 (nos. 
668—1250), a copy of Gregg's original field-notes. The collections made in Nueva 
Galicia include approximately nos. 829 to 1100, so that field-notes are available for all 
his specimens from this area. These are in some cases quite detailed, and include not 
only descriptions and local names but also mention of medicinal and economic value. 
Unfortunately the botanical names of the species are not given, so that individual 
specimens cannot be located in the herbarium without some difficulty. I am indebted 
to the late Dr. Robert E. Woodson for permission to use the following abstracts from 
the manuscript materials in his care. The collections below are summarized by dates: 

May 13, 1849. Near Zamora, Michoacan (nos. 825-838). Ixtlan, Mich. (844). 

May 14. Near La Barca, Jalisco (839-841). 

May 15. Between La Barca and Ocotldn, Jal. (842); west of Ocotlan near Rio Grande (843). 

May 16. Near Atequiza, Jal. (845-851). 

May 17. Between San Antonio and Guadalajara, Jal. (852-853); dry plains east of Guadalajara 


May 21. Campo Santo, Guadalajara (858). 

May 23. West of Guadalajara (857, 859-862). 

May 24. Near Amatitan [Amatitlin], JaL (863-867); near Tequila, Jal. (868-873); west of 

Magdalena, Jal. (874). 

May 25. West of Magdalena (875-883); east, of Barrancas, JaL (884-885, 889-890); 

Mochitilte, Jal. (886-888); Barrancas (891-897, 1250). 

May 26. Barrancas (898-913); near La Cirata, [Nayarit?] (914); Ixtlan, Nay. (915-916); near 
Mezpa [Mexpan], Nay. (917-924); Aguacatlan, Nay. (925-927, 941); west of Aguacatldn 
(942-947); Malpais ("heaps of volcanic rocks") (948). 

May 27. West of Aguacatldn, Nay. (928-940, 994-995); Tetitlan, Nay. (949-952). 

May 28. Ocotillo, Nay. (953-962); mountains east of San Leonel, Nay. (963-979); west of 
San Leonel (980-984). 

May 29. Tepic, Nay. (985-988); mountain near Tepic (989-993, 1246). 

May 30. Tepic (996-997). 

May 31. West of Tepic (998-1014). 

June 1. West of Ingenio, Nay. (1015-1025, 1034-1041); Ingenio (1026); valley of Rio 
Grande east of Santiago, Nay. (1027-1033, 1042-1043, 1047-1069); highlands east of Santiago 


June 2. Near Santiago (1070-1074); north of Santiago, to San Pedro, Nay. (1075-1090). 



Gregory, David P., and George Eiten. These collectors obtained 260 numbers in 
Jalisco and Colima in June and July, 1956, traveling principally by automobile in the 
area south of Guadalajara. A set of the specimens was presented by the collectors to 
the University of Michigan (MICH), and other sets have been distributed to the 
Missouri Botanical Garden (MO), the Instituto de Biologia (MEXU), and elsewhere. The 
first collections (nos. 72-117) were made June 17—18 in the pine forests southwest of 
Mazamitla. Following a return to Guadalajara, collections were made June 20—23 as 
follows: barrancas northeast of the city (118-144); Garden of Clemen Court, west of 
the city (145); Cerro del Colli (146-153); barrancas (154-180). Some plants were 
taken here near the electric power station at the summit, along the burro trail to the 
river, and on the north side of the river downstream from the Puente de Arcediano. 
On June 25-28 the collectors worked on Cerro Viejo, along the trail leading up from 
Zapotitan; they obtained nos. 181-186 (June 25) and 201-204 (June 27) in 
cultivated fields on the lower slopes (elevations of 1730-1840 m.). On June 26 they 
ascended from the village, taking nos. 187—200 in or near a shallow wooded ravine 
through which the trail passes, at elevations of 1840-1880 m. On June 27 they 
collected nos. 205-235 at elevations between 1830-2200 m., and nos. 237-256 from 
the upper slopes, 2300—2800 m. No. 236 was obtained from a barnyard in Zapotitan. 

On June 30 no. 257 was collected on the roadside between Zacoalco and Sayula, 
and on July 1-2 nos. 258-308 in the course of an ascent of the north side of the 
Nevado de Colima to a point a few hundred meters from the summit. Nos. 258-276 
(July 1) came from the pine forests of the northeast side, at elevations of 2700-2800 
m. On July 2 the collectors ascended by auto to a point where the road became 
impassable (2360 m.), and continued on foot to the end of the lumber road, and 
beyond it on cow trails to the summit of the ridge (3330 m.); Gregory descended to a 
trailside hut (probably La Joya) and thence ascended the slope to the peak, where he 
obtained nos. 297-306. Nos. 277-296 and 307-308 came from the forests at 
elevations from 2360-3300 m. 

Later collections were nos. 309-334, taken along the shore in the vicinity of 
Manzanillo, July 11-12, and nos. 335-336, taken at Ciudad Guzman on July 16. 

See also Straw. 

Griffiths, David (1867-1935). Griffiths, of the United States Department of 
Agriculture, specialist in the genus Opuntia and in certain groups of grasses, visited 
Jalisco on at least two occasions, and made collections which are for the most part in 
the United States National Herbarium. The type of Opuntia fuliginosa, Griffiths 7715, 
was collected in April 1905 at Guadalajara, and is in the herbarium of the Missouri 
Botanical Garden. 1 The author notes 1 that "the original description was drawn at 
Estansuela in western Jalisco, from plants in bloom. This was subsequently compared 
with plants at Guadalajara, and still further amended by a second visit to the latter 
place during maturity of the fruit." 

Griffiths was in Jalisco again in 1909. He collected specimens of Agave at Tequila 
and at least two species of Bouteloua at El Llano, 2 the latter September 16-19. 

Guzman H., G. See Muller. 

Harshberger, John William (1869-1929). Harshberger, a professor at the Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania, made a trip to Mexico in 1896. 3 He botanized near Mexico City 
and in Veracruz, August 12-31. On September 1, "Left the City of Mexico alone en 
route for Guadalajara via Irapuato, where a number of days (September 2d to 

*Rep. Missouri Bot. Gard. 19: 262. 1908. 

^Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 23; 116, 117. 1920; op. cit. 14: 426, 427. 1912. 
Harshberger, John W. Botanical observations on the Mexican flora, especially on the flora of 
the Valley of Mexico. Proc. Acad. Philadelphia 1898: 372-413. 1898. 


September 5th) were spent. The celebrated barranca was visited in company with an 
Indian, and a number of plants collected." Harshberger's herbarium was given to the 
University of Pennsylvania (PENN). 

Hartweg, Karl Theodor (1812-1871). A native of Germany and a gardener in the 
employ of the Horticultural Society of London, Hartweg was sent by that society to 
Mexico to collect ornamental plants suitable for British gardens. He was at the same 
time allowed, under certain restrictions, to furnish on his own account sets of dried 
specimens for those who should subscribe to them through the Society. He made large 
collections of herbarium specimens, which have been widely distributed in Europe and 
the United States. The collection as a whole was enumerated and the novelties 
described by Bentham, 1 and the principal set of specimens is in the Benthamian 
herbarium at Kew (K). The following account has been adapted from that in the 
introduction to the 1970 reprint of Plantae Hartwegianae. Much of what is known 
about the details of Hartweg's travels in Mexico has been derived from his own 
published notes (Trans. Hort. Soc. London II. 3: 115-162. 1844-1845; Jour. Hort. 
Soc. London 1: 180-185, 2: 121-125, 187-191; 3: 217-228. 1846-1848), and from 
his letters and reports preserved in the Library of the Royal Horticultural Society. 

After landing at Veracruz early in December 1836, Hartweg made his way by easy 
journeys to Zacuapan and Jalapa, which latter place he reached on December 28. He 
soon moved on by stagecoach to Mexico City and then to Guanajuato. He spent a 
week in Silao with an acquaintance, then made an excursion to a mountain called El 
Gigante, "the highest point of the range of mountains of Guanajuato"; this peak is 
about 15 kilometers north-northwest of the city of Guanajuato, and reaches an 
elevation of about 2936 m. By the 13th of April Hartweg was in Leon, where he 
seems to have established a temporary headquarters. On June 17 he was in Lagos, 
Jalisco, whence [he wrote] : "After a month's fruitless wandering, I left, on the 13th 
of July for Aguas Calientes." Here, he said, "I found a little more occupation." 
Probably unwittingly, Hartweg had come to the highlands of Guanajuato in the 
height of the dry season, which here as in much of western Mexico begins in October 
or November and ends in June or July. Although he found the area "parched and 
barren," he made a considerable collection in the vicinity of Guanajuato in the early 
spring, then (as indicated by the citations in Plantae Hartwegianae), he obtained 
approximately 70 collections from the vicinity of Leon and 22 from Lagos. In a stay 
of two months near Aguascalientes, where he must have encountered the summer rains, 
he obtained about 130 numbered collections of herbarium specimens. 

In search of a more productive field of operations, Hartweg left Aguascalientes on 
September 22, to visit the mining center at Bolahos, Jalisco, which Coulter had visited 
in December, a decade earlier. Hartweg arrived on October 4, 1837, at a most 
favorable time of the year for botanical collections. His route thither from Aguas- 


calientes I do not know; several established routes were open to him. He may have 
gone in the direction of Zacatecas as far as Rincon de Romos before turning westward 
toward Villanueva, whence a route turned southwestward toward Colotlan and Bolahos. 
Another likely route was open by way of San Juan de los Lagos, Mextiacan, 
Nochistlan, Juchipila and Tlaltenango. Bolahos in 1837 was relatively far more 
accessible than it is now, because travel by pack-train was the accepted method of 
freighting everywhere in the mountains, and pack-roads were kept open. One of the 
alternative roads from Zacatecas to Guadalajara in Hartweg's time came through 
Colotlan, Tlaltenango, San Juan del Teul [here approximately 40 kilometers east of 
Bolahos] , and crossed the barranca at San Cristobal, north of Guadalajara. With the 

bentham, George. Plantae Hartwegianae, pp. iv, 393. 1839-1857. Facsimile reprint (Hist. 
Nat. Class. LXXX) 1970, by J. Cramer, Lehre, with introduction (pp. 1-102) by Rogers McVaugh. 



decline in importance of the mines at Bolanos, and the difficulty of maintaining 
automobile traffic across the barranca of the Rio Grande, there is little intercourse 
today between Bolanos and the capital, Guadalajara. The only practical access is by 
way of Zacatecas, and even this way traffic is limited to trucks in the dry season and 
pack-animals in the wet. For an account of Mexican roads and itineraries in 
mid-nineteenth century, the reader is referred to the work by Jose J. Alvarez and 
Rafael Duran, "Itinerarios y Derroteros de la Repiiblica Mexicana" (Mexico, 1856, pp. 

The settlement of Bolanos was in the arid river valley, and as Hartweg was 
primarily interested in plants of the higher elevations he at once took advantage of an 
opportunity to get into the mountains west of the river, where at about 8000 feet he 
found fine forests of oak, pine, and various Ericaceae, near "Berberea, the Mining 
Company's wood cutting establishment," which he reached, as he wrote, "after a four 
leagues' ride, and constant ascent." It was apparently on this same trip, in November 
or December, that Hartweg visited the Huichol Indians ["Indiens Guicholes"] , as 
reported by Lasegue. Specimens of approximately 41 species, about half of which were 
new to science, were obtained by Hartweg in the vicinity of Bolanos. This seems a 
meagre collection in view of the fact that he was there at the height of the growing 
season. He left Bolanos on January 10, 1838, and reached Zacatecas 4 days later. After 
about six weeks near Zacatecas, he left on February 26 for San Luis Potosi, in which 
state he passed the remainder of the winter but where he collected little. On April 10, 
wishing to collect seeds of certain plants that had been immature at the time of his 
previous visits, he set out again for Zacatecas and Bolanos; from the latter place he 
made a quick trip to Guadalajara, then returned to Bolanos, Zacatecas, and Aguas- 
calientes. At this point, according to Hemsley, "This region proving almost fruitless 
for his purposes, Hartweg went direct to Morelia, the capital of Michoacan. . . ." 
Hartweg himself wrote that, receiving "hardly any recompense" for his last trips, he 
proceeded to Morelia, where he arrived late in June. 

On Hartweg's second visit to America he spent six months in Mexico on the way 
to his destination in California. He seems not to have collected any herbarium 
specimens in Mexico on this trip, but he sent back to England several boxes of living 
plants from Nayarit, where he spent the winter season of 1845-1846. He left 
Queretaro by stage on December 19, reached Guadalajara on the 25th, and Tepic on 
January 1, 1846. While waiting for his luggage to arrive from Mexico, he spent about 
two months exploring the surrounding countryside, visiting Cerro San Juan (early in 
January), Volcan Ceboruco, via Ocotillo and Uzeta (ca. January 8-12), Compostela 
and the villages Amatanejo and Los Reyes (Jalisco) across the Rio de Ameca (January 
20-25), San Bias (February), and the Rio Grande de Santiago (February). He left for 
San Bias and Mazatlan on March 14. 

The living plants sent to Europe by Hartweg began to be described and figured in 
the botanical literature within a few months after he began to collect in Mexico in 
1836. Plantae Hartwegianae deals only with herbarium specimens; Bentham did not 
attempt to describe and enumerate the novelties among the living material, but Lindley 
and various other authors did so. Neither the value nor the fate of the horticultural 
collections is easy to trace in detail, as the collections of seeds and other propagules 
were distributed upon arrival to the members of the Horticultural Society, and 
eventually became widely dispersed. Of the 5 or 6 boxes of seeds, pine cones, orchids, 
and other perennials that resulted from his work near Tepic in 1846, most reached 
England in good condition. During his first trip to Mexico he packed and sent to 
England 43 boxes of living plants, and although delays were sometimes unduly long, 
something was salvaged from almost every box. 

Hay, Robert. See Rose (1901). 


Hernandez Xolocotzi, Efraim. Hernandez, a member of the faculty of the Escuela 
Nacional de Agricultura, Chapingo, Mexico, has collected on several different visits to 
Nueva Galicia. For the most part his specimens have been taken in connection with his 
work on agriculturally oriented projects, e.g. the cultivation of castor bean; the 
potential production of the native oil-palm, Orbignya; study of diseases of native 
grasses and legumes; selection of profitable strains of cultivated wheat, corn, and beans, 
etc. His first visit was from November, 1943 to January, 1944, when he collected nos. 
1-73 in northern Nayarit, 113-120 near Manzanillo, Colima, and 121-146 near the 
coast between Miramar and San Bias. In May and June, 1946, he collected nos. 
X-1538-X-1586, mostly in northern Nayarit north of our area. In September of the 
same year he collected nos. X-2461-X-2774, chiefly along the highway between 
Ojuelos and Guadalajara, and near the latter city; most of the collections were of 
grasses or legumes. In May 1947 he collected seeds of cultivated plants, nos. 
X-3324-X-3356, visiting Juanacatlan, Sayula, Tapalpa, and Ciudad Guzman. In 
September and October, 1948, he collected (mostly Tripsacum and other grasses), 
chiefly along the highway between Tepic and Tepatitlan, including nos. 
X-3717-X-3747 in the Barranca de Oblatos, X-3748-X-3757 in Nayarit, 
X-3758-X-3763 near Tequila, and X-3780-X-3792 east of Guadalajara. In December, 
1949, he collected widely in Jalisco and Nayarit, taking almost all grasses (nos. 
X-4603-X-4701), chiefly from near the highway between San Juan de los Lagos and 
San Bias, from that between Guadalajara and Autla'n, and from a locality between Los 

Volcanes and Talpa (nos. X-4673-X-4678). 

In 1960 Professor Hernandez accompanied the University of Michigan expedition 
from September 16 through October 1; see McVaugh (1960). 

The principal sets of herbarium specimens collected by Hernandez have been 
distributed as follows: Legumes to Gray Herbarium (GH); Grasses, to U.S. National 
Herbarium (US) and Gray Herbarium, and to the herbarium of the Escuela Nacional de 
Agricultura (ENA); general collections to the Instituto de Biologia, Mexico (MEXU). A 
set of the 1943-44 collections is at the Univeristy of Michigan (MICH). 

Hill, Jane (Hassler). As a part of an ethnobotanical study, Mrs. Hill made a 
collection of about 60 numbers in the Municipio de Aquila, in January, 1962. Most of 
the specimens were from the valley of the Rio de Ostula, and near the village of 
Ostula. The plants were distributed by the University of California, Los Angeles 
(UCLA); a partial set is at the University of Michigan (MICH). 

Hinds, Richard Brinsley ( -d. before 1861). The account of the botany of 
the voyage of H. M.S. Sulphur 1 was nominally edited by Hinds, who was described on 
the title-page as a Navy Surgeon "attached to the expedition." Hooker and Arnott (in 
the Botany of Captain Beechey's Voyage) imply that Sinclair (q.v.) was the surgeon 

actually on duty in the Sulphur. 

The "botanical descriptions" in the "Botany of the Sulphur" are attributed to 
George Bentham, and in fact the entire work is that of Bentham except for notes on 
itineraries contributed by Hinds to the early fascicles (pp. 1-5, 58-63). According to 
a statement on page 182, Hinds had no connection with the work except for the first 

four parts (pages 1-96). 

Bentham states (Bot. Sulph. 182) that "The principal collection placed in his 
hands was that made by the Editor himself, Mr. Hinds, through whose liberality the 
original specimens have been deposited in the subscriber's herbarium. This extends over 
the whole of the stations mentioned in the work." 

botany of the voyage of H. M. S. Sulphur, under the command of Captain Sir Edward 
Belcher, ... 1836-1842. Edited and superintended by Richard Brinsley Hinds, ... The botanical 
descriptions by George Bentham, Esq. pp. 1-195, pi. 1-60. London, 1844-1846. 



Some remarks concerning the collections of Sinclair are equally applicable to those 
of Hinds: The specimens, now at Kew, are mostly undated, without data except for 
mention of locality and collector. Apparently there is no mention of Hinds in Barclay's 
journal, and I have not learned anything about his collecting activities from other 
sources, so that little can be said about his Mexican collections other than the 

If Hinds collected plants in Colima or Nayarit, it was presumably during one of 
the times when the Sulphur was in port. She stopped in Manzanillo Bay, according to 
Barclay's journal, from about May 17 to May 21, 1837; she lay at San Bias from May 
28 to June 5, 1837, from December 20, 1837 to January 3, 1838, and again from 
December 4 to December 21, 1839. 

Approximately 265 species were reported by Bentham from Mexico, including 
about 100 each from Acapulco and Tepic, 23 from "Manzanilla Bay," 12 from San 
Bias, 8 between San Bias and Tepic, 3 from "San Bias and Tepic," and 28 without 
locality except "Mexico." About 40 species from Mexico were proposed as new to 
science, including 15 from Nayarit and 6 from "Manzanilla Bay." Since the name of 
the collector is ordinarily not mentioned for individual species described in the 
"Botany of the Sulphur," it is impossible to state how much Hinds had to do 
personally with the collections. It is not clear, for example, whether Hinds, Barclay or 
Sinclair was primarily responsible for the relatively large amount of material collected 
at Tepic, since apparently all three men made the trip there from San Bias. For 
individual collections the name of the collector can usually be ascertained by reference 
to the herbarium at Kew. 

Hinton, George Boole (1883-1943). An English mining engineer, Hinton lived 
many years in Mexico and made large collections, especially in the States of Mexico, 
Michoacan and Guerrero, from the year 1932 forward. His activities were noted, and 
his collections were cited and described, in various publications but especially in the 
Kew Bulletin, from 1934 (Kew Bull. 1933: App. 32. 1934) to 1939, and in some later 
articles. The first set of his collections is at Kew (K), and comprises some 14,500 
numbers (Kew Bull. 13: 155. 1958). After his death the collecting was continued by 
his son James Hinton, to whom I am indebted for much of the specific information 
that follows. Eventually about 18,000 numbers were included in the Hinton herbarium. 
Many duplicates have been distributed, both in America and in Europe, and several 
hundred new species have been based on his collections, most of which came from 
localities not readily accessible to plant-collectors. 

In his later years plant-collecting became a full-time occupation for Hinton, and he 
was assisted from June, 1937, to June, 1941, by his son James. All the specimens were 
serially numbered in order of collection, and distributed with a label headed 
"Herbarium of George B. Hinton," the collector's name usually given merely as "H. et 
al." On some occasions two parties collected in different areas during the same 
field-season, at which time blocks of different collection-numbers were assigned to each 
party. In 1938, for example, James Hinton collected in eastern Michoacan, mostly in 
the vicinity of Zitacuaro and as far south as Huetamo, from June to November. The 
collections were assigned nos. 11800-11999, and 13000-13570. During the same 
season, from August 1938 to the end of the year, and through the year 1939, George 
B. Hinton collected in western Michoacan at the edge of Nueva Galicia, using the series 
12000-12999, 13600-13999, and 15000-15392. During the autumn season of 1940, 
from October to December, James Hinton collected on Cerro Tancitaro (nos. 
15435-15735). From March 1941 to January 1942, George B. Hinton collected 
mostly in the mountains and lowlands between Coalcoman and the Pacific Coast (nos. 
15742-16063, 16082-16313). The total number of collections from western 
Michoacan seems to have been slightly more than 2000. 


Following is a generalized resume of the work of the Hintons in western 
Michoacan in 1938—39. The data are derived from herbarium specimens, and in part 
from a nearly complete set of labels maintained by Mr. James Hinton: 

Apatzingan and Acahuato (nos. 12000-12071, August 12-17, 1938); Buenavista Tomatlan 
and Tepalcatepec (12072-12118, August 22-27); vicinity of Coalcoman and Villa Victoria 
(12127-12531, September 5-November 8); trip to Villa Victoria, Sierra Naranjillo, Huizontla, and 
Aquila (12532-12687, November 10-26); vicinity of Coalcoman (Puerto Zarzamora, Sierra Torre- 
cillas,etc.) (12688-12999, November 27-February 24, 1939); vicinity of Coalcoman (13600-13728, 
March 6-April 28); trip to Villa Victoria, Sierra Naranjillo, Chacalapa (713729-13799, Mav 5-June 
15); vicinity of Coalcoman (13800- 13999, June 16-July 25);vicinity of Coalcomdn (15000 f -15144, 

July 25-September 2); trip to Aguililla and Ortigal (15145-715254, 715286-15337, September 
11-October 71, October 76-16); Sierra Torrecillas (15255-15285, October 4-5); El Barroloso 
(15339-15386, October 20-26); Aguililla, El Purucho, etc. (15387-15390, October 26-November 


In October and November, 1940, James Hinton collected on Cerro Tancitaro, from 
a base at the village of Tancitaro at about 2300 m elevation. He worked in all 
directions from the village, climbing many times to the summit of the mountain, and 
collecting nos. 15435-15735, mostly at elevations of 2000 m and above. 

In 1941, collecting began March 1, near Coalcoman, and continued to January 16, 
1942. A few collections were taken in Aguililla and Apatzingan, but most of the 
specimens were from the lowlands (Huizontla, Coahuayana, Aquila, Ostula, Coire, 
Pomaro, Cachan, Tizupan). The numbers ran from 15742-16313, except that a series 
from about 16064-16081 were taken in Temascaltepec (Estado de Mexico). 

As remarked by Brand (1960, p. 231), some of the Hintons' localities are not easy 
to locate on ordinary maps. It was their practice to note on the label of each specimen 
not only the precise locality of collection, but also the name of the "Distrito," a 
political subdivision no longer used in Mexico. In western Michoacan most of the 
Hinton collections came from the District of Coalcoman (including localities in the 
modern municipios of Coalcoman, Chinicuila, Coahuayana and Aquila) or from the 
District of Apatzingan (including localities in the municipios of Tancitaro, Apatzingan, 
Buenavista, Tepalcatepec, and Aguililla). The mountain mass of Cerro Tancitaro, now 
included in the municipality of Tancitaro, was formerly a part of the District of 
Uruapan. Abbreviated references to "Coalcoman" alone, to "Uruapan," or to 
Apatzingan," in literature citing the Hinton collections, should be accepted with 

Hitchcock, Albert Spear (1865-1935). The Agrostologist of the United States 
Department of Agriculture, Hitchcock made a trip to Mexico in the summer of 1910 
to investigate forage conditions and collect specimens of the grasses. He later published 
technical and popular reports on his work. 2 He travelled principally by rail, with 
excursions to points of interest. In Jalisco and Colima he collected in September, at 
about fifteen localities along the railroad between Guadalajara and Manzanillo, with 
excursions into the Barranca de Oblatos and to the summit of the Nevado de Colima 
(this from Zapotlan). The published summary of his "places visited, and the numbers 
of the specimens collected" (Scient. Monthly 8: 138) does not agree in details with the 
information published in his "Mexican grasses." The following summary is taken from 
the data in the latter work: 

La Junta, Jal. (nos. 6996-7001); Valencia, Jal. (7003-7005); Jala, Col. (7007-7014); Caleras, 
Col. (7015-7020); Armeria, Col. (7021-7025); Manzanillo, Col. (7026-7046); Armeria (7047); 
Tecomdn, Col. (7048); Manzanillo (7049); Jala (7050); Colima, Col. (7051%); Coquimatldn, Col. 
(7052-7053); Alzada, Col. (7054-7110); Zapotldn, Jal. (7111-7147); Nevado de Colima and 
along trail from Zapotkin (7148-7168); Zapotlin (7169-7180); San Nicolds, Jal. (7181-7235); 



*Nos. 14000-14999 were collected in Guerrero by 
^Mexican grasses in the U.S. National Herbarium. Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 17: 181-389. 1913; 
A botanical trip to Mexico. I. Scient. Monthly 8: 129-145; II. op. cit. 8:216-238. 1919. 



ZapotWn (7237-7259); Guadalajara and near San Pedro (7260-7320); Barranca de Oblatos 
(7321-7370); Orozco, Jal. (7371-7386). On October 2, after finishing his work in Jalisco, 
Hitchcock collected nos. 7439-7494 near the City of Aguascalientes. 

The grasses collected by Hitchcock are in the National Herbarium (US), and some 
duplicates have been distributed. Almost all the numbers are cited in his "Mexican 

Hitchcock, C. Leo. Professor Hitchcock, of the University of Washington, led a 
group of 30 students on a field-trip by automobile, to Mexico during the summer of 
1940. They were in Mexico a month (June 29 to July 28). Collections in our area 
were made as follows, all on one trip from Mexico City to Guadalajara: Mountainside 
above the east end of Lake Chapala, (Michoacan), 14 July (nos. 7157-7162); sandy 
shore at the west end of Lake Chapala, Jalisco, 14 July (7163—7170); hills south of 
Lake Chapala, Jalisco or Michoacan, 16 July (7171-7174). The specimens were 
distributed under the joint names of Hitchcock and L. R. Stanford. Additional 
collections were made in Michoacan, east of our area, July 13—17 (nos. 7133—7155, 
7175—7180, 7204—7216). Duplicates were distributed from the University of Washing- 
ton (WTU). 

Holway, Edward Willet Dorland (1853—1923). Holway travelled extensively in 
Mexico and in Central and South America, primarily to study the fungi (Uredinae) that 
were his special interest. He collected numerous flowering plants, however, partly in 
connection with the identification of fungi, and partly because of his interest in the 
vascular flora. The vascular plants he collected in Mexico were sent for identification 
to J. N. Rose or to B. L. Robinson, and accordingly may be found at present either in 
the U.S. National Herbarium (US) or in the Gray Herbarium (GH). Holway's own 
herbarium, with his library and correspondence, is maintained separately at the 
University of Minnesota (MIN). 1 

Gray Herbarium records (Misc. Plant Lists, volume 6, pp. 304-307, 329, 
358—360) show that they received from Holway 66 specimens from Mexico collected 
in 1898 (numbered from 3000 to 3235), 106 specimens collected in 1899 (nos. A, X, 
3169, 3411—3767, not inclusive), and 10 specimens of Mimosa collected in 1903 (nos. 
5086, 5213—5368, not inclusive, and A). Probably by no means all of these are from 
Jalisco, although Holway is reported to have visited that state in all of the years in 
question. In 1899 he spent several days (at least September 18-23) in the vicinity of 
Chapala; his numbers include part or all of the series 3416—3488. In 1903, after Rose 
and Painter had left for Mexico City on October 7, Holway made a trip by rail, south 
at least as far as Sayula (October 8) and Zapotlan (October 9). He collected near 
Guadalajara on October 12, then went directly to Mexico City, which place he left on 
the 14th to join Rose for an ascent of the Nevado de Toluca. His collections in 1903 
include, in addition to those noted above, numbers from about 5090 to 5200, not 
inclusive. See a note by Rose (Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 8: 281. 1905). 

Hoogstraal, Harry. See Leavenworth. 

Hooper, Emmet Thurman. In March, 1953, Hooper, a mammalogist from the 
University of Michigan, collected a few plants in the Sierra Fria, at a locality estimated 
to be 15 miles (24 km) west of Presa Calles, at an elevation of 2400—2500 m. 

Hoover, David Beall. See McVaugh (1951). 

Horton, Ovid B. See California, University of. 

Hough, Walter. See Rose (1899). 

Science II, 59: 139-140. 1924. 


Howell, John Thomas. The Templeton Crocker Expedition of the California 
Academy of Sciences, on its return from the Galapagos Islands in July, 1932, touched 
at several places in our area. Howell, the botanist of the expedition, collected herbarium 
specimens as follows: Manzanillo, July 18 (10293-10295); Puerto Vallarta, July 
20-21 (10296-10363); PuntaMita, July 22 (10364-10400). The specimens are in the 
herbarium of the Academy (CAS). I am indebted to Mr. Howell for the above 

litis, Hugh Hellmut. In July and August, 1960, assisted by Robert Koeppen and 
Frank litis, Professor litis of the University of Wisconsin made a collection of more 
than 1300 numbers in southern Mexico. About 250 numbers were obtained in Jalisco 
and Colima, mostly along the highway from Jiquilpan to Manzanillo, but also in part 
from the mountains near Tapalpa. The first set of the specimens is at the University of 
Wisconsin (WIS), and a partial set of duplicates is at the University of Michigan 


Jackson, Raymond Carl. Jackson made a trip in the summer of 1957, "through 
various parts of Mexico and the Gulf Coast Area of the United States," primarily to 
study and collect material of the genus Iva. He collected briefly in Aguascalientes. 1 His 
specimens are at the University of Kansas (KANU). 

Johnson, Miles F. Johnson travelled in Jalisco and Nayarit in 1966, primarily to 
collect materials for a revision of the genus Ageratum. The first set of his collections is 
at the University of Minnesota (MIN). 

Johnston, Marshall Conring. In 1955 this collector traveled widely by automobile 
in northern Mexico and collected numerous herbarium specimens as part of a survey of 
certain oil-bearing plants. On July 13 he passed through the corner of Jalisco on the 
way to Aguascalientes, and collected nos. 2655-2656B about 10 miles southeast of 
Lagos de Moreno. On a second trip to Mexico he approached the Jalisco area from the 
north, and made collections as follows: 13 miles south of Aguascalientes, near the 
Jalisco line, October 2 (nos. 2856-2858); 3 miles north of Encarnacion de Diaz, 
October 2 (2859-2864); 3 miles southeast of Encarnacion de Diaz, October 2 
(2865-2872); 10-14 miles northwest of Lagos, October 2 (2873-2877); 6-10 miles 
southeast of Lagos near the Guanajuato line, October 2 (2878-2880); Guanajuato, 6 
miles northwest of Leon, October 2 (2881A-2882C); [nos. 2883-2902 collected, 
October 2-5, in Guanajuato, Queretaro and Mexico] ; Jalisco, or on the Guanajuato 
line, between Leon and Lagos, October 5 (2903-2910). Most of the approximately 43 
collections from Nueva Galicia were representatives of Leguminosae or of Compositae. 
The best set of the specimens is at the University of Texas (TEX); other sets are at the 
Instituto de Biologia (MEXU) and at Southern Methodist University (SMU). 

Jones, Gwilym. With Professor J. Dan Webster of Hanover College, Jones 
collected in southern Zacatecas in 1964. A small set of specimens is at the University 
of Michigan (MICH). 

Jones, Marcus Eugene (1852-1934). In the words of C. V. Morton (Contr. U.S. 
Nat. Herb. 29:87. 1945), Marcus Jones "was an eminent collector whose specimens, 
usually well prepared, have been of great usefulness in making known the flora of the 
western United States. Also he published valuable notes and descriptions in many 
families of plants, particularly the Polygonaceae, Nyctaginaceae, and Liliaceae. He is 
well known also for his monograph of the difficult genus Astragalus of the 

^niv. Kansas Sci. Bull. 41: 800. 1960; Brittonia 15: 267. 1963 



Jones received his main support for many years from practical survey and assay 
work in field geology, and pursued his botany as an intensely absorbing avocation. He 
made three trips to Nueva Galicia, the first of which was in 1892. He became seriously 
interested in the flora of Mexico at a relatively late age, when in 1926 he began a 
series of collecting trips to that country. As a result of these trips he published a large 
number of new species based on his own collections. His work on Mexican 
phanerogams has been summarized by Morton, in the article cited above, and by Blake 
in a companion paper (op. cit. 117—137). To quote again from Morton, Jones' "work 
on the Mexican flora is poor and, in fact one is forced to say, comparable in quality 
only to that of Leveille on the flora of China." 

Jones' most important contribution to our knowledge of the flora of Nueva 
Galicia resulted from his trip of 1892, which was undertaken on behalf of General 
Wm. J. Palmer, 1 in order to inspect and report on various mining properties. In the 
course of this trip Jones visited a series of localities in a rather inaccessible area 
southwest of Lake Chapala. He made numerous collections in this area, and these are 
of unique interest for, as far as I am aware, the area has never been visited by any 
other botanist. Jones' diary covering this period is quoted below in full, with the kind 
permission of Dr. Lyman Benson of Pomona College. I have supplied dates and some 
comments which are inclosed in square brackets; otherwise the material is exactly as 
Jones wrote it. 

May 22, Sunday. Spent the day at Irapuato. Visited the plaza & market place. Saw (at hotel) the first 
really fat Mexican ladies, very fat like Mrs. Houghton. 

23 Mon. Strawberries .50 Wrote to Anna; Wrote to Lulu, etc. Left Irapuato for Guadalajara at 9 
a.m. Reached G. at 4.45 p.m. Rode over the most fertile region 1 ever saw in Mex. Alt. 5400 G. 
is the finest city in Mex. that I have seen. 

24 Tues. Express on boxes 17.00. 2 dozen photo plates 8.00. Cargador .12. Visited various 
individuals. Bought 2 doz. photo plates and developed 5. Called on the governor Mr. Wigand was 
very helpful. Stamps $1.00. 

25 Wed. Left Guadalajara at 4.00 a.m. & went to Sayula. This is a pretty place by a lake among 
the lava mountains. Fruit .25 

26 Thurs. Stayed at Sayula all day to see various people and get outfit for Tapalpa etc. Got a 
moso & 4 mules. 

27 Fri. Left Sayula at 6 a.m. for Tapalpa. The ascent to 9000° alt. on the mts. is steep. Went 
from Tapalpa to Ferreria in p.m. Saw the good iron works at Ferreria. Slept there. The manager 
was very kind. 

28 Sat. Left Ferreria for Chiquilistlan and reached there in p.m. with guide. Visited Mr. Vasques 
the [owner? word illegible] of the mines at C. He is a very pleasant man. 

29 Sun. Spent Sunday quietly. Market day. 

30 Mon. Left for the mines of Vasques saw 3 or 4 and slept at the Santa Maria. Fine scenery and 
deep canons. 

31 Tues. Returned from the Santa Maria mine & visited Vasques hacienda in p.m. 

June 1, Wednesday. Left Chiquilistlan for Salsillo with guide. Saw one iron mine & 2 mercury 
mines. Slept at a ranch there. Rained at night. First rain of the season. 

2 Thurs. Went over from Salsillo and saw the rest of the mercury mines and the "Colorado" iron. 
Then returned to Chiquilistlan and went over near the Santoninia mines and saw another iron 
mine, on the opposite (n.) side of the river. Got caught in a hard rain in the night returning. Got 
back at 9.30 o'c p.m. 

3 Fri. Clear & bright after the rain. Wrote to Anna. Have also letters for Miss Winston [?] and 
father but cant send them yet. Left Chiquilistlan for Santa Cruz, traveled all day, & stopped for 
the night at a ranch 6 m. east. Country very rugged & breaks down to the west. No rain but 

June 4, Sat. Reached Santa Cruz at 10 o'c a.m. Visited 3 mines in p.m. No good. Alt. 2650°. No 

5 Sun. Spent the day very quietly. Went down to the river to bathe. Quite warm, no rain. Our 
guide returned to his home. 

William Jackson Palmer (1836-1909). Railroad executive. A general in the Union army in 
the Civil War. A participant in early railroad surveys, and with many holdings in Mexican railroads, 
1872 to late 1890's. See Diet. Amer. Biog. 14: 195-196. 1937. 


6 Mon. Visited the Santo Domingo mine. Very hot. Developed 12 views. 

7. Tues. Left for La Palma in a.m. Reached there late in eve. The worst road of all. Ascended 

3000° and down 1500°. Found many plants on the way. 
8 Wed. Saw the San Rafael mine and stayed there all night as I had a bad headache. 
9. Thurs. Returned from the San Rafael mine and saw the Mexicana & stayed all night at La 

Palma. Botanized a good deal. Our moso lost one mule by staying [straying?] away. 

10 Fri. Left La Palma early with 2 pack animals & reached Tapalpa by noon. Ate wild ripe 
blackberries. Paper $3.50. Reached Sayula at 9 o'c p.m. 

11 Sat. Shoes fixed 62 cts. 2 boxes .62 cts. Left Sayula for Zapotlan at 5 o'c a.m. Reached Z. at 
8 a.m. Bargained for an outfit for Colima. Wrote about 12 letters. 

12 Sun Stayed quiet all day. 

13 Mon Left for the south at 10 o'c a.m. Went to Santa Cruz by night. Moso no good. Good 
animals. My mule got scared and bucked and broke my camera and barometer. 

14 Tues. Went to the iron works and to Tamazula. Very dry. 

15 Wed. Spent half a day at Tamazula & went to Tuzpan. 

16 Thurs. Went to Rancho [Higuerro-word illegible]. Visited the Muerto mine. Very warm. Alt. 



17 Fri. Left Rancho Higuerro [Higuera] in a.m. & reached Pihuamo at 11.30 a.m. Pretty place. 
The jefe politico is very sick with a wound in the hip (bullet). 

18 Sat. Returned from the Purissima mine & looked at the placeres in p.m. Botanized, very hot. 

Poured down in p.m. 

19 Sun. Spent the day doctoring the sick jefe politico did not help him much. 

20 Mon. Left Pihuamo at 7 o'c & reached Tonila at 3 p.m. Good road. Took 2 photos. Developed 
half a dozen. Had a headache in p.m. Tonila is larger than Pihuamo but not a large place. 

21 Tues. Spent the day going to & returning from San Marcos. Botanized. 

22 Wed. Went to Colima. Got 2 letters. 

23, Thurs. Took train for Manzanillo at 7 o'c a.m. Reached there at 11 a.m. Took some photos, & 

botanized a little. 

24 Fri. Rained all night. Went over to Stadden's ranch. Got many facts. 

25 Sat. Botanized, & went over to Stadden's ranch & the sea. Took a bath and photos. Sacks etc. 

1.50. Moso .25. 

26 Sun. Went over to Stadden's ranch and to the sea. Breakers very high. 

27 Mon. Spent the day at General Maltina's [Martinez?] ranch. Went up on a special. Ranch of 
81000 acres [apparently Armena-R.McV.] . Many cocoa nut trees (2 kinds) bananas (2 kinds) 
pine-apples, corn, etc. Took several photos. 

28 Tues. Moso .50 cts. Dillon 1 $1.00. Razor etc 4.40. Postage $1.00. Quinin .50 Pineapple .15 
Returned to Manzanillo from Armeria, and then returned to Colima. Shipped 4 boxes by steamer 

to San Francisco. 

29 Wed. Carbolic acid .15 cts. Moso 1.00. Spent the day doing very little. Developed 14 plates. 

30 Thurs. Dillon 5.00. Towel 50 Got 3 samples of coffee from Mr. Vogle. 2 Did very little. 
Botanized a little. Developed some plates. Wrote to Anna. 

July 1, Fri. Went early to see a saltpeter mine at Jayamita. Hot. Botanized. 

2 Sat. Gave Dillon $5. Went to see a coal, mica and gypsum mine, only gypsum there. Hot. 


3 Sun. Spent the day at Colima. 

4 Mon. Dillon $2. Went to see some marble at Rancho Magdalena. Rained very hard at night. 

5 Tues. Dillon $10.00 Returned from seeing marble mine. Had a headache. Did not rain. Cloudy 

but no rain at Colima. 

6 Wed. Japanese party left this morning. Moso $20.00. Button .02 Provisions 10.21. Hardware 

2.38. Sacks .45 Get $150, of Hiebret. 3 spoons .13 Gum arabic 06 Coffee 1 lb. .37. 

7 Thurs. Dillon $32.00 Left Colima in a.m. Reached Tonila at 2 p.m. Rained hard. Cloth for 

holders $1.00 

8 Fri. Dillon $5. [word illegible] .28 Ferriage .75. Meals .18. stockings 50 Left Tonila at 7.30 a.m. 
for Pihuamo, reached there at 5 p.m. Got very wet. Dillon did his best to get me to not go. He 

has become very tiresome. 
9, Sat. Moso 1.00. Dillon $50. Dillon decided to leave me here and return to Mexico, finding at 
last that he was of no service to me, a fact that I learned a month ago. Visited the Purissima 
mine & took samples. Left at 1 p.m. for Tonila against the advice & wishes of my friend 

Dillon was apparently a helper hired by Jones some time before this, but I have not learned 
anything more about him. Relations between the two men worsened steadily until Dillon left, as 

the diary shows. 

2 This was evidently the German Consul, Arnold Vogel, at this time a resident of 25 years' 

standing in Colima. See Seler, Caecilie: Auf alten Wegen in Mexiko & Guatemala, p. 351. 



Thiophilo Sanchez the jefe politico. Rained hard. Reached the Tuzpan all right. River too high to 


10 Sun. Crossed the river early and reached Tonila at 9 a.m. 

11 Mon. Moso for Tonila 3.37. Ferriage .56. Tried to get outfit to start for the Volcano today but 
could not. Botanized. Rained hard yesterday & in the night. [3 words illegible; looks like 
"advance muy grande"] $3. A meals $1.50 Room 1.87. Cake & bread 2.50 

12 Tues. Left Tonila at 4 o'c A.m. for the Volcano. Traveled till 12 o*c and then was about 1 m. 
[1 mile] from base of volcano but above it. 9250° alt. ±. Deep barranca between. Guide & I 
went over to Volcano & back in 4 hours. Had a bad headache. Magnificent view. Saw the sea. 

13 Wed. Very cold in the night. Broke camp at 7.30 a.m. and ascended to 10500° alt. at pass on 
north side of Nevada de Colima & descended nearly to base of Mt. by 5 p.m. Rained for 2 hours, 
everything wet on the ground. Camped under a madrona tree on the grass. Rain eased at 6 p.m. 
Not cold. 

14Thurs. Moso 1.75 + for meals .50 Guide meal .25 Mules -50 Food Mules Vh days $4.00 Paid 
for Colima mules $13. Sacks .05 Meal .37 Advanced moso $4.00. Feed etc. for moso $1.40. Left 
camp at 7 a.m. & reached Zapotlan at 11. Left Zapotlan at 2 p.m. with old Juan & 4 animals for 
Guadalajara. Reached Sayula at 7.30 p.m. 

15 Fri. Room & 2 meals $1.00 Breakfast (3) .68 Moso feed 1.37 Left Sayula at 5 a.m. Rode all 
day to Sacoalco. Collected some. Warm in p.m. Reached Sacoalco at 4 p.m. 

16 Sat. Meals & room self & moso & boy over night $2.00. Balance for moso $4.50. Feed, etc. 

17 Sun. Called on Mr. Kiff[?] who gave me letters & a telegram from Lynds that father is very 
sick. Called on Mr. Howland the Cong, minister. Took tea with him. Went to English service! 
First since April 11th. 

18 Mon 2 boxes 1.50 Papers .25 Cargador .50 Stamp .02 Hotel $2.50 R.R. fare 5.75. Actual $13? 
Drew on Genl. Palmer for $110. 155.34 Mex. Meals $1.50 Fare $1.19 Left Guadalajara at 9 a.m. 
& went to Irapuato & Celaya. Telegram came for me to Irapuato but could not get it. 

The herbarium specimens collected by Jones in 1892 included at least 543 
numbers, arranged systematically before numbering. Some collections made in 
Zacatecas in April and early May were put in the same series. In the typewritten 
itinerary prepared by Jones himself, and now at Pomona College, he says 'The 
Mexican trip was one for geological exploration for proposed railroads and to report 
on a certain group of such roads already in operation, botany was a side issue and I 
had to get specimens as my other business would allow. For this reason I got only 
about 5 specimens of a kind, and never could work up a flora as was my wont" (Jones 
mss., p. 21). On the following page he says: "The plants collected on this trip were 
put up in 3 sets." The principal set is in Jones' own herbarium, now at Pomona 
College (POM), and nearly complete sets are in the U.S. National Herbarium (US), and 
in the herbarium of Michigan State University (MSC). 

Marcus Jones returned to Nayarit and Jalisco 35 years after his first visit in 1892. 
His trips from 1926 through 1930 have been summarized by Morton; 1 in the same 
publication a critical analysis of Jones' work on the Mexican flora is presented by 
Morton and Blake. The collections made in Mexico in 1927, according to a statement 
by Jones, 2 include his numbers 22835 to 23567. In his 15th Contribution to Western 
Botany Jones gives two accounts of his work in Nayarit (pp. 88-90 and 115-118), 
where he botanized at three localities, namely Tepic (8—16 February), Ixtlan (18-19 
February), and La Barranca (21-23 February). He travelled by rail between these 

In November, 1930, Jones came to Guadalajara by train from Tepic, and spent 17 
days there, collecting every day that he could in "the barranca." His own account of 
his visit to Jalisco is in his Contribution No. 18. 3 He states that he collected a few 
specimens at La Barranca, Nayarit, when the train was delayed there for some hours 
on November 12, the day on which he reached Guadalajara. He botanized in "La 
Barranca" east of Guadalajara, and also on the plains in and near the city, from 

x Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 29: 89-91. 1945. 

2 Contr. West. Bot. 15: 76. 1929. 

3 Jones, Extr. from Contr. West. Bot. 18: 113-118. 1933. 


November 14 to November 25. About November 27 he went out to Orendain on the 
train, and botanized in the vicinity that day and part of the next. On the 30th he left 
by train to Tepic and Mazatlan. As far as I can learn there is no published statement 
of the number of collections made by Jones in 1930, but for specimens collected in 
Jalisco his field -numbers include at least the series 27051 to 27845, arranged 
apparently in the order of cataloging, rather than in strict chronological order. 

Most of Jones' botanizing near Guadalajara seems to have been done in the 
Barranca de Oblatos or Barranca de Colimilla, more east than north of the city. On his 
first visit (November 13) he hired an auto to take him out to the barranca, "where the 
Lerdo [sic] river makes a hairpin curve at the junction with the Satiago [sic] ." Later 
he refers to going down the "tram," and to "huts" and "eating booths" at the top of 
the declivity, by which he must mean the spot from which a cable-car leads down to 
the power-plant at Las Juntas. In his journal for November 25 he says: "Got out to 
the barranca by 8.30 and went at once to the bottom at power plant and then south 
[i.e. up-stream] to where the trail comes nearest the river, and then back to the top 
by 1.30, and got a big and heavy load of stuff." Day after day, while working out of 
Guadalajara, Jones at the age of 78 descended into the precipitous barranca and 
climbed out again with his load of specimens; the climb from the river is more than 
500 meters, nearly straight up, and it is not surprising that he "felt some tired" after 
his longest day, when he reached the barranca by 8.30, went down to the river and 
climbed back with his heavy press, and finally reached home after dark. 

The most nearly complete set of Jones' later collections is at Pomona (POM). 
Many duplicates are at the U.S. National Herbarium (US) and the Gray Herbarium 

Jouy, Pierre Louis (1856-1894). A few collections from Jalisco, some labelled 
"Guadalajara," are in the United States National Herbarium. The collector, a member 
of the staff of the U.S. National Museum, was sent to Mexico to make special natural 
history collections. He traveled in central Mexico for nearly twelve months. At least 
from January 9 to September 6, 1892, he worked in Jalisco, principally in and near 
Guadalajara. 1 He made excursions to Chapala (mid-February) and to the Hacienda of 
El Molino (early June), and in the "latter part of March" he undertook a longer trip, 
on horseback, to Zapotlan and San Marcos. He collected birds about San Marcos and 
the Barranca de Beltran ("Veltran"), March 24-29, and between San Marcos and 
Atenquique, presumably on his return trip to Zapotlan, on April 1. His plant-collec- 
tions were neither numerous nor well-documented; his principal interests, and the 
collections resulting therefrom, were in zoology and ethnology. A short obituary notice 
appeared soon after his death (Auk 11: 262-263. 1894). 

Karwinsky von Karwin, Wilhelm Friedrich (1780-1855). According to a report 
by Martinez (An. Inst. Biol. [Mex.] 23:79. 1953), Karwinsky collected Quercus 
candicans at Tecatitlan, Mpio. de Manzanillo, Colima, in September, 1827. This record 
was based on a report by Trelease (Mem. Nat. Acad. Sci. 20: 203. 1924), where the 
locality was given as Tescatitlan (the State not mentioned). Professor Martinez later 
informed me that he believed the locality to have been in Oaxaca, and the correct 
spelling Tescaltitan. If the date of September, 1827, is correctly reported, however, the 
specimen probably came from somewhere in the State of Mexico as in that month 
Karwinsky made a trip from near Toluca to Sultepec and the nearby Mina de Cristo, 
returning to Mexico in October. 


Kempton, James H. See Collins. 

1 Jouy, P. L. Notes on birds of Central Mexico, with descriptions of forms believed to be new. 
Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 16: 771-791. 1894. 



Kerber, Edmund ( - ). Kerber, a young German botanist, spent at least 
two years in Colima and made considerable collections of herbarium specimens of 
which the principal set, 375 numbers, was sent to Berlin. 1 In two papers published 
after his return to Germany in 1881, Kerber gave an interesting account of his ascent 
of the Volcan de Colima (April 14-16, 1881), and a sketch of the vegetation on the 
mountain. 2 In April, 1882, he communicated a paper on phyllotaxy to the Academy 
of Sciences in Berlin, 3 and in May of the same year he left on a second trip to Mexico 
with the intention of selling sets of plants with the aid of the well-known Austrian 
entrepreneur, Keck. Part of the trip was financed by the Botanical Garden of Berlin, 
and a larger part, at the request of Eichler, by the Academy of Sciences. First results 
of the trip were announced by Eugene Fournier, 4 in a list of 50 species, including 
several novelties, collected by Kerber at Cordoba, Veracruz, in July and August, 1882. 
The results of the trip as a whole, however, were disappointing to the sponsors. The 
herbarium specimens included 300 numbers only, and the living plants intended for 
German gardens were neither rare nor successfully shipped, so that Eichler, as Urban 
noted, "verlor fur immer die Neigung zur Ausriistung ahnlicher Expeditionen" (Urban, 

op. cit. 53). 

Little is known of Kerber's first trip to Mexico except what can be inferred from 
statements in the literature. Urban (op. cit. 362) gives the year 1878 as the beginning 
of the collection from the vicinity of Colima. Kerber was collecting there in September 
and October, 1879, as indicated by specimens cited in various places 5 and, according 
to his own account 6 he was at the same locality in December of the same year. He is 
also known to have made collections near Colima in June and November, 1880. 7 In 
describing his ascent of the Volcan de Colima in April, 1881, he stated that he had 
spent nearly two years in the city of Colima, and had often made excursions to the 
highlands of the volcanoes. He had studied the vegetation on both landward and 
seaward sides of the volcano, and contrasted these. He was impressed by the luxurious 
vegetation, including many species of orchids, on the southern and southwestern 
slopes, in the vicinity of the Hacienda de San Antonio. From the numerous species of 
orchids he recorded 8 from the "Seeseite" near San Antonio it may be inferred that 
this was one of his favorite collecting localities. 

On April 12, 1881, Kerber prepared for an ascent of the active volcano, which had 
been in maximum eruption during the preceding month. 9 The winter had been cold, 
and at times the volcano had been covered with snow nearly to the foot. The first 
night was passed in Tonila, in the southeastern foothills, at an elevation of about 
1250 m. The next day Kerber's party began the climb by way of Gachupines rather 
than by the somewhat longer alternative route by Hacienda San Marcos and the 
Barranca de Beltran. They entered the pine forest near Gachupines, about one and 
one-fourth hours ("5/4 Stunden") above Tonila. They ascended to the edge of the 


to Tonila. 

1 Urban, I., Gesch. K. Bot. Mus. Berl. 362. 1916. 

2 Eine Besteigung des Vulkans von Colima in Mexiko. Verb. d. Ges. f. Erdkundc 9: 237-246. 
1882; [Uber die untere Niveaugrenze des Eichen- und Kiefernwaldes am Vulkan von Colima]. Verh. 

Bot. Ver. Prov. Brandenb. 24: 34-41. 1882. 

3 Die LOsung einiger phyllotaktischen Probleme mittels einer diophantischen Gleichung. 

Sitzungsber. Akad. Wiss. Berl. 1882 (1): 457-473. pi VIII. 1882. 

4 Bull. Soc. Bot. France 30: 180-188. 1883. 

5 Fcdde Repert. Sp. Nov. 17: 322. 1921; Bull. Herb. Boiss. 7: 409. 1899. 

6 Jacaratia conica, n. sp. Jahrb. k. bot. Gart. Berl. 2: 279-284. pi IX. 1883. 

7 Kew Bull. 1936: 373. 1936; Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 1: 279. 1914. 

8 Verh. Bot Ver. Prov. Brandenb. 24: 38. 1882. 

9 For records of this and other eruptions of Colima, see Arreola, Josd Maria, Catalogo de las 
erupciones antiguas del Volcdn de Colima. Mem. Soc. Sci. "Antonio Alzatc" 32: 443-481. 1915. 


The collections made in Colima by Kerber have been relatively little studied. Of 
those cited in literature, however, a high proportion have been described as new to 
science. Some few duplicates of his collections were distributed, but presumably most 
of his specimens were lost at the time of the destruction of the Berlin herbarium in 
1943. Dr. G. M. Schulze kindly informs me that if any record of the species in the 
Kerber collection was ever kept, it was doubtless destroyed at the same time. 
Specimens in other herbaria will be of much value, in years to come, in the 
interpretation of species previously based on the Berlin specimens, and the data on 
existing specimens will be of particular value in identifying Kerber's collecting 

Kiener, Walter. Dr. Kiener, formerly Biologist of the Nebraska Game, Forestation 
and Parks Commission, collected cryptogams in some of the barrancas near Guadalajara 
in December, 1944. On the same trip he collected elsewhere in southern Mexico. 


King, Robert Merrill. While a graduate student at the University of Michigan, 

Charles Feddema (q.v.) in 1959. On this second trip the specimens from Nueva Galicia 
were assigned Feddema's numbers. The first set of all these collections is at the 
University of Michigan (MICH). In 1960 King collected for the University of Texas 
(TEX), mostly along the highways, in Jalisco and Nayarit, August 7-9 (nos. 
3649-3664, mostly near Jiquilpan, Guadalajara and Tequila), and August 10-12 (nos. 

3665-3704, mostly near Ixtlan del Rio 

1961 King 

collected with Thomas R. Soderstrom in Michoacan, in October and November. Nos. 
4583-4689 were taken on Cerro Potrerillos, said to be 5 miles [8 km] north of Cotija 
and about 22 miles south of Jiquilpan. The collections were distributed under the 
names of King and Soderstrom, but the numbers were those of King's series. The first 
set is at the United States National Herbarium (US); a duplicate set of this collection, 
as well as that of 1960, is at the University of Michigan. 

Kluge, H. C. This collector sent to Professor Samuel J. Record, of the Yale 
School of Forestry, approximately 20 specimens collected in September, 1924, in the 
"mountains about 30 miles from Tepic." The elevations are given as varying from 
1000—4000 feet, but no specific localities are cited. The entire collection, which is 
now part of the holdings of the School of Forestry, included 20 numbered samples. 
There are herbarium specimens for nos. 1—6, 12—15, 17, and 20, and the correspond- 
ing wood samples (Yale nos. 7609—7625) for most of these. Perhaps the most 
interesting is no. 10 (7618), represented by a wood sample only; this is Juglans sp., of 
which the collector wrote: "This is black walnut. I was surprised to find it there. I was 
not able to see a woods or forest of it near Tepic. It was at an altitude of about 4000 
ft. The trees grow large and it is used for lumber." 

Knobloch, Irving William. Professor Knobloch, of Michigan State University, 
collected a few plants while passing through the northern part of our area in 1960. 

Koelz, Walter Norman. See McVaugh (1959). Koelz, in addition to the plants 
collected jointly with McVaugh, collected independently in his series 34000—34277, in 
Colima and southern Jalisco. Of these, 115 specimens of vascular plants are in the 
herbarium of the University of Michigan (MICH). 

Koeppen, Robert. See litis. 

Lamb, Frank Haines (1875—1951). Lamb, a student at Stanford University (then 
Leland Stanford Junior University) in 1894, took the part of botanist in an expedition 



to Mexico led by David Starr Jordan. 1 After Jordan's return to California, Lamb 
continued alone, and collected a large series of herbarium specimens in Sinaloa and 
Nayarit, mostly at localities near the stage line between Mazatlan and Tepic. 

Lamb's initial connection with the Jordan party, as related in his memoirs, came 
about through the agency o( Professor William R. Dudley, the then newly-appointed 
botanist at Stanford: 

Either [Dr. Jordan] or Professor Dudley suggested that a botanist could go along to gather 
duplicate botanical specimens which then could readily be sold to a number of leading herbaria in 
the world and in this way expenses of the trip could eventually be earned. The idea strongly 
appealed to me and Professor Dudley borrowed and reloancd to me sufficient money to make the 


The expedition left San Francisco on December 18, 1894, by steamer, and reached 
Mazatlan, Sinaloa, on December 24. Lamb found the collecting poor in the lowlands 
near Mazatlan, so he at once took the stage southward to La Union and Rosario. 
Because of the dryness of the winter season his collecting still suffered. He returned to 
Mazatlan to see Dr. Jordan and his party leave on their return trip to California, then 
resolved to continue his botanical work until the departure of the next steamer, a 

month later. 

On his second, and longer, trip southward through the coastal plain, Lamb 

revisited Rosario, then continued to Escuinapa and Acaponeta. From the latter place 

he undertook a two-day trip on mule-back, to visit the site of a mine in the 

mountains, where his opportunities for collecting improved: "The second day's travel 

was up a narrow rocky defile beneath a luxuriant arboreal vegetation. My pressing case 

enlarged amazingly." After returning to Acaponeta, Lamb took the stage again, passing 

through Tuxpan and finally reaching Santiago Ixcuintla about February 7, 1895. Up to 

this point he had collected approximately 250 numbers, all in the lowlands and 

foothills north of our area. 

From Santiago Lamb made another side-trip into the mountains in the hope of 
finding more species in the flowering condition at higher elevations. He traveled almost 
northeast, reached the Rio San Pedro at San Lorenzo (10-15 km east of the present 
railroad station called Ruiz), then ascended to a place called Zopilote ("Zopelote"), 
said by him to lie among the lower ranges of the Sierras at an elevation of 3000 feet. 
Here he found a more satisfying variety of species; he collected nos. 554-579, and 
perhaps other numbers, at Zopilote, February 9-12. He then returned to Santiago and 
continued by stage, via Navarrete, to Tepic. 

Tepic, where Lamb found himself about February 15, was a poor place botanically 
in this the height of the dry season, so almost at once he hired a muleteer to pack his 
baggage and his accumulated plant-specimens to the coast at San Bias, whence he took 
the regular monthly boat to Mazatlan and so on to San Francisco. He seems to have 
left San Bias about the first of March, and according to his own account he returned 
to Stanford about the middle of that month. His plant-collections from Tepic and San 
Bias together include the numbers from about 580-624. 

The plants collected by Lamb were numbered by him in the field, in the order of 
collection, from 1 to about 326. A set 2 was sent to the Gray Herbarium for 
identification. Presumably most of the determinations were made by M. L. Fernald, 
who returned a list of the names to Lamb (the list, in Fernald's handwriting, is 

^uch information relative to the expedition, and to Lamb's part in it, has been obtained 
from manuscripts I have seen through the kindness of Mr. George E. Lamb, of Hoquiam, 
Washington. These records include excerpts from the unpublished memoirs of Frank H. Lamb, and 
many notes dating from the period of the expedition of 1894-95. Interested readers may consult 
also Jordan's autobiography, The days of a man, volume 1, pp. 526-535 (1922). 

2 About 290 numbers were included in this set, according to Lamb's letter to B. L. Robinson, 

March 31, 1895. 


preserved among Lamb's papers), and published, later in the same year, a report on 
some of the novelties. 1 The list as returned by Fernald bears the original field 
numbers, but for some reason unknown to me Lamb renumbered the entire collection 
before making it up into sets for distribution. In the sets as they were distributed with 
printed labels to the subscribers, the lowest number is 309 (i.e., field no. 1, the first 
collection made). Nos. 1-43 were correctly renumbered, 309-351. In the next 65 
numbers, however, certain ones of the new series were used more than once, and a 
new sequence was established: Field no. 109 became no. 407, and this relation was 
maintained to the end of the series, so that nos. 109-326 are equivalent to nos. 
407-624. The numbers under which the collection was distributed, therefore, are 
309-624, with 10 numbers between 352 and 406 repeated. The entire collection 
included about 1916 specimens. The first eleven sets, not including the one sent out 
originally for determination, were distributed as follows (data from Lamb's records): 
1. Stanford University; 2. Michigan State College; 3. E. L. Greene, Catholic University; 
4. N. L. Britton, Columbia College; 5.Jardin Imperial de Botanique, St. Petersburg; 
6. Botanisches Museum, Berlin; 7. Royal Gardens, Kew; 8. U.S. National Herbarium; 
9. Herbier Boissier, Geneva; 10. T. S. Brandegee, San Diego, Cal.; ll.Thos. Meehan, 

Upon his return to Stanford, Lamb continued for several years his interest in 
botany. With Professor Dudley he travelled and collected in California during the 
summers of 1895 and 1896. In 1897 he botanized extensively in western Washington, 
and prepared a well-annotated catalogue of the flora. His interest in forestry having 
been aroused, he transferred about 1898 to study at the Biltmore Forest School at 
Biltmore, North Carolina. After a year in the East he moved to the Pacific Northwest, 
where he settled and entered the timber business, and where he ultimately went into 
the production of pulp, plywood and sawmill machinery. He was the author of 
numerous articles in trade journals, and of two books on trees. 2 

Land, W. J. G. See Barnes. 

Langman, Ida Kaplan. While in Mexico in 1940 for a year's work on a 
bibliography of Mexican botany, Mrs. Langman spent more than a month in Jalisco. 
She made her headquarters in Guadalajara from mid-November until the last week in 
December, when she went by rail to Colima. A condensed account of this and Mrs. 
Langman's two other long trips to Mexico appeared in Asa Gray Bulletin II, 
2:291—296. 1954. During her visits to Jalisco and Colima in 1940, she made 
approximately 135 collections for the herbarium; these were in four sets, of which the 
first went to the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia (PH), the second to the 
Herbarium of the U.S. National Aboretum (USNA), the third to the Instituto de 
Biologia of the National University of Mexico (MEXU), and the fourth to the Mexican 
Department of Agriculture. Following is a summary of her collections, which she 
kindly furnished for this paper: 

JALISCO: Zapopan, 14 November (3078-3080); highway between km 732 and Tequila, 16 
November (3081-3088); Colomo, near Zapopan, 18 November (3089-3090); Puente Grande, 19 
November (3091-3096); Guadalajara-Chapala road, 21 November (3097-3106); km 11, Guadala- 
jara-Tequila road, 25 November (3107-3114); km 49, Guadalajara-Chapala road, 27 November 
(3116-3124); road to S. Andrds, 3 miles east of Guadalajara, 30 November (3125); km 41, 
Guadalajara-Autkin road, 1 December (3126-3129); upper plateau, Barranca de Experiencia, 3 
December (3131-3133); km 650, Mexico -Guadalajara road, 8 December (3134-3144); 
Tlaquepaque to Puente Grande, 9 December (3145-3149); near Tequila, 10 December 

Fernald, M. L. Undescribed plants from western Mexico collected principally by Frank H. 
Lamb in the winter of 1894-5. Bot. Gaz. 20: 532-537. 1895. 

2 Lamb, Frank H. Sagas of the Evergreens, [xiv], 15-364 pp. illus. Norton & Co., New York, 
1938; Book of the Broadleaf Trees. 367 pp. illus. Norton & Co., New York, 1939. 



(3150-3154); Barranca de los Oblatos, Huentitztn, 11 December (3155-3159); west of Atequiza, 
17 December (3160-3162); 14 miles west of Tepatithin, 18 December (3163-3165); km 41, 
Guadalajara-Autkfn road, 21 December (3166). COLIMA: Western outskirts of city of Colima, 25 
December (3167-3180); SW of Colima, km 5 to Rio Salado, 26 December (3181-3192); near 
Comala, road to San Antonio, 27 December (3193-3212). 

Lape, Fred. In 1969 and other years Mr. Lape has collected Compositae and 
other plants in Colima, and near Apatzingan. 

Laskowski, Chester Walter. See W. R. Anderson (1966), and McVaugh (1965). 

Lay, George Tradescant. See Beechey. 

Leavenworth, William Clarence (1917-1944). During the summers of 1940 and 
1941 the members of the Hoogstraal Mexican Biological Expeditions spent five months 
in the area between Cerro Tancitaro and the Rio Tepalcatepec. A few days the first 
year, and six weeks of the second, were spent collecting in the river valley, with the 
town of Apatzingan as headquarters. About 1600 collections were made in all. 
Collections made in 1940 were distributed under the name of Leavenworth; those 
made in 1941 under the names of Leavenworth and Harry Hoogstraal. Most of the 
collections were identified by Paul C. Standley at the Field Museum, Chicago (F), and 
a nearly complete set is deposited there. 

During the first field season, and for six weeks of the second, the expedition made 
its headquarters in the village of Tancitaro, at the foot of the mountain of the same 
name, and during these periods attention was focussed on the flora and vegetation of 
the mountain itself. Below Tancitaro most of the collections were made near 
Apatzingan, or along the trail between Apatzingan and the village of Tancitaro (e.g. 
near Barranquillas or Acahuato), near Hacienda California, near La Majada, or along a 
transect south of Apatzingan toward Capirio ("El Capiri") on the Rio Tepalcatepec. 
Some specimens were collected in "scrub forest" at localities said to be four miles, and 

8 miles, respectively, west of Apatzingan. 

The vegetation of the area was described, and most of the collections listed, in 
Leavenworth's posthumous paper edited by Theodor Just and P. C. Standley. 1 

Matuda (An. Inst. Biol. [Mex.] 24: 344. 1954) cites a collection made by 
Leavenworth at Guadalajara on August 26, 1941. 

Le Jolis, . In Das Pflanzenreich IV. 83 (Heft 39): 103. 1909, under 

Rivina humilis, there is a report of this species from "San Blass," the collector's name 
given merely as Le Jolis. 

Lemmon, John Gill (1832-1908). Mr. and Mrs. Lernmon collected a number of 
specimens in Jalisco in 1905, all as far as known from near Lake Chapala. The 
specimens are widely distributed; some are in the United States National Herbarium 
(US) (e.g. Bommeria pedata), some at the University of California, Berkeley (UC) (e.g. 
Tephrosia leiocarpa, Asclepias chapalensis), and a series of numbered collections 
including numbers up to at least 157 {Thalictrum jaliscanum) are at the Gray 

Herbarium (GH). 

The locality-data are suspect on several of the Lemmons' collections from near 
Lake Chapala, and it may be that a series from some more arid locality elsewhere in 
Mexico was erroneously provided with the Chapala labels. Among the Compositae, for 
example, Bahia ab sin t hi folia, Parthenium incanum, and Zinnia grandiflora, have all 
been reported from near Lake Chapala on the basis of Lemmon specimens, but none 
of these species is otherwise known from the area. 

*A preliminary study of the vegetation of the region between Cerro Tancitaro and the Rio 
Tepalcatepec, Michoacdn, Mexico. Amer. Midi. Nat. 36: 137-206. 1946. 


Liebmann, Frederik Michael (1813—1856). Pedis liebmanii (the type, Liebmann 
467), is reported as having been collected at San Augustin, Jalisco (Proc. Amer. Acad. 
33: 83. 1897). The same record is repeated, but with the spelling changed to the 
conventional Spanish San Agustin, in Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 23: 1616. 1926. The 
locality is not in Jalisco, but on the Pacific Coast of Oaxaca, where Liebmann 
collected in 1842. 

Longinos Martinez, Jose ( -1803). See Sesse. 

Longinos Vasquez, . See McVaugh (1960). 

Longpre, E. Keith. Collected on Cerro Tancitaro in August, 1961, while engaged 
in a revision of the genus Sabazia (Compositae). The first set of his collections is at 
Michigan State University (MSC). 

Loveland, Hugh Frank. See McVaugh (1958). 

Lumholtz, Carl [Karl Sofus] (1851-1922). From 1890 to 1898 Lumholtz spent 
much time in field research in western and northwestern Mexico. His chief interest was 
in the study of the cultures of primitive peoples. During his early work in Sonora and 
Chihuahua he was aided by a number of scientific assistants. 1 On his third and longest 
Mexican expedition, which lasted from March 1894 to March 1897, Lumholtz traveled 
alone, without any scientific assistants. In the course of his work he collected a few 
plants, some of which are in the United States National Herbarium (e.g. Dalea nutans, 
collected at Santa Catarina in October, 1895). He came into our area from the north, 
in the early spring of 1895, and spent nearly a year among the Cora and Huichol 
Indians in Nayarit and northern Jalisco. During this period he made a trip to Zacatecas 
and worked for a time at Mezquitic, Jalisco. He came out to civilization at Tepic, and 
crossed Jalisco toward the southeast. He studied the Indian cultures in the area of 
Tuxpan before continuing into Michoacan, sometime in the month of August, 1896. 

His work in Nueva Galicia is described in Unknown Mexico, volume 1, pp. 484—530, 
and volume II, pp. 1—359. A map of the author's route is included in each volume. 

Lundell, Cyrus Longworth. In carrying out investigations for the Rubber Develop- 
ment Corporation of the United States Government in 1943, to determine the sources 
of chilte gum in Mexico, Lundell made collections of Cnidoscolus in eleven states, 
including Nayarit and Jalisco. A report on the botanical aspects of the work appeared 
in 1945. 2 Lundell's travels took him to Durango in April, 1943; he was in Sinaloa in 
May, and early in June went in by plane to Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco, one of the centers 
of local production of the chilte gum. His collections there included nos. 13028—13036, 
and were made on June 8 and 9. The first set is in the Lundell Herbarium at the Texas 
Research Foundation, Renner, Texas (LL); a partial set is at the University of Michigan 
(MICH). On June 14 and 15 Lundell collected near San Bias, Nayarit (nos. 12171, 
12172); soon after this he returned to eastern Mexico and began work in the state of 
San Luis Potosi. 

Luz Font, . Collected in Guadalajara in September 1925 (Matuda in 

An. Inst. Biol. [Me'x.] 24: 310. 1954). 

*For a popular, yet definitive account of the travels of Lumholtz in Mexico, see his Unknown 
Mexico, published in two volumes by Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, 1902. Publications 
resulting from his early work are listed in the first volume, pp. xv-xvi. The material which is of 
most interest to botanists is contained in the following article: Robinson, B. L., and Fernald, M. L. 
New plants collected by Messrs. C. V. Hartman and C. E. Lloyd upon an archaeological expedition 
to northwestern Mexico under the direction of Dr. Carl Lumholtz. Proc. Amer. Acad. 
30: 114-123. 1894. 

^Lundell, Cyrus Longworth. The genus Cnidoscolus in Mexico: New species and critical notes. 
Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 72: 319-334. 1945. 



McVaugh, Michael Rogers. See McVaugh, Rogers (1957). 

McVaugh, Rogers. Since 1949, in the course of 10 long expeditions and several 
short visits, I have spent approximately two years in the field in Nueva Galicia. The 
expeditions have been supported generously by the Faculty Research Fund of the 
Horace H. Rackham School of Graduate Studies, University of Michigan, by the Office 
of Research Administration of the same University, by the University Herbarium, and 
in recent years especially by the National Science Foundation, Washington, D.C. Since 
1951 I have tried to plan fieldwork with the ultimate benefit to the Flora 
Novo-Galiciana always in mind. Because much of the terrain is rough and many 
localities are relatively inaccessible, it has not been possible to make systematic 
collections covering the entire area, as for example might have been done in a flatter 
and more densely settled area. Choice of collecting localities has been dictated to a 
large extent by the condition of the roads in individual areas. Although it is usually 
possible without much difficulty to reach remote localities in Mexico with pack- 
animals, the expenditure of time is disproportionately great, and the difficulties in 
drying, safeguarding and transporting more than small quantities of specimens are 
considerable. 1 have concentrated rather on making repeated visits to selected localities 
at different seasons, electing to sample fewer localities adequately in preference to 
making fewer collections at more widely scattered places. Moreover, critical areas that 
are at the same time inaccessible are rather few in Nueva Galicia, and with rapidly 
accelerating construction of new highways are becoming increasingly fewer. All the 
principal vegetation-types may now be studied along both primary and secondary 
roads. Paved roads, except those into Guadalajara from east and west, were almost 
non-existent in 1949, but in 1970 most towns of any size, except some of the most 
remote, were accessible by all-weather highways. Most of our fieldwork has been done 
with small trucks equipped with a closed body, 4-wheel drive and oversize, heavy-duty 
tires, but more and more it is becoming possible to reach botanically interesting areas, 
even in the back country, with an ordinary automobile. 

Before the commencement of fieldwork by parties from the University of 
Michigan, few places in Nueva Galicia were well known botanically. About 1955 I 
estimated that about 12,000 individual gatherings had been made by collectors up to 
that time. This amounted to about two gatherings for each species in the area. Up to 
1955 about 5000 different gatherings or collections had been reported in the literature 
from Nueva Galicia; about 1500 of these reported were from the vicinity of 
Guadalajara, about 750 from Tepic and vicinity, about 700 from Colima and 
Manzanillo, about 450 from central Jalisco between Tequila and Chapala, about 150 
from the Nevado de Colima, and (rather surprisingly) about 500 from the inaccessible 
ridge-and-barranca country from Bolahos to northern Jalisco and adjacent Nayarit and 
Zacatecas. Mrs. Mexia had secured almost 600 numbers in the vicinity of San 
Sebastian, but except for her collections almost nothing was known of the botany of 
southern Nayarit and southwestern Jalisco. East of Guadalajara very little was known 
of the flora of Jalisco to the borders of Guanajuato and Michoacan. No important 
general collections had come out of Aguascalientes, since those of Hartweg (1837). The 
coastal deciduous forests extending from San Bias to southern Colima had scarcely 
been touched except near Manzanillo and to a lesser extent near Puerto Vallarta and 

San Bias. 

Thus in spite of the existence of several thousand herbarium specimens in 

museums in Mexico, in the United States, and in Europe, it was not easy to determine 

the extent of the ranges of even common species, or to make routine identifications 

when so many species were known from the types only, or from a new imperfect 

specimens. We therefore began to assemble series of specimens from selected localities, 

concentrating in the early years upon the montane areas covered with fir, pine-fir and 


pine-oak forests. In 1949, 1951 and 1952 we worked on the Nevado de Colima, 
including the northwestern, northern, eastern, and southern slopes, mostly at elevations 
from 2700 meters to timberline. In 1949 and 1952, and again in 1965, we explored 
the so-called Sierra de Manantlan, a rugged, isolated range west of the Nevado de 
Colima, between Autla'n and the Colima border. The large area of forested sierras west 
and northwest of Ayutla has been explored in several stages: The Sierra de la Campana 
northwest of Los Volcanes in 1951 (briefly), 1952, and 1960; the various areas 
accessible from San Miguel de la Sierra (1952, 1960, 1962, 1965); the area surrounding 
the valley of Talpa de' Allende (1952, 1960, 1965); the southwestern lobe of the pine 
forest near El Tuito (1970). The area near San Sebastian has not been thoroughly 
explored since Mrs. Mexia's visit in 1927. A little farther north, the upland forested 
areas of southern Nayarit were explored in 1951, 1957, 1960 and 1965. Farther east, 
we collected in the isolated Sierra del Halo, between Tecalitlan and Jilotlan, in 1957' 
1959 and 1970; in the Sierra del Tigre, south of Lake Chapala, in 1952 and 1959; and 
in the mountains called on maps Espinazo del Diablo (mostly in the Municipio de 
Coalcoman, west of Aguililla), in 1958, 1965 and 1970. The Sierra del Laurel, on the 
border between Aguascalientes and Jalisco, was visited in 1959 and 1960; the Sierra de 
Tapalpa, southwest of Lake Chapala, was visited several times in 1960; and the 
pine-oak forests on the eastern border of Jalisco, between Arandas and Miguel 
Doblado, were explored in 1970, as were (briefly) the mountains in southern Zacatecas 
between Jalpa and Tlaltenango. 

Thus no major areas of pine-oak or pine-fir forest remain critically under-explored 
except for those in northern Jalisco and adjacent Zacatecas and northeastern Nayarit, 
north of the Rio Grande de Santiago and west of the valley of the Rio Juchipila. This 
is a country of deep dry barrancas alternating with precipitous more or less flat-topped 
and forested ridges. It is almost inaccessible except by air or by foot-trails. Additional 
collections from many localities are urgently to be desired, as there appears to be a 
great deal of local endemism in the area, and it seems also that the transition between 
the more northern floras of the Durango mountains, and the floras of the Sierra 
Volcanica Transversal, cannot be convincingly elucidated without more knowledge of 
the plants of this ridge -md-barranca country that comprises perhaps a fifth of the area 
of Nueva Galicia. 

Exploration of the Pacific Slope 

A belt of mostly hilly country that originally supported a dense deciduous or 
subdeciduous forest lies along the Pacific Coast from Nayarit to Michoacan, extending 
from the ocean back to the foothills where the forest changes to one of oak or 
pine-oak. This foothill country (even near the ocean) is prevailingly steep and rugged, 
the temperatures are high, the air is either uncomfortably dry or uncomfortably humid 
depending on the season, insect and other pests are numerous, and vegetational cover is 
dense. At least partly for these reasons, human populations in the area have not been 
large, roads have been few and poor, and exploration difficult. The area is in fact still 
inadequately known, in spite of recent efforts to sample the flora. As mentioned 
above, early collectors concentrated their efforts near the coastal towns of San Bias 
and Manzanillo. A few have worked briefly near Puerto Vallarta. Until the completion 
(about 1970) of a graded road between Puerto Vallarta and Barra de Navidad, the 
coastal lowland there for a distance of more than 200 km was entirely unknown 
botanically, and it has still been explored only superficially. 

On the then very newly graded road over the mountains from Autlan to La 
Resolana, we collected in the lowland forests in April 1949 and in April 1951; Wilbur 
collected in the same area in July and August, 1949, and we returned there in 



October, 1960. We collected in the coastal strip at various localities from extreme 
western Michoaca'n to Bahia de Navidad in 1957 (June- August), 1959 (November- 
December), 1960 (October-November), 1965 (March), and 1970 (December). The 
lowland deciduous forest on the limestone and gypsum areas in Colima and adjacent 
Jalisco, and in the mountains west of Aguililla, was explored in 1957 (July), 1958 
(September), 1959 (November-December), 1965 (March), 1970 (November- 
December). The dry upper valley of the Rio Tepalcatepec was investigated in 
September 1958 (near Apatzinga'n), in February and March 1965 (between Nueva Italia 
and Arteaga, and between Tepalcatepec and Jilotlan), and in November 1970 (below 
Jilotlan). Mr. & Mrs. William R. Anderson collected early in 1970 along the road 
between Bahia Navidad and Puerto Vallarta, and in 1970 of the same year we spent 11 
days collecting along the same route, mostly between Chamela and El Tuito. Farther 
north, in the Nayarit lowlands from Las Varas to San Bias, collections were made in 
1957 (July, August), 1959 (November), 1960 (September). Almost any locality 
between the Pacific Coast and the mountains would repay further investigation, 
especially during the months from July to October. 

Exploration of the Interior Basins and Uplands 

The interior basins ("Cuencas Centrales" of Rzedowski and McVaugh, 1966) have 
been inadequately studied. The very flat country interrupted by low ridges, stretching 
from Ciudad Guzman to Sayula, Zacoalco, Villa Corona and Magdalena has been 
heavily grazed and in part cultivated. Formerly there were extensive marshes around 
the shallow lake-basins, but many of the original habitats have been destroyed and it 
may be that some species have become extinct. Almost certainly some species have 
disappeared from the basin of Lake Chapala and the lowlands that parallel the lake on 
the north, because of the expansion of cultivated lands since the beginning of the 
present century. Almost no large collections have been made in any of the lake basins. 
In 1959 and 1960 we collected fewer than 100 numbers from the Laguna de Zapotla'n 
and from the saline marshes near Acatlan and Villa Corona. 

The rather dry interior hills and valleys support for the most part a deciduous 
forest, or a subtropical scrub characterized by a growth of tree Ipomoeas, Acacia 
pennatula and Eysenhardtia. Except for the grasslands of Aguascalientes and north- 
eastern Jalisco, most of the upland (but non-montane) parts of Nueva Galicia are 
covered with deciduous forest or scrub. We sampled this type of vegetation in the high 
hills around Lake Chapala in 1957, 1958, 1959, and 1962. In 1958 we collected near 
Atotonilco el Alto, and in 1958 and 1959 in the valley of the Rio Verde between 
Yahualica and Tepatitla'n. In 1960 and 1962 we made small collections near Guadala- 
jara, and north of that city toward the Rio Grande. In 1962 I collected sparingly in 
Michoaca'n east of Lake Chapala. In 1960 we collected on the dry mountains and 
cuestas north and northeast of Autla'n, and in 1962 I studied and collected sparingly in 
the thorn-forest between Totolimispa and Tonaya. In 1967 we collected in the 
mountains of northern Aguascalientes (east of Rincon de Romos), and in 1970 we 
worked along the eastern border of Nueva Galicia near Leon, and a little further south 

near Cotija de la Paz. 

The grasslands of northeastern Nueva Galicia are much interrupted by rocky 

forested outcrops. Although much of the country is heavily grazed and some level 

areas are cultivated, many native species persist on the hills, about ponds and other 

depressions in the grassland, and even in some places on the open plains where grazing 

has not been heavy. In 1958 and 1959 we collected extensively from Ojuelos to 

Calvillo. In 1952, 1958, 1959 and 1970 we worked in the grasslands in the region 

between Lagos and Tepatitla'n and Arandas. Small areas of grasslands near Guadalajara 



and near Tepic were studied in 1957 and later years. In April 1951 we collected 

e-and-barranca country between Colotla'n and Huejuquilla el Alto; 
in September 1958 we spent a few days near Huejuquilla, and in December 1970 we 
collected for a day in the deciduous forest in the lower hills between Jalpa and 

The principal sets of our collections from 1949 to the present are deposited in the 
Herbarium of the University of Michigan (MICH), and in the Herbario Nacional del 
Institute de Biologia (MEXU) or in the herbarium of the Escuela Nacional de Ciencias 
Biologicas (ENCB). Duplicate sets are being distributed as identifications are completed. 

Summary of Itineraries by Years 

In 1949 my assistant was Robert L. Wilbur. We reached Mexico City on March 12, 
where we joined a group of zoologists headed by Dr. Emmet T. Hooper of the 
University of Michigan, and including Dr. Helmuth 0. Wagner, a German ornithologist, 
long resident in Mexico. Our combined parties, after some days spent in Michoacan,' 
travelled to Ciudad Guzman, Jalisco, •on March 23. On the 24th we crossed the great 
ridge north of the Nevado de Colima, by a primitive road (since then practically 
unused because of the opening of a new road from Atenquique northward around the 
east side of the mountain) and made camp on the northwestern slopes of the mountain 
near the settlement of El Izote, at the lower edge of the fir forest. We left this camp 
on March 31, and after returning to C. Guzman, established a new camp on the 
northern slopes of the Nevado, in the pine-oak forest above a sawmill (abandoned in 
1951 or 1952) called Piedra Ancha, which we reached from a point on the 
Atenquique-Jazmin road which was then building. Collections made on the Nevado de 
Colima, March 24 to April 2, included nos. 10010-10171. 

Botanists and zoologists together left C. Guzman and drove by way of the main 
highways to Autla'n. A camp was established on the new graded highway to La 
Resolana, about 3 km north of that place and about 30 km southwest of Autlan. 
Collections (nos. 10172-10236) were made April 7-9, in the lowlands near camp and 
at various places above camp on the seaward slopes of the mountains and near the pass 
leading to Autlan. Returning to Autla'n, we made arrangements for a pack-trip into the 
Sierra de Manantlan some 25 km (airline) to the southeast. We left Autlan on April 11, 
assembled our animals and gear in El Chante, and camped that night in the valley at 
the springs near the rancho called Manantlan. The following day we continued into the 
mountains and made permanent camp in a barranca near a large spring, at the lower 
edge of the fir-forest, at an elevation estimated at 2300 m. Collections were made here 
(nos. 10237-10341, April 12-16) and on the upper slopes of the mountains above 
camp. On the 16th we returned to El Chante and to Autlan as we had come. 

In 1951, assisted by David B. Hoover, I worked five weeks in Jalisco and Nayarit. 
From Guadalajara we went directly to C. Guzman; we established a camp on the 
Nevado de Colima, above Piedra Ancha where Wilbur and I had worked in 1949, but 
this time higher, in the fir forest not far below the zone of zacaton. Collections here 
were nos. 11600-11696, March 30-April 1. We then proceeded to Atenquique, where 
we took on supplies and a guide and drove out the Tonila road to a place where a 
lumber road (abandoned within a year after our visit) ascended the southeastern slopes 
of the Nevado to well within the fir zone. We camped, and collected nos 
11697-11796, 11822-11824, April 2-5. We then descended and continued around 
the mountain by a little-used road through Tonila to Colima, and then by the unpaved 
but graded road to Manzanillo, Cihuatlan, and Barra de Navidad, Jalisco. We spent the 
night of April 7 at a small hotel on the beach at Barra de Navidad, and the following 
day proceeded to Autla'n by way of a truck road to Tequezquitlan and La Resolana 



(April 7-8, nos. 11833-11912). April 9 we collected (nos. 11913-11962) in the 
mountains between Autlan and La Resolana, and the next day we went to Guadalajara. 
We then set out on a trip to northern Jalisco, by way of Yahualica and Teocaltiche, 
Michoacanejo and Aguascalientes. We passed through the city of Zacatecas, thence on 
April 15 to Villanueva, Huacasco and Colotla'n. Retracing our steps to Huejiicar, we 
were guided to the summit of the Mesa de Maria de Leon and put onto the road across 
the high llanos to Monte Escobedo. On the 16th we reached Monte Escobedo, crossed 
the mountain to Mezquitic, ascended the pass north of this place and camped near the 
junction of the road to Huejuquilla. On the 17th we drove to Huejuquilla, but finding 
little of interest here on the high grasslands at this dry season, we returned to the 
" ' road" and drove out to Valparaiso and Fresnillo, and the next day to 


Guadalajara. Collections made on the trip to the north, April 13-18, were nos. 

1 1975-12039. 

On April 20 Hoover and 1 set out on a trip to Tepic, by the usual highway. 
Making our base in Tepic, we drove to San Bias on the 21st, and to localities on the 
road to Jalcocotan on the 22nd. Collections made, April 20-22, were nos. 


Our last trip was from Guadalajara to Mascota, by way of Ameca. From Ameca on 
April 29 we took on an old road over the mountains via La Villita to Estanzuela, 
thence to a camp north of Mixtlan. On the 30th we proceeded to Los Volcanes, where 
we took the Ayutla-Mascota road and went on to camp in the pine forest of the Sierra 
de la Campana (so-called because of the huge rounded monolith with a "window" near 
the top, which dominates the pass through which the highway passed). On May 1 we 
went into Mascota and returned to camp; on May 2 we returned to Guadalajara by 
way of Ayutla and Tecolotla'n. Collections made, April 29 -May 2, nos. 12152-12237. 

In 1952, assisted by Joseph Sooby, I worked approximately three months in 
Jalisco (and adjacent Michoacan) and Nayarit. A summary of dates, localities and 
collections has been published, 1 but the following notes may be of interest. We 
reached the borders of Jalisco on September 6; we made collections near Ojuelos and 
near Lagos, along the highways. We then drove from Guadalajara directly to a camp on 
the Nevado de Colima, with the intention of staying some days and exploring the 
summit and upper slopes. We found that continuing rains would prevent this, and we 
accordingly established a base at the Hotel Palmira at Jiquilpan, Michoacan, and from 
here spent a week (September 16-23) exploring the rich and varied flora of the pine 
forests in the Sierra del Tigre near Mazamitla, Jalisco. In spite of the heavy daily rains 
we made large collections there. A second visit to the Nevado de Colima (September 
25) showed us that the trails were not sufficiently dry to permit the passage of a 
truck, and had indeed been much washed out since our earlier visit. We therefore 
undertook a series of trips out from Guadalajara with the object of studying the flora 
of various parts of the uplands in eastern Jalisco. We returned to Lagos, made a 
two-day trip into Arandas, and a short trip to Yahualica. On October 1 and 2 we 
worked in the rough volcanic debris of the mountains near El Molino, in a xerophytic 
flora rich in species. October 4-6 was spent on a trip to Tepic and Jalcocotan. 

October 9, the weather having cleared somewhat, we made our third attempt at 
the Nevado de Colima, and spent several days on the mountain with good results but 
without being able to reach the summit. On the 18th we left the mountain and drove 
to Jiquilpan, stopping near Mazamitla for a survey of what changes had taken place in 
the flora in the month since our last visit, and on the 19th we returned to Guadalajara. 

Wishing to re-visit the Sierra de la Campana, where Hoover and I had worked 
briefly in 1951 , we drove to Ayutla and to a point a little beyond Cuautla on October 
21. It had not rained for about two weeks, but the roads were not yet sufficiently 

l Asa Gray Bull. II, 1: 378-381. 1953. 



good to permit the passage of busses. We made good collections in the forests of 

Quercus resinosa near Cuautla, then went on to my old camp in the Sierra de la 

Campana, where we spent five days (October 22-26) before returning to Guadalajara. 

On our fourth visit to the Nevado de Colima, October 28-November 1, we 


Asa Gray Bulletin. We then on November 1 proceeded to Manzanillo by way of C. 
Guzman, Zapotiltic, Tecalitlan and Pihuamo. Our intention was to make an expedition 
into the Sierra de Manantlan, by way of a truck road north of Santiago, maintained by 
the Aserraderos del Pacifico, of Manzanillo. We found the road as good as we had been 
led to expect, so that we were able to make the somewhat more than 80 km in six 
and one-half hours. An account of our stay (November 2-8) in this fascinating 
cloud-forest area, where we were drenched much of the time in spite of the lateness of 
the season, has also been published. 

November 11—15 we spent in an all-too-hurried trip to an area of pine and fir 
forest known as Rosario, about 40-50 kilometers (by airline) southwest of Ayutla. 
The trip was arranged for us through the kindness of Ing. Agustin Gomez y Gutierrez, 
of the Departamento Forestal in Jalisco, and Sr. Jose Luis Benitez, formerly of 
Guadalajara, who controlled the timber rights on the property. Our party included 
Sres. Benitez, Gomez y Gutierrez, Sooby and myself, and Sres. Gregorio and Silvano 
Zorrilla, of Guadalajara, the administradores of the property. We took a little-used 
truck road, from Ayutla to San Miguel de la Sierra, where we had lunch. We then 
turned somewhat to the south and shortly entered the "Rosario" property. A sawmill 
called La Canada, in elevation about 700 meters above Ayutla, lies in an opening in 
the pine forest, a broad Canada or shallow valley, in which grassland, or zacaton, 
prevails. From La Canada by a very circuitous route across a ridge and down into a 
barranca we reached Agua Blanca, a sawmill and headquarters (37 miles [ca 60 km] 
from Ayutla by our measurements), where we were sumptuously, if simply, entertained 
by our hosts. On the 12th we crossed a very high and steep ridge and descended to the 
sawmill at Santa Monica, where we collected in the rich moist fir forests before 
returning to Agua Blanca the night of the 13th and to Ayutla and Autlan on the 15th 
(our hosts had returned to Guadalajara the preceding day). The fir forest at Santa 
Monica is notable not only for the richness of the flora, but for the low elevation 
(approximately 1900 meters) at which it flourishes. 

On November 16, with the aid of our friend Miguel Santana V., of Autlan, we 
made an excursion to the mountain slopes above the pass which leads to La Resolana. 
This, to our knowledge, was the first time this area had been visited by botanists in 
the fall. Following this, Sooby and I, on November 17, set out for Talpa by way of 
Ayutla. The road having dried since our visit in October, we drove from Ayutla to 
Mascota in six hours, then spent the night of November 18 in Talpa, and arranged for 
horses and a guide to take us into the mountains. As related in the Asa Gray Bulletin, 
we collected in the Sierra de Cuale for four days, before returning to Talpa, Autlan, 
Ciudad Guzman and Guadalajara. This ended our field work for the season, except for 
a visit which I made on December 7 to an area of springs and swamps near Villa 

In 1957, assisted by John T. Mickel and Michael R. McVaugh, I spent two and 
one-half months in Nayarit and Colima, and southern Jalisco, mostly in an attempt to 
collect the common summer-flowering species of the Pacific lowlands. The first part of 
the season included several exploratory excursions into areas where the wet-season 
flora had not yet fully developed, and to localities that were visited and explored more 
adequately later in the summer. We came to Lagos, Jalisco, near the end of the dry 
season, climbed Mesa Redonda June 16, made a quick trip via Guadalajara to 
Jalcocotan and Mecatan beyond Tepic (June 18—19) and a similar excursion (June 
20—24) southward from Guadalajara, via the then newly opened road from Acatlan de 



Juarez, to Ciudad Guzman and the northern foothills of the Nevado de Colima, thence 
via Atenquique and the paved highway to Colima and Manzanillo. At this time rains 
had begun between Tecalitlan and the coast. We collected in the lowlands along the 
road (then in process of paving) between Manzanillo and Cihuatlan. We returned 
through Colima to the Sierra del Halo, which we entered by a lumber road that leaves 
the highway about 11-12 km southwest of Tecalitlan; here we went in briefly up to 
the pine forest on June 23, and planned to return later. While I flew out of 
Guadalajara to a meeting in Ann Arbor (June 26— July 3) the assistants collected in the 
hills south of Lake Chapala. Our collections during this first part of the trip included 
nos. 14876-15130. 

On my return we proceeded toward Tepic, stopping at Ahuacatlan, Nayarit, to 
take the new road over the mountains toward the southeast in the direction of 
Barranca del Oro, collecting in the Arroyo de la Fundicion at an elevation of some 
1300 m where there is apparently permanent water, and farther over the ridge in the 
oak forest (July 6—7). We then set up a base in Tepic and made daily excursions, 
including one to the vicinity of the hydroelectric plant on Rio Ingenio (about 30 km 
north of Tepic), and another (July 9) to the south side of Cerro San Juan above 
Jalisco. Little was in flower in the pine forest. On July 10 we collected in the barranca 
below the Mirador del Aguila about 25 km north of Tepic. On July 11 we went by 
paved road to Compostela and on by the gravel road to Mazatan; the following day we 
returned to Mazatan and went on down the steep but quite acceptable road to Las 
Varas. The road from Las Varas to the coast was said to be "muy feo," so we returned 
to Tepic. On July 13 we visited the lava flows at the foot of Volca'n Ceboruco, and 
the 14th we drove to Guadalajara. Our collections in Nayarit, July 6—13, included nos. 

Leaving Guadalajara July 16, for a trip of almost a month to the State of Colima, 
we found the lowlands were much greener than when we were there three weeks 
earlier, but still not fully in flower. On July 18 we went down the Manzanillo road to 
an area of limestone and gypsum rocks where the highway crosses the mountains about 
11 miles (17—18 km) south-southwest of Colima at an elevation of about 500 m. Later 
the same day we established our headquarters on Santiago Bay, 8—10 km west of 
Manzanillo. From there we made excursions to Cuyutlan (July 22-23), to various 
localities on Santiago Bay and toward Cihuatlan, Jalisco, and on several occasions (July 
27, 30, 31, August 1) toward the then-thriving sawmill town of Durazno, north of 
Santiago across the gorge of the Rio Cihuatlan in Jalisco. Our collections included nos. 
15409-15479 (southern Jalisco, July 16-17), 15480-15518 (between Colima and the 
Jalisco border, July 17—19), 15519—15576 (near the pass south-southwest of Colima, 
July 18-19), 15577-15800, 15847-15898 (lowlands up and down the coast from 
Manzanillo, July 21-30), 15801-15846, 15899-15987 (north of Santiago, in Colima 
and Jalisco, July 27— August 1). 

After a trip (August 5—9) to Guadalajara, we returned to Colima. On August 9 we 
collected nos. 16016— 16033 A near Puente San Pedro (ca 8 km southwest of 
Tecalitlan; we had collected nos. 15437—15458 here on July 16). On August 10 we 
drove from Colima to Tecoman and beyond, as far as the Rio Coahuayana, which was 
impassable for us, although some vehicles were being pulled across by tractors. On the 
11th we drove from Colima to the old Hacienda San Antonio, which lies in the 
western foothills of the Nevado de Colima, about 30 km north of the city in a humid 
barranca at an elevation of about 1 100 m. 

For three days (August 13—16) we returned to the Sierra del Halo where we had 
prospected briefly on June 23. This time we ascended at once by the lumber road near 
Puente San Pedro, to the pine forest about 5 km above the highway, at an elevation of 
about 1500 m. Later we went in farther toward the center of lumbering operations, 
San Isidro, reaching an elevation of about 2000 m at a point some 22 km from the 


highway and overlooking the town of Pihuamo (we discovered later that at this point 
we were only about 4 km from San Isidro, which lay beyond the summit). 

Our collections included nos. 16034-16063 (near the pass south-southwest of 
Colima, August 10), 16064-16072 (lowlands near Tecoman, August 10), 
16073-16117 (near San Antonio, August 11), 16119-16270 (Sierra del Halo, August 

After a trip to Guadalajara and Mexico City, we planned another excursion to 
Tepic. After collecting nos. 16275-16327 on August 24, in the grassy hills south of 
Santa Cruz de las Flores (where we had taken no. 14940 on June 20 and nos. 
15414-15419 on July 16), we left Guadalajara on August 25. We collected again in 
the Arroyo de la Fundicion (nos. 16328-16361). The following day we spent in the 
pine-oak forest near km 870, about 35 km southeast of Tepic (nos. 16362-16436). 
On August 27-29, from a base in Tepic, we collected in humid ravines in the oak 
forest about 14-15 km north of Compostela, at an elevation of about 1000 m (nos. 
16437-16567). On August 30 we stopped at a prominent grassy hill near km 886, 
about 20 km southeast of Tepic (nos. 16568-16600). We reached Guadalajara the 
same day, and left for Michigan on September 1 . 

In 1958, assisted by Hugh F. Loveland and Richard W. Pippen, I concentrated on 
the flora of Aguascalientes and northeastern Jalisco ("Los Altos"), and visited for the 
first time the region of Apatzinga'n and the valley of the Rio Tepalcatepec. From a 
base in the City of Aguascalientes we collected from August 8 until August 17 at 
various localities in the grasslands and semi-arid rhyolitic hills between Aguascalientes 
and Ojuelos. The rains were unusually heavy this year, and we found abundant 
vegetation even in the drier areas. Our collections included nos. 16622-17079. Nos. 
16995-17040 were collected August 16, in a rich wooded canyon to which we were 



18 we made an excursion to the Cerro de los Gallos northeast of Encarnacion de Diaz 
Jalisco, where on the dry oak-covered slopes and the grassland to the eastward we 
collected nos. 17080-17152. 

After a short trip to Guadalajara, we moved our base of operations to the Hotel 
La Marina at Atotonilco el Alto, Jalisco, a town then newly accessible by paved road. 
The rocky hills are mostly oak-covered, and there are some intervening marshy areas. 
Nos. 17155-17248, and 17307-17336 were taken (August 22, 23, 25) from the 
vicinity of Atotonilco and the nearby village of Ayo el Chico. On August 24 we 

collected (nos. 17249-17306) in a flooded and nearly undisturbed meadow near km 
58 from Zapotlanejo and about 1 1 km northwest of Tototlan. 

On August 26 we moved to Hotel Navarro in Tepatitlan, Jalisco, and continued 
our excursions from that base, collecting in and near the barranca of the Rio Verde 
north of the city (August 27-28, nos. 17337-17456). On August 29 we climbed to 
an elevation of about 2400 near the summit of Cerro Gordo, a prominent isolated 
elevation southeast of Tepatitlan, ascending by a trail from San Ignacio (nos. 
17457-17530). On August 30 we collected nos. 17531-17556 on the bluffs between 
Jalostotitlan and San Miguel el Alto, and on our return made a side-trip to Capilla de 
Guadalupe where we discovered a small water-filled depression with a rich flora of 
aquatics. The following day we returned to this last locality; we collected nos. 
17557-17587 in the vicinity. On September 1 we removed to our former base, the 
Motel San Marcos in Aguascalientes, collecting en route in the wet grassland 
depressions west of Lagos de Moreno, and in the eroded hills near San Juan de los 
Lagos (nos. 17588-17642). 

Pippen and I left Aguascalientes on September 3 and drove to Fresnillo and 
Valparaiso, Zacatecas, whence we took the way through the grassland to a camp near 
the junction of the roads between Huejuquilla and Mezquitic, Jalisco. Here in the 
rocky hills at the summit of the bajada leading down to Mezquitic, we collected nos. 



17643-17767 (September 3-5). The locality is about 5 km south of a rancho called 
Potrero de las Yeguas, and about 30 km southwest of Valparaiso. 

After a hurried trip to Mexico City, our entire party returned to Aguascalientes on 
September 10, and to Guadalajara the next day. After necessary repairs to our truck, 
we drove to Apatzingan, Michoacan (via Carapan and Uruapan), and made our 
headquarters at Hotel Tapachula (September 13). We found the hot valley of 
Apatzingan in good condition after recent rains. We at once took the road for the 
mountains south of the Rio Tepalcatepec, crossing the river (September 14) about 30 
km west-southwest of Apatzingan and then following the road to Aguililla for 40 km 
before turning off to climb another 35 km to the lumber camp of Dos Aguas, which 
lies nearly west of Aguililla, in the pine forest at an elevation of 2000-2200 m. Below 
Dos Aguas, near the site of our camp, is the junction between volcanic rocks and 
limestone. We spent one night in the mountains, and returned to Apatzingan the next 
day because of worsening weather. For the next 3 days we collected in the valley, 
working out of Apatzingan in the grasslands and thorn-forests. On the 19th we 
returned to Jiquilpan. Our collections during the trip to Apatzingan included nos. 
17818-17888 (road to Dos Aguas, September 14-15), and 17889-18040 (hot 
lowlands, valley of Apatzingan, September 16-19). 

We concluded our field-work for this year by a short trip to Colima, September 
20-22. We collected especially at two localities I had visited earlier in the season, in 
1957, in the gypsum hills south-southwest of Colima (nos. 18046-18081, September 
21), and near Puente San Pedro (nos. 18090-18137, September 22). From our base at 
Hotel Palmira in Jiquilpan we collected nos. 18142-18199 (September 23) on steep 
high hills above Lake Chapala, some 12-13 km northwest of Sahuayo. The next day 
we went on to Guadalajara to prepare for the return journey to Michigan. 


Accompanied by the veteran collector Dr. Walter N. Koelz, I arrived in Aguas- 
calientes on November 1. We found conditions in the high grasslands much less 
favorable for botanists than they had been in 1958 when the rainfall was unusually 
high. We arranged with Sr. Jose Velasco, who had lived in Calvillo as a boy, to show us 
the mountains near there, and on November 2 we set out for the Sierra del Laurel. 
The road was paved about halfway from Aguascalientes to Calvillo; from the latter 
town we went south a short distance through the guava orchards to Rancho Los 
Adobes, where we hired pack-animals. We returned on November 4 and ascended 
through deciduous woodlands into the oak-forests near the summit peaks at an 
elevation of about 2500 m. We descended the same day, by a different route via a 
precipitous stream-valley. On November 5 we went by a newly surfaced road via 
Teocaltiche and Yahualica to Guadalajara, collecting nos. 259-300 on the way. Our 
collections in Aguascalientes, all distributed under the names of the joint collectors 
("McVaugh & Koelz"), were nos. 1-37 and 67-79 (between Ojuelos and Aguas- 
calientes, November 1—2), between Aguascalientes and Calvillo (nos. 38—66, 80—161, 
November 2-3), 162—238 (Sierra del Laurel, November 4). 

During a short stay in Guadalajara, we collected nos. 301—342 on the rocky 
cuesta above San Marcos on the lake of the same name, nearly west of the end of 
Lake Chapala (November 7). The next day we climbed the southern face of the 
mountains between Jocotepec and San Juan Cozala, reaching an elevation of about 
1900 m, and collecting nos. 343-391. We left Guadalajara on November 9 for a 
two-day trip to Jiquilpan and Mazamitla; we collected nos. 398—474 in the pine 
forests of the Sierra del Tigre where I had worked in 1952, then returned to 
Guadalajara on the 11th, and went on to Tepic. 




oak forests 14—15 km north of Compostela where I had collected in 1957 (nos. 
477-586, November 12-13), and at other localities near Compostela (nos. 587-651, 
November 13-14). Also on the 14th we made a short trip up into the pine forest 
above Jalisco, some 9 km toward El Malinal (nos. 652-679). On the 15th we collected 
in the deciduous forest between Jalcocotan and the coast at Miramar (nos. 680-709), 
and at several localities along the road north of Tepic (nos. 710-727). 

Leaving Tepic on November 16, we collected along the road from Ahuacatlan to 
Barranca del Oro (nos. 728-847, November 16-18), while camping in the oak forest 
near the summits of the ridge. We continued to Guadalajara on the 18th, and to 
Autlan on the 20th. Since my last visit to Autlan in 1952, the road had been paved as 
far as Cocula, and then from the bridge at Corcovado to Autlan and on to the ocean, 
leaving only a rough stretch of perhaps 75 miles unpaved. From a base at Hotel 
Valencia we collected on the seaward-facing slopes in the oak forest about 3 km below 
the pass and 14-15 km southwest of Autlan (nos. 848-899, November 21). On 
November 22 and 23 we drove about 11-12 km nearly south of Autlan to the small 
valley village of Ahuacapan, then ascended steeply to the south and southeast to the 
lumbering center of Corralitos, another 14 km by winding roads. We collected, mostly 
in the barranca- forests, nos. 900-1018. After collecting a few more specimens on the 
dry hills northeast of Autlan (nos. 1019-1037), we left the same day by the paved 
road to the coast. 

We found the recent hurricane had left the Colima coast devastated. From Barra 
de Navidad, where the new Hotel Melaque was under construction, to Manzanillo, the 
damage to vegetation was very great. Whole stream valleys were washed completely 
clean and a gravel plain a mile wide left below; deciduous forests near Cihuatlan were 
almost unrecognizable, with trees by the thousands broken and leafless; the palm 
forests encircling Bahia de Santiago, where we had botanized in 1957, were almost 
;one; the trees did not overturn, but snapped off cleanly 6-10 m above the ground. 
Near Santiago and the Manzanillo airport the breakage was almost 100 percent, with 
nothing but a forest of great columnar stumps left standing. Manzanillo itself was full 
of rubble but recognizable, but a few miles further southeast the palm-groves were 
almost normal. We decided not to tarry here but to continue into the relatively 
undisturbed uplands, so proceeded to Colima, crossing the Rio Armeria on the railroad 
bridge because the highway span had been washed out. 

On the next day, November 25, we collected in the gypsum hills south-southwest 
of Colima (nos. 1040-1079), but found the deciduous forest dry at this time. We set 
off for Guadalajara on the 26th, after collecting a few specimens in the valley of the 
Rio Salado, 8 km southeast of Colima (nos. 1080-1102); we took the new road that 
led from below Tecalitlan to Atenquique, and another (newly paved) road from Ciudad 
Guzman to Guadalajara. 


We had arranged to meet Professor Faustino Miranda, who was coming from 
Mexico City, in Jiquilpan on December 1, so in the meantime we decided to revisit the 
Sierra del Halo, which I had never seen at this season. On the way we took a few 
interesting plants (nos. 1105-1121, November 28) from the Laguna de Zapotlan where 
the new road crossed it just north of C. Guzman. We continued the same day into the 
Sierra del Halo as far as San Isidro (about 25 km from the highway), then returned a 


1298. Here near the 

area where we had collected extensively in August 1957, about 20 km from the 
highway at an elevation of about 2100 m, Dr. Koelz found extensive stands of a 


higher hills. The forest here has 


We met Professor Miranda in Jiquilpan according to plan, drove to Colima on 



December 2, and from our base at Motel Costeno returned on the 3rd to the Sierra del 
Halo to inspect the Podocarpus and other elements of the barranca-forests. The next 
few days were taken up with excursions to points near Colima, the most interesting 
new localities supporting characteristic deciduous forests over tumbled and eroded 
limestone rocks, 6-13 km southwest of Pihuamo. On December 9, after a visit to 
Tecoman and a trip over the newly paved road to Cerro de Ortega on the Rio 
Coahuayana, we drove up the coast and settled at the Hotel Playa de Santiago on 
Santiago Bay. Our collections from near Colima included nos. 1299-1317 (Puente San 
Pedro, December 2); 1350-1378 (Sierra del Halo, December 3); 1379-1439, 
1466-1536 (region of Pihuamo and from Pihuamo to Rio Tuxpan, December 4-6); 
1440-1465, 1554-1562 (southeast of Colima, December 5, 7); 1537-1553, 
1563-1598 (gypsum area south-southwest of Colima, December 7-9); 1599-1616 

(near Cerro de Ortega, December 9). 

On December 10 we rode out to the north on the road to Rio Cihuatlan and 
Durazno, which had been such a profitable area in 1957, but we found that the 
hurricane had made the road to the river all but impassable, broken and stripped the 
forest, and carried away the concrete bridge that had spanned the river. The next day 
we moved our headquarters to Barra de Navidad, and explored a new private road 
leading through forested hills to the beach called Playa de Cuastecomate, 8 km to the 
northwest. We made another trip to the beach area on the 12th, then moved to a 
camp in the Brosimum-Orbignya forest in the hills 14-15 km from the ocean on the 
Autlan road. We left camp on December 14, and returned through Manzanillo and 
Tecoman to Colima. On the 15th we drove to Jiquilpan, stopping at the limestone 
outcrops southwest of Pihuamo. Professor Miranda left for Mexico on the 16th, and 
Koelz and I began our trip to Michigan. Our last collections included nos. 1617-1637, 
1672-1719, 1787-1792 (coastal lowlands, December 9-14); 1638-1671 (between 
Santiago and Rio Cihuatlan gorge, December 10); 1720— 1786 (near camp 14— 15 km north 
of Bahia de Navidad, December 12-13); 1793-1800 (limestone areas southwest of 
Pihuamo, December 15). 


On August 23, accompanied by Charles Feddema and Richard W. Pippen, 1 arrived 
in Aguascalientes, where Professor J. Rzedowski of Mexico City awaited us. We spent 
the next two days collecting (nos. 18251-18345) in the high grasslands and rocky 
ridges 28-40 km west of the city. On August 26, by previous arrangement, and guided 
as in 1959 by Jose Velasco, we drove to Rancho los Adobes near Calvillo and took 
pack animals to ascend the Sierra del Laurel, reaching our camp in mid-afternoon. We 
spent two days and nights near the summits, returning to Calvillo and Aguascalientes 
on the evening of August 28. Our collections from this trip included nos. 

18346-18453, and 18455-18478. 

From Aguascalientes we made an excursion August 30, via Calvillo to just beyond 
Jalpa, Zacatecas, collecting nos. 18479-18516. The road since our visit last year had 
been paved to a point 6—8 km beyond Calvillo. 

The next day, August 31, we drove to Guadalajara via Lagos to prepare for a trip 
to Tepic. In the course of the next two days we made short excursions, to the 
barranca at Presa de Santa Rosa north of Amatitan, to Ameca, and to the rough hills 
near El Molino, about at km 640, or 25 km southwest of Guadalajara. Our collections 
included nos. 18527-18611. On September 3 we drove to Tepic and made our base at 
Motel La Loma. We collected a few specimens (nos. 18612-18660, 18667) in 
grasslands near Tequila, and 18661 — 18666 between Tequila and Tepic. 

From our base at Tepic we made various excursions, viz. on September 4 to the 
oak-pine forest near km 868 and 866, ca. 40 km southeast of Tepic, near where I had 


collected in August, 1957 (nos. 18668-18730); on September 5 to swampy meadows 
and forested areas on the road to Compostela and beyond (nos. 1873 1-1 8761 A), on 
the 6th to the coast via Jalcocotan and Miramar, and again toward Jalcocotan on the 
7th (nos. 18762-18841). Dr. Rzedowski left for Mexico City this evening. From the 
8th to the 12th we continued our explorations of the rich wooded ravines between 
Tepic and Jalcocotan (nos. 18843-18993). On the 13th we descended into the 
barranca below the Mirador del Aguila (nos. 18994-19008), and on the 14th we made 
a hurried trip to the coast near Chacala, ca 8 km west of Las Varas; the road from 
Tepic to Compostela was paved, but from there to Mazatan (ca 18 km) and down to 
Las Varas (25 km) it was rough; we collected nos. 19009-19029 during the day. On 
September 15 and 16 we drove over the newly paved road to Santa Maria del Oro, and 
the equally new graded road above the beautiful crater lake in the deciduous forest 
some 5 km further northeast (nos. 19030-19082). 

On our return to Tepic on September 16 we were joined by Ing. Efraim 
Hernandez X. of the National School of Agriculture. The next day Feddema flew by 
Aerolineas Fierro to Jesus Maria in northeastern Nayarit, whence he returned Septem- 
ber 24 with a collection of about 265 numbers. In the meantime Pippen and I, with 
Prof. Hernandez, drove to Las Varas and continued south along the coast as far as we 
could practicably go. The roads were muddy and slippery, and although we were on 
the regular truck road to Puerto Vallarta, we saw no other vehicle during the 3 nights 
we camped below Las Varas. On leaving Tepic September 17, we camped the first 
night in the mountains some 11 km below Mazatan; collections this day included nos. 
19083-19124, including many grasses chosen by Prof. Hernandez. On the 18th we 
went about 10 km south of Las Varas in the coastal lowlands, then turned inland and 
began ascending toward La Cucaracha, a hamlet about 12-13 km east or southeast of 
this last road-junction and just over a low pass at about 400 m elevation. We camped 
in the Orbignya-Brosimum forest in these low mountains until the morning of the 21st, 
when we returned to Tepic. Our collections included nos. 19125-19262. On the 

return journey we collected nos. 19263-19300 in seepage areas in savannahs 3 km east 
of Las Varas. 

On September 22 we made an excursion (collecting nos. 19309—19363) to 
extensive swampy meadows 6—8 km north of Compostela, that we had visited briefly 
on September 5. On the 23rd, while I drove to Guadalajara, Pippen and Hernandez 
made a short trip to the beach near San Bias (nos. 19434-19451). On the 25th we 
collected nos. 19364—19393 in the ravines between Tepic and Jalcocotan, and on the 
same day Hernandez and I took nos. 19394—19433 in inundated meadows near La 
Labor, some 35 km southeast of Tepic. 

We assembled on September 26 in Guadalajara, where Prof. Rzedowski joined us 
again. After an excursion on the 27th to the alkaline lake basins south of Acatlan de 
Juarez (nos. 19452—19488), we drove the following day to Autlan, where we made 
our base as usual at Hotel Valencia. On the way to Autlan we collected nos. 
19494—19530 in the alkaline marshes near Villa Corona. On September 29 the entire 
party attempted the road above Ahuacapan toward Corralitos, but the upper roads 
proved to be impassable and we worked in the pine forests up to an elevation of about 
1800 m (nos. 19531-19643). On the 30th we drove up into the much drier mountains 
nearly north of Autlan, 5—8 km above the manganese mine called Mina de San 
Francisco; in the oak zone and the transition to tropical forest we took nos. 
19644—19711. On October 1 we made a hurried excursion to Barra de Navidad, 
Cihuatlan, and Playa de Cuastecomate (nos. 19712—19746). 

Prof. Hernandez left for Mexico the next morning (October 2), while the rest of 
the party collected on the cuesta above the bridge at Corcovado, some 25 km 
northeast of Autlan (nos. 19747-19794). On October 3 we made an excursion to the 
oak forest on the ridges some 5 km toward the coast from La Huerta, where we met 



the owner of the property, Sr. Longinos Vasquez, and secured his permission to 
botanize (nos. 19795-19848). Our excursion on the 4th was to the seaward side of 
the pass between Autlan and the coast, where at an elevation of about 1000 m we 
investigated the grassland flora that seems to be maintained by grazing and burning 
(nos. 19860-19904, and in ravines lower down nos. 19849-19858). Prof. Rzedowski 
left for Mexico early on the 5th (Feddema and Pippen driving him to Guadalajara), 
while 1 returned to the area above Mina de San Francisco (nos. 19905-19935). After 
the assistants returned, and after some delay for necessary errands and repairs to the 
truck, we revisited the ravines where we had taken nos. 19849-19858 on October 4, 
and made a fuller collection (October 7, nos. 19936-19987). 

On October 9 we began the first of two long excursions to the mountainous 
regions of western Jalisco, near Talpa de Allende and between Talpa and Ayutla. The 
road to Ayutla, Cuautla, and Los Volcanes, which was indescribably bad when I passed 
over it in 1951 and 1952, had been graded in 1960 as far as the mountains (the 
"Sierra de la Campana") beyond Los Volcanes, where we camped the first night out of 
Autlan. On the way here we collected in the dry oak forest northwest of Cuautla (nos. 
19989-20009), and the next morning we took nos. 20010-20067 near camp on the 
west side of the mountains. We left camp on the 11th and drove over the old road to 
Talpa, where we made our base in the hotel back of the municipal offices, the same in 
which Sooby and I had stayed in 1952. Once settled, we returned several times on 
successive days to the vicinity of the pass about 6-8 km back on the road to Ayutla 
and collected in the oak-pine forest and in a small sheltered valley above and north of 
the pass (nos. 20068-20199, 20201-20236, October 12—14; 20336-20374, October 


We were informed in Talpa that it was possible to drive over the mountains to the 

south of town, the road having been graded in order to facilitate the marketing of the 
coffee crop in La Cuesta, a small town at the foot of the range on the Pacific side. We 
set out on October 15, over a very rough muddy one-track road which crossed a 
branch of the Rio Talpa and then began to ascend into the pine forest about 15 km 
south of Talpa, and crossed the pass about 4 km further on, at an elevation of about 
1400 m. At the pass the pine forest gave way to a deciduous forest including several 
species of oaks (Quercus). The narrow and often dangerous but well-engineered road, 
built with many retaining walls, dropped steeply in another 13 km to La Cuesta, at an 
elevation of about 570 m. On this first trip we returned to a camp about two-thirds of 
the way to the top, and made our way back to Talpa on the 16th. Collections were 
nos. 20237-20248 and 20330-20335 in the pine forest, and 20249-20329 between 
La Cuesta and the pass. 

After organizing our collections in Talpa, we returned on October 18th and 19th 

to the area where the Rio Talpa emerges from the mountains as the road begins to 

ascend into the pine forest. We found that the clear stream came through a deep 

humid barranca with a characteristic flora including very large oaks, Podocarpus, and 

Matudaea of the Hamamelidaceae. In two excursions to this barranca-forest we 

collected nos. 20375-20413 and 20430-20461, taking as well nos. 20414-20429 

from the pine forest nearby. 

At this point our collecting in the Talpa area was interrupted by a trip to Mexico 

City, where we attended the first Mexican Botanical Congress. We made a few 
collections on the way out (October 20), including nos. 20468-20473 in a swampy 
meadow east of Los Volcanes. We returned from Mexico to Guadalajara on the 29th of 
October, then made several excursions from Guadalajara, including four over a newly 
paved road via Amacueca to Tapalpa. In the oak and pine forests along this road, we 
collected nos. 20477-20726, October 30 and November 1-3. 

Leaving for Autlan on November 5, we collected nos. 20727—20741 in the broad 
inundated meadows north of Union de Tula. We continued to the coast on November 




6, and established our base at the newly opened Hotel Melaque on Bahia de Navidad. 
We made short excursions to the Playa de Cuastecomate which Koelz and I had visited 
with Miranda the year before (nos. 20742-20763, November 6); to Santiago via 
Cihuatlan, where the new bridge was being built (about half the concrete piers were in 
place) (nos. 20764-20812, November 7); to the edge of the foothills north of Bahia de 
Navidad (nos. 20813-20903, November 8-9); and to the steep ravines 12-15 km 
north of the bay, and 2—4 km above the edge of the flat coastal plain (nos. 
20904—20956, November 9—10). These ravines, near where we had camped in 1959, 
supported a luxuriant forest of Brosimum, Bursera, and Ficus on a calcareous 
substratum, with Orbignya and Hura dropping out above about 350 m. 

On November 11 and 12 we made successive excursions to the hamlet of La 
Manzanilla on Tenacatita Bay, collecting nos. 20957—21024. From a road-junction 
about 3 km north of Bahia de Navidad, a primitive road crossed the mountains to La 
Manzanilla, ascending to about 200 m in the first 3 km and then descending a creek 
valley for about 5 km (crossing the creek 12 times) before leveling off in the coastal 
Orbignya forest for the last 5 km. The forest on the hilly part of the road included a 
large element of Orbignya throughout, and various deciduous trees as well. 

Professor Rzedowski rejoined our party on the evening of November 11. On the 
13th we explored the possibility of reaching Tomatlan via La Huerta, but found the 
road impassable. On the 13th, 14th, and 16th we collected on two hill-savannahs 
dominated by Curatella and Byrsonima, the one about 20 km south of La Huerta, the 
other between La Huerta and La Resolana (nos. 21037-21064, 21066-21126, 

We moved our base to the Hotel Valencia in Autlan for the nights of the 15th and 
16th of November, and the next day we drove again to Talpa, finding the country 
much drier everywhere than it was when we came through a little over a month ago. 
On the 18th we drove over the mountains to La Cuesta and attempted to go on to 
Llano Grande and Tomatlan, but found the road impassable, so returned and camped 
in the humid deciduous forest mixed with coffee plantations, 3 km above La Cuesta, 
at an elevation of about 800 m. On the 19th we collected around our camp and along 
the road above and below it (nos. 21129—21177). The next day we walked up a little 
higher (800-1 100 m) and collected nos. 21178-21240, mostly in the high sub- 
deciduous forest, but partly in the oak forest on the ridges. On the 21st we took nos. 

21242—21262 from the same general localities. On the 20th we had a heavy 3-hour 
rain in the evening. A young man who lived in La Cuesta, Sr. Wenceslao Avalos, visited 
us and spent a day with us, giving us many local vernacular names for plants. On the 
21st Rzedowski and Feddema engaged a ride on a truck going to Llano Grande; they 
returned at 8 a.m. the next morning, having ridden all night; they had a few plants, 
which we numbered 21 263-2 1275B. 

We broke camp in the coffee plantation about noon on the 22nd, crossed the pass 
to the side facing Talpa, and camped in the pine forest above the stream, at an 
elevation of about 1350 m. On the way to this day's camp we collected nos. 
21276—21310. We stayed and worked here until November 26, when we moved for 
one night to a locality on another branch of the Rio Talpa, after which we returned 
through Talpa and turned eastward on the 27th. We collected nos. 21311—21434, and 
21437—21438 at our first camp in the pine forest between Talpa and La Cuesta, 
mostly in the barranca- forest, November 23—25. Dr. Rzedowski left us on the 25th, to 
return to Mexico. On the 26th when we left camp, we crossed the Rio Talpa, then 
turned right (east) at the first ranch (Los Sauces), taking a little-used road said to go 
eventually to San Miguel de la Sierra and Ayutla. We went in for about 5 km, 

These forests near the highway were almost all destroyed by cutting and burning between 

1960 and 1965. 



ascending from about 1250 m at the ranch to 1400 m, finally camping in a deep 
forested stream-valley; here we collected nos. 21435-21436, and 21439-21472. 

After passing through Talpa on the 27th, we drove out on the road to Los 
Volcanes as far as the junction with the road to La Mirandilla and El Rincon (i.e. ca 10 
km east of the Talpa-Mascota junction). We passed El Rincon (the site of a large 
sawmill-village), 14-15 km south of the highway, and began to ascend a rapidly 
narrowing stream-valley. We camped at the 3rd water-crossing, in a forest dominated 
by Fraxinus and Alnus, about 6 km south of El Rincon, at an elevation of about 
1600 m. On the 28th we collected near camp (nos. 21473-21503), then continued up 
the valley for 5 km, ascending to 1700 m at a road-junction where we turned abruptly 
right (west) up the mountainside and rose to 2100 m in 4 km. 

We turned left and followed more or less along the summit of a high ridge and 
camped in a clearing left by loggers, about 2 km down the ridge, at about 2250 m. We 
found the next morning (November 29) that we were about 5 km from La Cumbre, 
another sawmill village well-known throughout the area. We followed the ridge all 
morning, travelling generally southward and south-eastward, with precipitous descents 
on our right. The forest on the ridge was mostly of pines, with firs {Abies) in the 
ravines on our left and ascending practically to the summit. Elevations along the ridge 
ranged from about 2100 to 2350 m. We continued through La Cumbre, then after 
another 12—14 km to the hamlet of El Carmen, and after about 12 km more we 
reached the sawmill village of San Miguel de la Sierra, where I had visited in 1952. We 
camped in the dry pine-oak forest 3 km east of San Miguel, and drove through to 

Guadalajara on the 30th. 

Our collections after leaving the valley of El Rincon included nos. 21505-21549 
in the fir forests north of La Cumbre, nos. 21550-21560 in the region of El Carmen, 
21561—21573 from east of San Miguel de la Sierra. 


In company with Dr. Arthur Cronquist of the New York Botanical Garden, I 
arrived in Tepic October 3, after a short period of field work in Durango. Dr. 
Cronquist was especially interested in improving his knowledge of Mexican Compositae, 
and his collecting was concentrated in this family. In my collecting I made an attempt 
to specialize on the more interesting things I had not noted before in Nueva Galicia, 
with emphasis on the genus Bursera. We maintained separate series of collections. On 
October 4 we drove to Guadalajara, collecting nos. 21755—21763 near La Laguna 
beyond Santa Maria del Oro, and 21765—21774 on grassy summits west of Plan de 
Barrancas near the Nayarit line. On October 6 we drove to Queretaro, collecting nos. 
21776—21782 at the crossing of the Rio Lerma 1 1 km northwest of La Piedad. 

We worked in eastern and southeastern Mexico until October 26, when we drove 
from near Ario de Rosales via La Huacana and Zicuiran to Apatzingan, where we 
stayed at Hotel Tapachula. On the 27th, after necessary repairs to the truck, we drove 
to Buenavista Tomatla'n to inquire about a road north to Los Reyes, but were 
informed that no readily passable road existed, so we returned through Apatzingan and 
ascended into the pine forest below Uruapan, where we camped. On the 28th we 
continued through Uruapan to the junction with the road past Paricutin, where we 
turned left. A good gravel road took us some 60 km to Los Reyes, almost all the way 
through high pine-covered hills, until near Periban de Ramos we began to descend. We 
collected nos. 21959—21965 near Los Reyes, then went on via Zamora to Jiquilpan. 

On October 29 we drove to Colima, collecting nos. 21966—21979 at localities 
along the highway. The next day we attempted to drive to Atenquique via Tonila, a 
road I had passed over in the dry season in 1951, but we were informed that there was 


now no passage between San Marcos and Atenquique, even for jeeps, so we returned to 
Colima and took the regular road to Atenquique via the cut-off below Tecalitlan. We 
continued around the Nevado de Colima to the north flank, where we camped at 
about 2200 m. On the 31st we drove around the north end of the volcano, mostly 
downhill through rich pine-oak forest for 12—13 km, then about 3 km through 
cornfields to Jazmin at 1600 m. West from Jazmin the road ran slightly downhill for 3 
km to the junction of roads from Tollman and Tonaya. We took the right fork (that 
to Tonaya), newly cut rather straight down a ridge to the northwest, avoiding the old 
road to San Gabriel. We passed Totolimispa (at 1100 m), some 12 km from Jazmin, 
and after another 12 km to the northwest we reached Apulco, when we began to 
follow a river toward Tonaya, which is about 10 km further along. Here we were 
directed toward El Limon, but eventually found that the usual road was impassable. 
After a series of back roads, mostly after dark, we failed to find El Limon but were 
sent to El Grullo, from which it was an easy trip to Autlan. During the day's travel we 
collected a few specimens, mostly in the thorn forest between Totolimispa and Tonaya 
(nos. 21980-21994). 

On November 1 we drove out over the highway pass southwest of Autlan and I 
collected nos. 21995—21999, all species of Bursera. The following day we drove via 
Ayutla to a camp in the fir forest about 3 km beyond San Miguel de la Sierra. My 
collections for the day, all from between Ayutla and San Miguel, were nos. 
22000—22016. On November 3 we collected near our camp (nos. 22017—22057), then 
drove on through the cut-over fir-forest, along the road toward El Carmen. About 7 
km from our first camp, or 10 km from San Miguel, we stopped for the night in the 
pine forest, and the next morning I collected nos. 22058—22074. We left in the fog 
and rain soon after noon, and made our third camp about 5 km east of San Miguel, 
near where our party had stopped in November 1960. On this whole trip to San 
Miguel we were much hindered by rain, and on November 5 we collected only nos. 
22075—22081, all the way back to Ayutla. We continued to Guadalajara, where we 
stayed at Motel Isabel through November 8, making short excursions to Juanacatlan 
and Ocotlan (November 7, nos. 22082—22090) and to the barranca below Huentitan 

(November 8, nos. 22091-22111). 

We left Guadalajara on November 9 on the rough rocky road to San Cristobal de 
la Barranca, and made camp at 5 p.m. under the cliffs some 6—7 km north of 
Milpillas; here at the beginning of the descent to San Cristobal we found an interesting 
series of Bursera hybrids. Collections for the day were nos. 22112—22133. On the 
morning of the 10th we went down to San Cristobal, crossed the river by a narrow 
rickety suspension bridge, climbed by a rough steep road to the Zacatecas line and 
continued over dry grassy hills to Mezquital del Oro, about 30 km from San Cristobal. 
Here the road ended; it was impossible to cross to the highway in the Moyahua-Jalpa 
valley, so we started back to Guadalajara and camped in Jalisco at the head of the 
descent to the Rio Santiago. On the 11th we returned to Guadalajara by the same 
road, and on the 12th we left for San Luis Potosi and Michigan. Our collections on 
November 10 and 11 included nos. 22134-22149, mostly from the broad barranca 
north and south of San Cristobal. 


In January and early February, assisted by William R. Anderson, Chester W. 
Laskowski and Michael F. Baad, I collected in southern Mexico as far west as central 
Michoacan. We left Apatzingan on March 1 for a week's excursion to the Dos Aguas 
area, west of Aguililla in the high mountains, that I had visited briefly in September 
1958. We camped that night at the lower edge of the oak zone at an elevation of 



1200 m, some 8 km northwest of Aguililla and 22 km below Dos Aguas, where in a 
forested outcrop of jaggedly eroded and tumbled limestone we found many interesting 
species (nos. 22646-22670, 22673, 22875). On the 2nd we rode up to a base camp in 
the pine forest about 6 km below Dos Aguas, at about 2000 m. From this base we 
collected in the nearby forests (nos. 22671-22777, March 3-4), then worked along 
the lumber roads that followed the summits of the ridges, at elevations between 2200 
and 2500 m, as far as El Barroloso, about 32 km southwest of Dos Aguas. On March 
5th and 6th we collected nos. 22778-22856, mostly along these summit ridges. On 
the 7th we returned to Apatzingan, collecting nos. 22857-22874 in the deciduous 
forest along the road between Aguililla and the Rio Tepalcatepec bridge. 

On March 9-10, with Anderson and Laskowski, I made an excursion via 
Buenavista Tomatlan and Tepalcatepec to Jilotlan de los Dolores, the latter a small 
village in Jalisco but in the upper watershed of the Balsas-Tepalcatepec basin. The 
deciduous forest was very dry at this season but we collected nos. 22876—22919. We 
returned on the 10th to Motel Rio Grande in Apatzingan; on the following day we 
drove out of the valley through Uruapan, thence to Jiquilpan and the south shore of 
Lake Chapala. About 15 km west of Tizapan el Alto we took the road up toward 
Concepcion de Buenos Aires and camped on the high plateau near that place. 
Continuing through Concepcion on March 12, we crossed the summit at about 2250 m 
in the pine forests west of the town, dropped down in a southerly direction to Ferreria 
de Matamoros (about 40 km from Concepcion), and then in approximately the same 
direction to Tamazula, at the edge of the canefields at an elevation of about 1100 m. 
Our entire party spent the night at Motel Costeno, Colima. Our collections on March 

12 included nos. 22922-22942. 

On March 13 we camped near the pass in the gypsum hills 17—18 km 
south-southwest of Colima, collecting nos. 22943—22974. On the 14th we went by 
way of Tecoman and Cerro de Ortega, crossed the new bridge over the Rio 
Coahuayana, and drove about 24 km from the bridge, through coconut plantations and 
lowland forests of Orbignya or of deciduous trees, to San Juan de Lima, where we 
camped on the uninhabited and undisturbed beach. Between Tecoman and San Juan 
we collected nos. 22975—22988, and on the following day near our camp and on the 
return to Coahuayana nos. 22989-23012. On that night (15th) we stayed at Hotel 
Playa de Santiago on Santiago Bay, where we learned that the road to Durazno, Jalisco 
(destroyed in the hurricane of 1959) was now passable but little used, as the timber 
was now being taken out to Guadalajara. On the 16th we collected along the highway 
in the deciduous forest between Santiago and La Huerta, camping just above the latter 
place (nos. 23013— 23041 A, and near camp on the 17th, nos. 23042-23052). 

After reaching Autlan on the 17th, we planned an excursion across the high 
mountains to the southeast, the so-called Sierra de Manantlan, which Wilbur and I had 
reached from the north (from El Chante) in 1949, and which Sooby and I had entered 
from the south, via Santiago and the lumber camp of Durazno, in 1952. On March 18 
we took the newly paved road to El Grullo, then turned southward over a very 
indirect series of roads to El Chante, which lies at the edge of the valley at an 
elevation of about 950 m. From El Chante we climbed in a southerly direction, passing 
a series of low summits and rough barrancas, finally camping about 20 km from 
Chante in a dense forested stream-valley, and ascending the next morning another 5 
km to the summit of the ridge ("La Cumbre"), at the junction where the road began 
its descent to Durazno and Santiago. The elevation here was about 2000 m. We 
continued along the summit ridges to the eastward, establishing a camp about 5 km 
east of La Cumbre, and working out in both directions. The sawmills called San Miguel 
I, La Neveria, and El Cuarton, which I had seen in 1952 in the neighborhood of our 
present camp, had disappeared, and lumbering operations were being carried on some 
15-20 km farther east. During our ascent, on March 18 and 19, we took nos. 


23053—23094; during our stay on the summit, March 19—22, we collected nos. 
23095—23176. About midday on the 22nd we returned to La Cumbre and began the 
descent down the almost unused road to Durazno, so steep that we went down in our 
lowest gear in 4-wheel drive to save the brakes. We camped in the pine forest about 2 
km below the summit, on the exact spot where Sooby and I had stopped in November 
1952. We were pleased to find Matudaea and Podocarpus in abundance in the ravines, 
exactly as in the forests around Talpa. On the way down to camp this day, and near 
camp the next morning, we collected nos. 23177—23215. On March 23 we broke camp 
about noon, and descended to a point about 8 km below La Cumbre, where we 
camped at about 1250 m, on a clear running stream in a humid deciduous forest. It 
transpired that we were almost at the foot of the declivity, 2.5 km above the site of 
Durazno, which was in 1952 a bustling sawmill town but was now reduced to a few 
miserable huts. Above and near our camp we collected nos. 23216—23251. 

On the 24th we left at mid-morning, drove through the deciduous forests (now 
excessively dry) via Cuzalapa to the old river crossing of the Rio Cihuatlan (where the 
bridge was destroyed in 1959), and camped after fording the stream. On the 25th we 
drove to Santiago and Autlan, sent a party to Guadalajara (now only a ride of 2 hours 
and three-quarters over the newly paved road), and prepared for another trip to Talpa. 
Collections on these last two days were nos. 23252—23262. 

Leaving Autlan early on the 27th, we breakfasted in Corcovado Canyon while 
collecting nos. 23263-23272, then drove on into the dry pine forest past Cuautla and 
Los Volcanes, and camped near the summit where the road drops down precipitously 
into Talpa; along the road and near camp we took nos. 23273—23285. On March 28 
we headed in the direction of La Cuesta, stopping briefly in Talpa to admire the town, 
which had been electrified since our visit in 1960. We camped the first night in the 
pine forest some 20 km south of Talpa, collected near camp and in the nearby 
barranca on the 29th and 30th (nos. 23286-23337). After leaving on the 30th, we 
crossed the divide toward La Cuesta and descended about 2.5 km through the 
subdeciduous forest to a camp on a small level area near water. We stayed here two 
nights, then on April 1 drove down to La Cuesta and returned, finally crossing the pass 
again and stopping for the night at our camp of March 28 and 29th. Our collections 
included nos. 23338-23411 from the La Cuesta side of the pass. 

On April 2 we left the area, passed through Talpa and continued by way of 
Mirandilla and El Rincon, in an attempt to retrace the route I had followed in 
November 1960 to San Miguel de la Sierra. We followed the road past El Rincon to a 
camp in the valley, about 1 km beyond our camp of 1960, then the next day ascended 
to the summit north of the sawmill "La Cumbre" by a new road that branched off 1 
km south of the old road (or from a point some 12 km south of El Rincon), and 
followed up a stream-valley for 4 km before coming out on the old lumber road north 
of La Cumbre. We found the narrow stream-valley heavily forested with Abies, 
Podocarpus, and the usual deciduous trees of the barranca- for est, and camped on April 
3 about halfway to the top, at an elevation of 1900 m. On the 4th we continued over 
a much-improved road to El Carmen, San Miguel, Ayutla, and Autlan, and on the 5th 
to Guadalajara. Our collections after leaving Talpa included nos. 23425—23441, and 
23469-23475 in the valley of Mirandilla and El Rincon (April 2-3), 23442-23468, 
and 23476-23482 in the ravines between the valley and La Cumbre (April 3-4), and 
23483-23500 between El Carmen and San Miguel (April 4). 

We stayed in Guadalajara through April 8, making excursions to Villa Corona on 
the 7th, in company with Sra. Luz Maria Villarreal de Puga and Sr. Dr. Enrique 
Estrada Faudon, to collect Cirsium horridulum from the saline marshes there (no. 
23501), and to the Barranca de Huentitan on the following day to collect a few 
flowering trees (23502-23504). On the 9th Baad left for Ann Arbor with about half 
our collections in one vehicle, while with Anderson and Laskowski I set out for Tepic 



and Mazatla'n. We camped near El Ocotillo (one of the classic localities at which Josiah 
Gregg had collected in 1849), and in company with a local rancher who gave us many 
local vernacular names for plants, we collected nos. 23508—23535 in the oak forest on 
the morning of the 10th. On the way to Tepic we collected a few things (nos. 
23535—23539) in the vicinity of Santa Maria del Oro. The next morning (April 1 1) we 
made a round trip to Jalcocotan and Miramar, then via Mecatan to the San Bias road 
and back to Tepic. We managed to collect nos. 23540—23582, but found the lowland 
forests very dry and decided to leave at once for home. We left Tepic on the morning 
of the 12th, and drove through rapidly to Mazatla'n and Durango. 


After attending the meetings of the American Institute of Biological Sciences at 
College Station, Texas, I drove through Coahuila and Zacatecas, accompanied by my 
wife, Ruth B. McVaugh. On September 4 we came into the State of Aguascalientes 
from the north, via Rincon de Romos, where we turned left toward Asientos. We 
crossed the limestone mountains between Tepezala and Asientos, about 20 km east of 
Rincon de Romos, and collected nos. 23644-23666 along this road; continuing over 
the mountains to Cienega Grande, we drove by the paved road to Aguascalientes and 
made our base at Motel San Marcos. From this base we went out again to the 
Asientos-Tepezala region on September 5, 6, and 7, collecting nos. 23667-23768, and 
on the last day climbing among igneous rocks to an elevation of about 2400 m on 
Cerro San Juan, south of the highway. We had been hampered by showers in the 
mountains, and on the 8th we had hard rains but managed to get nos. 23769-23791 
along the highways north and northeast of Aguascalientes, and between rains near the 
road from Asientos to Cienega Grande. 

On the 9th we drove to Guadalajara, on paved road, passing many evidences of 
Hoods, via Calvillo, Jalpa, and the new bridge over the Rio Grande de Santiago north 
of Guadalajara. Along the way this day we collected nos. 23792-23803. On the 10th 
we drove to San Juan Cozala, whence on the 11th, with Sra. de Puga and a guide, 1 
climbed a steep stairlike trail to the summit of the pass above Lake Chapala. We 
collected in the deciduous forest facing the lake, and in the oak forest north of the 
mountains (nos. 23804-23862). Sra. de Puga returned to Guadalajara; Mrs. McVaugh 
and I stayed in San Juan another night before joining her in that city. On the 13th, 
with Sra. de Puga, we drove back on the Zacatecas highway to some areas of pine 
forest and marshy meadows 12-15 km north of Ixtlahuaca'n del Rio, where we 
collected nos. 23863-23884. On the 14th, with Ing. Luis Puga y Robles Gil and Sra. 
de Puga, and Biol. Juan Carlos Diaz Luna of the Autonomous University of 
Guadalajara, we drove to Tequila and ascended to an elevation of about 2800 m on the 
Cerro de Tequila. The road up the mountain had recently been paved with stone to 
permit access to a television station near the summit. We collected as we walked down 
through the oak forest, nos. 23885-23925. This ended our active collecting in Jalisco; 
we left Guadalajara on September 16, collecting only nos. 23926-23928 in marshy 
meadows near Atotonilco el Alto. 


Assisted by William L. Graham and W. D. Stevens, I collected for a few days in 
early November in Guanajuato, especially in the area around Santa Rosa where 
Humboldt and Bonpland had collected in 1803, and between the City of Guanajuato 
and Villalpando, where Mendez had collected for DeCandolle. On November 13 we 


drove to Leon in western Guanajuato, and made our way southwestward along the 
border of Nueva Galicia, via San Francisco del Rincon and C. Manuel Doblado, 
collecting nos. 24268-24284 in the dry volcanic hills along the way. We turned 
westward just beyond Manuel Doblado, and passed over a very newly paved road 
through the mountains on the Jalisco-Guanajuato border. We camped here in the 
oak-pine forest about 35 km east of Arandas. The next day we collected nos. 
24287-24355 near our campside, then in the afternoon drove up on the high 
grasslands between the mountains and Arandas, and collected nos. 24356-24385, 
mostly in muddy depressions at elevations of about 2200 m. On the 15th we took nos. 
24387-24394 near our camp, then drove to a rocky stream-valley 3 km toward 
Arandas, where we collected nos. 24395-24422 before driving on to Motel Isabel in 
Guadalajara. Our collecting up to this point was hampered by the dryness and lateness 

of the season. 

We made a few collections in the vicinity of Guadalajara (nos. 24423-24429, 
November 16-17), then left on the 18th for Ciudad Guzman. We stopped briefly on 
the foothills of the Nevado de Colima, then drove back to C. Guzman and on to 
Zapotiltic, Tecalitlan and the Sierra del Halo, camping late in the pine forest some 5 
km from the highway, where we had collected first in 1957. On the 19th we made an 
excursion southwest of Pihuamo to the forested limestone areas I had explored with 
Koelz and Miranda in 1959, hoping in vain to find several critical species in flower 
before the effect of the dry season became too noticeable. We collected nos. 
24437-24471, and 24496, then returned to our last night's camp in the cool pine 
forest and collected nos. 24472-24495. On the 20th we set off to cross the Sierra del 
Halo to Jilotlan, the road having been cut through and graded soon after our visit to 
Jilotlan in 1965. The well-traveled lumber road wound in a generally southerly 
direction for about 30-32 km from the Colima highway, ascending to an elevation of 
about 2100-2200 m, and maintaining this level for most of the second half of the 
distance, then from a summit overlooking the town of Pihuamo, dropping down to the 
old sawmill town of San Isidro (now apparently abandoned, as we did not see it), and 
after another 5-6 km descending to 2000 m at Plan de Lego, formerly a remote 
rancho and in 1970 a bustling sawmill village. Here we took a left fork and started 
more or less eastward, descending rather rapidly. We camped in the pine forest about 
24 km from Plan de Lego (or, as it turned out, about the same distance west of 
Jilotlan), at about 1600 m, and collected nos. 24502-24562 that night and the next 


On the 21st we continued to descend in the same general direction, soon passing 
into a deciduous forest dominated by Bursera and Pseudosmodingium, where we 
collected nos. 24567-24587, then continued downward to a camp about 8 km west of 
Jilotlan. On the morning of the 22nd we took nos. 24588-24615 from the drying 
Bursera-Lysiloma forest, then continued through Jilotlan to a camp about 8 km further 
on, in a creek bottom surrounded by disturbed and overgrazed hills, at about 800 m. 
On the 23rd, as we continued by the regular road to Tepalcatepec, we collected along 
the road, and near camp, nos. 24618-24648. We spent the night in Apatzingan, and 
the next day (24th) drove up on the Dos Aguas road to our 1965 campsite about 6 
km below the settlement. For the next few days we made general collections without 
going beyond Dos Aguas, partly in the pine forests near the settlement (nos. 
24650-24690, 24721, 24765-24779), but especially in the deciduous woodlands 
covering extensive areas of sharply eroded and tumbled limestone rocks, at elevations 
between 1400 and 1700 m (nos. 24691-24720, 24722-24764). We returned to 
Apatzingan on November 27, and left the next day for the western foothills of Cerro 
Tancitaro. The stretch between Buenavista Tomatlan and Periban de Ramos, which we 
had found impassable in 1962, was in 1970 provided with a good gravel road. We 
passed through the thorn forest, rose to the lower limit of pines at about 1100 m, 



about 22 km from Buenavista, then camped in the foothills 12—14 km south of 
Periban. We collected in the vicinity of our camp, and in the somewhat less disturbed 
pine forest 6-7 km south of Periban (nos. 24787-24870, November 29), and drove 
on the 30th by a winding gravel road to the village of Apo, on the flank of Tancitaro 
at about 2200 m (nos. 24872—24898). Leaving camp the same day we drove through 
avocado orchards to Periban, continued to Los Reyes, thence by paved road to Cotija, 
near the Jalisco border. About 3 km east of Cotija we took an unimproved road to the 
north, passing over cane-fields in a flat valley for 5-6 km, then climbing abruptly up 
an escarpment to the northeast for another 3—4 km and camping in the very dry 
Burscra-Ipomoea woodland at about 1800 m. On December 1 we collected nos. 
24900—24933 near camp, then drove to Jiquilpan via Jaripo, and continued to Colima 
the next day. 

From a base at Motel Costeho, Colima, we made an excursion (December 3) over 
the newly paved road to the Barranca de Beltran, a famous collecting locality in the 
days of C. G. Pringle, but in recent years nearly inaccessible; here 12—15 km northeast 
of Tonila we took nos. 24939—24957. Because of the lateness of the season we 
decided to leave at once for the coast, so set up camp the night of the 3rd in the 
much-collected hills near the pass south-southwest of Colima; here from the gypsi- 
ferous soils we collected nos. 24958—24969. On the 4th we drove directly to the 
coast, where on the beach between Santiago and Manzanillo we established a base at 
Posada del Sol. We made a short excursion to the river by the old road to Durazno, 
but found the approaches to the ford completely washed out and the river conse- 
quently unreachable. On December 5 we collected in the lowland deciduous forest 
between Santiago and Cihuatlan (nos. 24980-25030), and on the 6th we drove to 
Bahia de Navidad and then over the new graded highway across the first range of 
mountains, 13 — 14 km to La Manzanilla, which we had reached in 1960 by a more 
difficult and devious way. In the coastal forest of Orbignya, and in the mixed forest 
on the hills above, we collected nos. 25031-25076. We understood that the good 
graded highway was finished all the way through to Puerto Vallarta, and we 
determined to pass over it, as botanical collections from this part of Jalisco were 
almost non-existent. 

We were joined on December 7 by Sr. Alfredo Perez Jimenez, a graduate student 
from Mexico City, who had consented to guide us through a tract of University-owned 
land, the so-called "Centro de Investigacion y Experimentation de la UNAM," about 8 
km east of Chamela on the old dry-weather road to La Huerta. Here we camped in the 
lowland deciduous forest of Cordia, Thouinidium, Caesalpinia and other trees, near the 
drying sandy bed of the Rio Chamela, at an elevation of about 30-50 m, for 4 nights, 
collecting nos. 25077—25235. 

On December 1 1 we returned to Chamela and took the Puerto Vallarta road 
through the sparingly inhabited lowlands toward Tomatlan. We camped in the 
deciduous forest in low hills about 50 km northwest of Chamela, after the road had 
swung inland away from the coast and about 25 km after we crossed the Rio San 
Nicolas. Near the camp, and in other localities north of the river, we collected nos. 

We left this camp on December 13, then about 6 km further on came to the end 
of the improved road and had to continue 16 km to Tomatlan over the old 
unimproved road farther east. On the way we passed an area of upland thorn-forest 
where we collected nos. 25335—25349. We forded the broad but now shallow river at 
Tomatlan (elevation ca 50 m or less), passed regretfully without stopping through 
extensive areas of Crescentia savannahs (now dry), rejoined the graded road about 10 
km (west?) of Tomatlan, and turned northwest toward the hills. After passing through 
extensive forests dominated by Hum, we began to see oaks (Quercus magna lii folia) on 
the hills about 30—32 km beyond Tomatlan, and at about 40 km north of that place 



(or, as it transpired, 11 — 13 km south and southwest of El Tuito), we camped in the 
valley of the Rio Las Juntas at about 250—300 m in a tropical subdeciduous forest 
overhanging a rapid, rocky, mountain stream. Here on December 14, 15 and 16 we 
collected nos. 25355-25445, and 25456-25459. Later on the 16th we moved our 
camp to a very similar location in another river valley only about 16 km further north, 
i.e. about 5 km north of El Tuito, at an elevation of about 650 m. We took nos. 
25460—25521 here, December 16—17, and moved on the 17th to Puerto Vallarta, 
where we made ready for a trip to San Sebastian and Mascota, via Ixtapa and Las 

Sr. Perez left us on the 18th to return to Mexico. The rest of the party made its 
way to Ixtapa, thence by a narrow unimproved road to Las Palmas, a fair-sized village 
on the Rio de Ameca almost due north of Puerto Vallarta. Here we found that 
wheeled traffic was stopped; the dry-weather road to San Sebastian, barely passable at 
best, had not been repaired after last fall's rainy season, and nothing was going over it. 
We managed to go on for 3 km, and camped by a good running mountain stream in 
the Hura-Brosimum forest at 150 m elevation. Our collections were nos. 25525—25534 
and 25587—25588, between Ixtapa and Las Palmas, and nos. 25535—25582, and 
25685, near our camp on Arroyo de Las Palmas. We left camp on December 20, drove 
for the first time for any of us over the new paved road north to Las Varas and 
Compostela, and continued to Tepic. The new road from Las Varas to Compostela 
by-passes Mazatan, but cuts through some interesting oak-savannah country where we 
hastily collected nos. 25583—25586, and 25686, at an elevation of about 200 m. 

We left Tepic early on the 21st, passed as quickly as possible through Guadalajara, 
and left at once for our last excursion of the year, to the mountains of the southern 
arm of Zacatecas, between Jalpa and Tlaltenango. We camped in a pasture about 4 km 
north of Moyahua, and continued the next day to Jalpa, where we found we had to 
retrace our steps about 10 km to the junction of the road that leads over the 
mountain. From an elevation of about 1300 m at the highway, the road led generally 
westward, up through the dry deciduous woodland over a series of successively higher 
ridges; the first plateau was about 8 km from the highway, at 2000 m. A few oaks 
appeared near here; high above and ahead could be seen a high rocky plateau summit 
with a dark forest cover. At about 15—16 km from the highway the oaks increased in 
numbers, and the arborescent Ipomoeas disappeared. At about 20 km from the 
highway the road ascended some very steep bluffs and came out on a series of level 
grassy oak-studded benches at about 2400 m. We camped here for one night, collecting 
here and in the more sheltered oak-pine forest a little higher up (nos. 25589—25593, 
25595—25658, 25687). On the 23rd we descended into the Ipomoea-Ptelea-Dodonaea 
woodland to an elevation of about 2000 m., where we camped for the night. Along the 
road and near our camp we collected nos. 25659—25683, and 25594. We returned to 
Guadalajara on December 24, and ended the field-season there. 

McVaugh, Ruth Beall. See McVaugh, Rogers (1967). 

Madrigal Sanchez, Xavier. Biol. Madrigal, of the Instituto Nacional de Investi- 
gaciones Forestales, Mexico, collected the type of Pinus rzedowskii in the mountains 
near Dos Aguas (cf. Bol. Tec. Inst. Nac. Invest. For. Mex. 26: 8. 1969). His collections 
also include a series made July 5—10, 1969 (at least nos. 2258—2310), from the 
Volcan de Colima, Union de Tula, Volcan de Ceboruco, and Volcan de Tequila. 

Maltby, T. S. The United States National Herbarium (US) has a series of about 
40 specimens (nos. 1—40) collected by T. S. Maltby at San Bias in April 1897. His 
entire collection of this year (about 247 specimens) was received by the National 
Herbarium in 1898, as a gift from Professor C. L. Herrick of the University of New 
Mexico. Most of the specimens bearing numbers 45 and above were collected on Maria 



Madre Island, which Maltby, in company with E. W. Nelson, E. A. Goldman, Professor 
Herrick and the latter's son, visited in May of this year. 1 The party left San Bias in a 
sailing vessel on April 28, reached Maria Madre on May 2, worked nearly a month on 
the Tres Marias, and returned to San Bias June 1. Nelson (loc. cit.) states that while 
he, with Goldman, was arranging for a boat to make the trip to the islands, Herrick's 
party "arrived at San Bias, also bound for the Tres Marias." Maltby collected at San 
Bias for a few days only, while awaiting passage to the islands. On some specimens in 
the National Herbarium his name is given as F. S. Maltby, and it is accordingly often 
published in this way. I have not been able to secure any biographical data on Maltby, 
and am not sure which initial is correct. 

Manning, Wayne Eyer. In 1953, accompanied by his wife, Professor Manning of 
Bucknell University travelled in Mexico in connection with his revisionary studies of 
the American Juglandaceae. About 1500 numbered collections were made; many of 
these can be found in the National Herbarium (US) or the Gray Herbarium (GH). 
Several collections came from Jalisco, especially from along the highway between 
Lagos and Guadalajara. The specimens were distributed under the names of Manning 
and Manning, with serial numbers prefaced by 53, e.g. 531235. 

Martinez, Maximino (1888-1964). In Professor Martinez/ numerous papers on the 
Mexican flora, particularly those in the Anales del Institute de Biologia which have to 
do with the gymnosperms and oaks of Mexico, he recorded from Jalisco and 
contiguous areas several serially numbered specimens to which his own name is 
attached. These include the type-specimens of Pinus michoacana var. cornuta and its 
forma nay ah tana, Juniperus jaliscana, Abies guatemalensis var. jaliscana, and Casimiroa 
sapota forma jaliscana. 

Collections bearing Martinez 5 numbers have been cited from various localities, with the dates 
of collection ranging from May, 1937 to August, 1951, and with numbers from C20 to 28500. The 
following have been noted: Atengo, Jal. (2207, August 1951); Autldn, Jal. (407, August 1940); C. 
Guzmdn, Jal. (87A, April 1939); Compostela, Nay. (3447, May 1941); Cuale, Jal. (7002, March 
1944; 28000, 28500, November 1947); Pihuamo, Jal. (6413, May 1939; 342, April 1939); Poncitlan, 
Jal. (167, April 1939); Sierra de Nochistldn, Zac. (409, July 1940); Tecalitlan, Jal. (s.n., February 
1939; 137, May 1937); Tecolotlan, Jal. (64, May 1939; 411, September 1940; 2208, August 1951; 
3446, October 1941); Tequila, Jal. (64, May 1939; 74, July 1939; 3446, October 1941); 
Zapotlanejo, Jal. (C20, September 1939). 

Professor Martinez informed me, however, that except for a trip to Guadalajara in 
1949, he did not himself visit Nueva Galicia. The earlier collections which bear his 
name and numbers were obtained for him by other persons and his own numbers were 
subsequently assigned to the specimens for ease of citation and reference. 

In September, 1949, while preparing his papers on Taxodium and Casimiroa, he 
made a trip by bus to Jalisco, particularly to observe Casimiroa watsoni at its 
type-locality in the barranca near Guadalajara, and to obtain distribution records of 
Taxodium. From Guadalajara he visited some nearby localities including Zapotlanejo 
and Chapala. His collections included about fifty miscellaneous specimens, which are 
deposited at the Instituto de Biologia (MEXU). 

Melchert, Thomas E. In connection with cytotaxonomic studies of Bidens and 
related genera, Professor Melchert of the State University of Iowa has travelled widely 

in Mexico since 1965. In 1966 he collected at various localities in Nueva Galicia, 
including the type-locality of Cosmos sessilis (cf. Sida 3: 175. 1967). Melchert's 
specimens are in the herbarium at Iowa (IA). 

1 North Amer. Fauna 14: 8. 1899 


Mell, Clayton Dissinger (1875—1945). Mell, well known to botanists for his work 
on the timbers of tropical America, collected at San Bias in April and September, 
1930. The specimens are in the United States National Herbarium (US). 

Mendez, [Juan?]. See Alama'n. 

Mexia, Ynez (1870—1938). Probably the best-known plant collector of her sex 
who has worked in tropical America, Mrs. Mexia wrote in 1929 a little paper on her 
recent Mexican trip: "In 1926 I enthusiastically planned a botanical collecting trip to 
the western states of Mexico with the idea of exploring the more remote districts 
where I felt sure collectors had not penetrated and where I hoped to secure interesting 
and possibly new plants. . . ."* Her hopes were more than realized. 

After a few profitable weeks around Tepic, and a little more than a month spent 
in Sinaloa and the coastal plain of Nayarit, she took a steamer to Puerto Vallarta, the 
northernmost port of Jalisco, and spent four months (November to March), exploring 
the coastal hills and in the mountains, travelling with pack animals, as far as San 
Sebastian where Nelson had collected 30 years before. Mrs. Mexia amassed a collection 
of more than 800 numbers in western Jalisco at this time; she obtained numerous 
duplicates, which were distributed by the University of California (UC). Numerous 
species new to science have been described from her specimens, and many species are 
known from western Mexico from her collections only. 

An itinerary of the entire trip of 1926-1927 was published in her paper referred 
to above (pp. 237—238). The following summary of plants collected during her travels 
in Jalisco and southern Nayarit has been prepared from data supplied by Mrs. N. Floy 

Tepic and vicinity, 9-20 September (nos. 500-727); Ixtlin del Rio and vicinity, 23 
September-2 October (728-908); [Sinaloa, 2-16 October (909-970)]; [lowlands of northern 
Nayarit, 22 October-8 November (971-1088]; [Mazatlan, Sin., 11-19 November (1089-1099)] ; 
Puerto Vallarta, Jal., and vicinity, 23-28 November (1100-1168); Quimixto and vicinity, 29 
November-2 December (1169-1219, 1230-1245); Puerto Vallarta and vicinity, 8-17 December 
(1246-1314); Puerto Vallarta to San Sebastian, 29-31 December (1315-1323); San Sebastian and 
vicinity, 1-25 January (1324-1575); San Sebastian to Real Alto, ?28 January (1576-1577); Real 
Alto and La Bufa, 29 January-2 February (1578-1629); Real Alto to San Sebastian, 3-4 
February (1630-1642); San Sebastian, 8-13 February (1643-1673); Hacienda del Ototal, 14-16 
February (1674-1699); trail to San Sebastian and Real Alto, 16-18 February (1700-1707); Real 
Alto and vicinity, 19-26 February (1708-1768); Real Alto to San Sebastian, 27 February 
(1769-1775); San Sebastian to Hacienda del Ototal, 2 March (1776-1786); Hacienda del Ototal 
and vicinity, 3-9 March (1787-1853); El Ototal to San Sebastian, 10 March (1856-1860a); Las 
Mesitas and vicinity, 14-17 March (1860b-1900); San Sebastian, 20-23 March (1901-1914); San 
Sebastian to Los Reyes and to San Josd del Conde, Nayarit, 25-29 March (1915-1933); [Sinaloa 
and Sonora, April (1933a-1945)] . 

For a notice of Mrs. Mexia's life and work see Madrono 4: 273—275. 1938. 
Twenty-two new species from her Jaliscan collections were described in a paper by 
Standley (Field Mus. Publ. Bot. 4: 197-299. 1929). 


Meyer, Eliane. See Norman. 

Mickel, John Thomas. See McVaugh (1957). 

Miranda, Faustino (1905-1964). See McVaugh (1959). 

Mocirio, Jose Mariano. (1757—1820). See Sesse. The date of Mocirio's death has 
often been given as 1819, but Rickett (cf Chron. Bot. 11: 78-79. 1947) examined a 
copy of the burial certificate indicating that he was buried in Barcelona on May 19, 
1820. This agrees with the information in a letter from Lagasca to De Candolle, dated 

botanical Trails in Old Mexico. -The lure of the unknown. Madrono 1: 227-240. 1929. 



at Madrid "Kal. Novembris MDCCCXX," in which he says Mociho died six months ago 
|"Mocino noster sex abhinc mensibus e vita discessit in urbe Barcinonensi. . ."] . 

Moldenke, Andrew R. Professionally an entomologist, Moldenke collected 
numerous plant-specimens on a trip through Nueva Galicia in 1967. A partial set is at 
the University of Michigan (MICH). 

Molseed, Elwood (1938-1967). Collected in Mexico, including Nueva Galicia, in 
the summer of 1966 (cf Univ. California Publ. Bot. 54:vii, et seq. 1970). His 
specimens are at the University of California (UC). 

Moore, Harold Emery, Jr. Working for a part of the time with Hugh Cutler (q.v.), 
Moore collected for a few days in 1940 (October 19—24), in the vicinity of Ciudad 
Guzman. His collections were nos. 145 — 184. 

With Carroll E. Wood, Jr., Moore travelled widely in Mexico in 1948. The two 
investigators visited Jalisco briefly, in search of certain species of Tephrosia. They 
traveled by automobile from Lagos de Moreno to Guadalajara and Tequila. Their 
collections were as follows, according to data furnished by Dr. Moore: Between Lagos 
de Moreno and Agua del Obispo, 30 August (no. 4817); Barranca de Oblatos, 31 
August (4818-4824); along highway 4-5 km beyond Tequila, 31 August 
(4825-4833); between Amatitlan and Arenal, 31 August (4834-4836). 

In 1952 Moore worked for some weeks in tropical America, carrying out 
investigations on the taxonomy of the palms. He passed through Jalisco on May 26, 
while on his way north by the west-coast highway, and made three collections of 
palms (nos. 6403-6405), the first in Jalisco near the border of Nayarit, the second 
near km 930 beyond Tepic, and the third near San Bias. Of Moore's more recent trips 
to Nueva Galicia 1 have no records. 

Moran, Reid. Usually searching for specific Crassulaceae, or for Crassulaceae in 
general, Moran has visited Nueva Galicia several times since 1957. On his first visit, 
March 1, 1957, he collected nos. 5707—5714 at Carmen, Sierra de los Tejones, Colima, 
a locality to which he accompanied a geologist to inspect a tungsten prospect. On 
November 21, 1962, he passed through northern Jalisco, collecting nos. 10000—10002 
at the pass [Paso de la Troje] 6 km west of Presa de Valerio. In 1968 he collected 
nos. 14704-14707 near Etzatlan (January 15), 14708-14719 in the barrancas below 
Guadalajara (January 16), 14720-14724 near the pass southwest of Autlan (January 
17), and on the same day 14725 near Juchitlan and 14726 near Tecolotlan. Two 
weeks later (January 31) he collected no. 14796 north of Barranca del Oro, Nayarit. 
Moran's collections are in the Natural History Museum, San Diego, California (SD). 

Morrison, John L. See California, University of. 

Muller, Cornelius Herman. While engaged in field studies of the genus Quercus, 
Professor Muller of the University of California at Santa Barbara travelled widely in 
Mexico during the autumn months of 1951. His collections in Nueva Galicia were 
made near the principal highways, as follows: Refugio, foot of Cerro Sanganguey, east 
of Tepic, 18 September (nos. 9054-9057); east of Magdalena (at km 750), 18 
September (9058—9060); between Lagos de Moreno and Encarnacion de Diaz, 31 
October (9257—9259); Puerto de Trojes, 36 km west of Ojuelos, 2 November 
(9271—9275); between Lagos de Moreno and Ojuelos, 4 November (9295—9296). 
Muller's collections are in his private herbarium, housed at Santa Barbara, California, 
and duplicates have been distributed. 

Among the Mexican oaks studied by Muller there are a few specimens from Nueva 
Galicia collected by each of the following: Messrs. Arroyo F., Cordoba M., Guzman H., 
Perez C, and Reyes Parra. I know nothing of the circumstances under which the 
collections were made. 


Murrill, William Alphonso (1869-1957). Murrill, at that time Assistant Director 
of the New York Botanical Garden, spent the latter part of December 1909, and the 
first half of January, 1910, with his wife, Edna L. Murrill, in southern Mexico, 
studying and collecting the fungi of that region. 1 After spending some days near 
Cuernavaca, Morelos, the Murrills came by rail to the State of Colima early in January, 
1910. According to the published statement cited above, collections were made in 
"Dense jungle along Armerica [Armeria] River, near Tecoman, 200-500 feet, January 
2, 1910," and in "Orchards and barrancas in and near Colima, 1600 feet, January 3-4, 
1910." After this no further collections were made in western Mexico; the next 
collecting-station was near Orizaba, January 10-14. More than 100 collections of fungi 
were obtained by the Murrills in Colima (nos. 576-684, approximately). They 
collected some flowering plants also, including the type of Selinicereus murrillii Britt. 
& Rose, from Colima. 

Napoles, Maria de la Luz. Specimens of the genus Quercus from the State of 
Colima bear the name of this collector (ENCB 772, the Herbarium of the Escuela 
Nacional de Ciencias Biologicas, Mexico). 

Navarro, J. L. Collected at Cerro de Garcia, Tuxcueca, August 2, 1951, according 
to Martinez in An. Inst. Biol. [Mex.] 24: 241. 1954. 

Nelson, Edward William (1855-1934). E. W. Nelson and E. A. Goldman 
(1873-1946), working under the auspices of the United States Department of 
Agriculture, collected many plants as well as the animals with which they were 
primarily concerned. A detailed account of their fourteen years' association in the field 
was published by Goldman. 2 Their first field work was in 1892, in Colima and Jalisco 
(February to June). A full itinerary, and descriptions of localities visited, may be 
found in Goldman's book (pp. 3, 135-136, 169-183), which includes many notes on 
individual plants and on vegetational zones. As far as I have learned, no plants were 
collected in 1892. In 1896 one week (June 23-30) was spent at Lagos, Jalisco, and 
Nelson collected a few plants (his numbers 3881-3884, June 29); the next week (July 
1-7) the party passed at Chicalote, Aguascalientes. In the following year, 1897, 
important collections of plants were made. 

The field season of 1897 began for Nelson and Goldman in Ameca, Jalisco, where 
Goldman arrived on February 5 and was joined by Nelson on February 21. On March 
3 they began a pack-trip to Tepic, through the mountains of western Jalisco and 
southern Nayarit, and on the same day Nelson began to collect plants, numbering the 
collections serially beginning with 4000. 3 In the course of the trip to Tepic he 
obtained 179 numbers, including the first series ever obtained from the mountains of 
western Jalisco. A large proportion of the species were new to science. Of 22 
collections obtained near Talpa, Jalisco, for example, 12 have been reported in the 
literature in various places, and of these 8 were described as new. 

1 BulL N.Y. Bot. Gard. 7: 287. 1911; op. cit. 8: 137-153. 1912. On page 137 of the latter 
paper is given a list of "Localities and dates of the author's collections." See also a series of papers 
in Mycologia, beginning in 1911 with volume 3, entitled The Agaricaceae of tropical North 

A m erica, 

2 Goldman, Edward Alphonso. Biological Investigations in Mexico. Smithson. Misc. Coll. 

115: i-xiii, 1-476. frontisp., pi 1-70. 1951. 

^1 have never seen any explanation of the fact that Nelson and Goldman apparently did not 
make joint collections of plants. Although both made extensive botanical collections over the years, 
they maintained individual number series. It may have been that one or the other would assume 
responsibility for botanical collections on a given trip. In 1897, at any rate, all the plants collected 
were credited to Nelson. In the present paper the data on the plant-collections of Nelson have been 
taken from his fieldbooks, on deposit in the United States National Herbarium (US), where the 
original set of his plants may also be found. 



The itinerary between Ameca and Tepic, with descriptions of the individual localities, is given 
in full by Goldman, op. cit. (pp. 15-16, 169-182, 201-205) and need not be repeated here. 
Nelson collected plants at the following localities: Valley of Ameca, March 3 (nos. 4000 4002), 
near Huachinango, March 4 (4003-4012), Atenguillo to Jacala, March 5 (4013-4018), near Talpa, 
March 7 (4019-4041), Talpa to Mascota, March 13 (4042-4047), Mascota to San Sebastian, March 

14 (4048-4068), San Sebastian and vicinity, March 16 (4069-4090), San Scbastidn to Bufa de 
Mascota, March 20 (4091-4115), La Laguna, Sierra de Juanacatlan, March 25 (4116-4119), Sail 
Sebastian, March 27 (4120), San Sebastian to Las Palmas, March 30 (4121-4133), Las Palmas to 
Ixtapa, March 31 (4134-4137), Ixtapa, April 2-3 (4138-4152), Valle de Banderas, Nay., to 
Colomo, Nay., April. 4 (4153-4157), Colomo to Arroyo Juan Sanchez, April 6 (4158-4168), 
Compostela, April 7-8 (4169-4173), near Tepic, April 9 (4174-4175), Tepic to Navarrete, April 

15 (4176-4178). 

After a month's sojourn on the Tres Marias Islands, the two biologists returned to 
the mainland at San Bias, and on June 6 Nelson collected here, nos. 4334—4356. Soon 
after this they turned northward, into the low coastal plain of Nayarit and Sinaloa. J. 
N. Rose, of the U.S. National Herbarium, had been collecting plants in Sonora, Sinaloa 
and northern Nayarit since early in June, and on August 2 set out from Acaponeta, 
Nayarit, with Nelson and Goldman, to cross the Sierra de Nayarit. Complete itinerary 
and descriptions of localities are given by Goldman {pp. cit. 16-17, 200-205, 144, 
287-289, 170-180). Apparently all the plants on this trip were collected by Rose 
(q.v.), who in about six weeks of hard travel amassed a remarkable collection of 
approximately 1550 numbers in one to seven sets. 

Nelson and Goldman returned to Jalisco in December, 1902, at which time they 
spent two weeks (December 23, 1902— January 7, 1903) at Ocotlan, and three days 
(January 7—10) at La Barca. A second visit was made to the same places, June 24—30, 
1903. Goldman returned to this area near the eastern end of Lake Chapala, in 
connection with winter investigations of migratory waterfowl in Mexico, in 1926, 
1935, and 1936. Here were formerly the largest and most important fresh-water 
marshes in Mexico, but much of the land has since been reclaimed for agricultural use 
(Goldman, op. cit., pp. 172-178). 

Plants were collected in 1902 and 1903 by Nelson as follows: Ocotlan, December 25-31, 
1902 (nos. 6515-6521); Ocotlan, December 30 (6522); south slope of hills fronting Lake Chapala, 
[Jalisco], January 5, 1903 (6523-6532); Zamora, Michoacan, January 12 (6533-6540); La Barca, 
Jalisco, and Zamora (6541); Zamora, January 24 (6542-6548); Lake Chapala, Jalisco, June 26 
(7081-7082). Leaving Zamora on January 27, 1903, the two investigators spent the next 5 weeks 
(until March 3) exploring the north slope of Cerro Patamban (where Nelson collected nos. 
6549-6599), the vicinity of Los Reyes (nos. 6834-6844, 6847-6856, 6858 6873), and Cerro de 
Tancitaro, which they ascended from the northwest slope (nos. 6874-6908). Nos. 6845, 6846, 
6857 came from near Tingiiindin, February 5. 

Norman, Eliane (Meyer). Mrs. Norman (then Eliane Meyer) travelled in Mexico in 
1959, primarily to collect material for a revision of the genus Buddleia. She made 
some general collections near Ixtlahuacan de los Membrillos, in the hills north of Lake 
Chapala. Her specimens were distributed from the Bailey Hortorium (BH); some 
duplicates are at the University of Michigan (MICH). 

Norris, Daniel Howard. A bryologist with a strong interest in the Mexican flora, 
Norris in 1970 made a 6-day excursion westward from Jesus Maria to the Sierra del 
Nayarit, accompanied by his student Daniel J. Taranto and guided by a Cora Indian, 
Victor Molina A. The following is adapted from notes supplied by Prof. Norris: "The 
trip basically followed the ridge between the river flowing from Mesa Nayar and the 
river from Santa Teresa. This brought us along a step-by-step series of mesa-like lava 
deposits, almost directly westward to a peak in the Sierra del Nayarit, which the guide 
said was almost due south of Santa Teresa and west of Mesa Nayar. He called the peak 
'La Cienaga.' 1 believe this is the 2800 meter point indicated on some maps 

On July 27 Norris flew to Jesus Maria, and collected nos. 13928-13994 along the 
river nearby, mainly in disturbed thorn-forest with cacti and Bursera. On the 28th he 



collected along the trail to the mountains for a distance estimated at 15 miles, and 
camped in the first oak forest near a small settlement called Labra (nos. 
13995-14172). On July 29 he collected nos. 14173-14248, along the trail through 
oak forest and grassy openings with Acacia, camping about 4 miles from the peak, in 
open, little-disturbed oak-pine forest near a place called Tepetate. On July 30 he 
collected in the oak-Arbutus forest and the grassy meadows near the summit of the 
peak (nos. 14249-14380), and on the 31st he continued near the peak, mostly in the 
deeper ravines and in oak forest on the steeper bluffs (nos. 14381-14652. He returned 
on August 1 to a small village called Cangrejo near Mesa Nayar, where he collected 
nos. 14653-14744 in open oak-pine forest and in a steep moist ravine near a waterfall. 
On August 2 he returned to Jesus Maria without collecting, and the next day returned 

to Tepic. 

The specimens from this trip included 426 gatherings ("numbers") of vascular 

plants and about 390 of bryophytes. The latter are deposited in the herbarium of 
Humboldt State College, Areata, California (HSC), and the largest set of vascular plants 
is at the University of Michigan (MICH). As far as I know this is the largest collection 
ever made in the Sierra del Nayarit. 

Ogden, Eugene C. See Gentry. 

Oliva, Juan ( - ). The son of Leonardo Oliva, q.v. He followed his father 
as a professor at the University of Guadalajara, and became known for his work in 
Botany, Chemistry, and especially in Mineralogy. According to Castaneda 1 his collec- 
tion of monographs on the plants of Jalisco was lost after his death. According to 
Padre Severo Diaz, 2 Don Juan Oliva, just before his death, packed all his specimens 
and entrusted them to one of his sons with instructions to forward them to the 
Smithsonian Institution. At least a few of his plant-specimens, with numbers as high as 
97, are to be found in the U.S. National Herbarium, and have been cited in literature. 3 
The library of Juan Oliva, together with his herbarium, was preserved in Guadalajara, 
where in 1952 I saw it through the kindness of Sres. Alberto Lancaster-Jones and 
Ricardo Lancaster-Jones. The herbarium contained little or nothing from Jalisco, and 
apparently nothing collected by Don Juan Oliva or his father. 

Oliva, Leonardo (1 805-1873). 4 A native of Guadalajara, Oliva was internation- 
ally known for his work in pharmacology and botany. His two-volume "Lecciones de 
Farmacologia" (1853-1854) is a classic. His posthumous "Florula" of Jalisco 5 consists 
of a list of species arranged by botanical families, with Spanish and Latin names and 
occasional comments on uses. Oliva was also the author of several other botanical 
papers published in the first part of La Naturaleza (1870). He maintained a personal 
herbarium but its whereabouts is unknown. The only significant number of his 
collections known to exist are at Paris (P), where they have come from several private 
herbaria, including those of O. Debeaux, Eugene Fournier, and Schultz Bipontinus. I 
have seen at Paris about 25 specimens from Oliva's herbarium, most of them 
Compositae, all undated, some unnumbered, others with collection-numbers as high as 
52. Presumably the total number of Oliva's specimens at Paris is 100 or more. The 

*La Flora del Estado de Jalisco, p. 116. 1933. 

2 La tradickSn cientlfica de Guadalajara. Bol. Junta Aux. Jal. Soc. Mex. Geog. y Est. 8 (No. 

6): 271. 1945. 

3 Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 28: 292. 1929. 

4 These are the dates cited by Castaneda. According to the data accompanying a portrait of 
Oliva in the Museo Regional de Guadalajara, Don Leonardo was born 4 November 1814, and died 6 

November 1872. 

5 Florula del departamento de Jalisco escrita en el afio de 1859, por el Sr. Dr. Leonardo Oliva 
y comunicada a esta sociedad, por el Sr. Dr. Alfredo Dugds. La Naturaleza 1 (5): 88-99, 127-133. 



localities noted on the labels are mostly near Guadalajara, a few on the way to 
Magdalena, Ahualulco, and the Barranca de Nochitiltic. 

A few of Oliva's collections, dating from 1854 or 1855, were cited by Hemsley in 
the Biologia Cent rah- Americana (e.g. Gymnolomia squarrosa, Montanoa olivae and M. 
pyramidata). The genus Olivaea and Montanoa olivae of the Compositae were named 
for Don Leonardo Oliva by Schultz Bipontinus. 

Biographical notes on Oliva, together with a short sketch of the development of 
botany in Jalisco, may be found in Dr. Castaneda's flora, pp. 114-1 19. l 

Orcutt, Charles Russell (1864-1929). Orcutt, a naturalist and collector, travelled 
in Mexico in 1910 and gathered numerous herbarium specimens, especially along 
railroad routes. He is known to have made the following collections in Colima and 
Jalisco, according to data sent to the Gray Herbarium in 1939 by Mr. Frank F. 
Gander: Tecoman, Colima, October 29 (nos. 4444—4455); Manzanillo, Colima, October 
21 (4456-4505); Colima, Colima, October 24 (4506-4622); Alzada, Colima, Novem- 
ber 4 (4623-4689); Tuxpan, Jalisco, November 4 (4690-4711). 

A partial set of Orcutt's plants is at the Gray Herbarium (GH). His material has 
not been carefully studied, and has been little noted in the literature. 

Painter, J. H. See Rose (1903). 

Palmer, Edward (1831-1911). The first large series of botanical specimens ever 
to come from Jalisco was obtained in 1886 by Dr. Edward Palmer, then already well 
established as a professional collector. He made his headquarters in Guadalajara for 
nearly six months (June 1 to about November 25), and his collections of botanical 
materials included approximately 675 species of which about one-sixth were new to 
science. The plants were enumerated and described by Sereno Watson (and collabora- 
tors). 2 A few of Palmer's plants came from Tequila, where he spent some days in late 
August and early September, and a few were taken in and near Chapala in October and 
November, but the bulk of the collection came from within a radius of 15 or 20 
kilometers from Guadalajara. Probably a majority of all the specimens were obtained 
within the walls of the barrancas of the Rio Grande de Santiago, which were readily 
accessible no more than an hour's walk from the city. More than half the species, 
according to Watson's account, came from Rio Blanco, a locality about 15 kilometers 
northwest of Guadalajara, in Palmer's time the site of a cotton mill. Here a clear rapid 
stream falls abruptly into the head of one of the barrancas and vegetation even in 
recent years is lush and relatively undisturbed. One or two kilometers to the north and 
northeast lies the Sierra de San Esteban, later a favorite collecting ground of Pringle 
and others. Palmer spent about a month in all at this locality, probably lodging at the 
mill and descending daily into the barranca', his principal visits were four in number 
(June 3-10, July 1-8, September 17-23, October 12-20). 

Palmer also spent a week (June 16-23) as a guest at the Hacienda of Sr. Juan 
Nepamuceno Portillo, in the Barranca de Ibarra, northeast of the city and not far 
below the junction of the Rio Verde with the Rio Santiago. Here he obtained 
collections of about 70 species. 

The remainder of his collections, approximately 200 species, are labelled only as 
from Guadalajara, and came doubtless from the plains and low hills near the city. For 
a map of this area, and a brief discussion of botanical work there, see The Barranca of 
Guadalajara and its place in botanical literature. 3 Palmer's plant-specimens included 

Castarieda, Alfonso Manuel. La Flora del Estado de Jalisco. Bol. Junta Aux. JaL Soc. Mex. 
Geog. & Est. 3: 113-160. 1933; also published as a separate, without change of pagination, 
Guadalajara, 1933. 

2 Proc. Amer. Acad. 22: 396-465. 1887. 
3 Asa Gray Bull. II, 1: 385-390. 1953. 


approximately 770 numbers; they were divided into 14 major sets and 5 smaller sets, 
and these were distributed in the United States and Europe, with the first set to the 
Gray Herbarium (GH). 

Four years later Palmer returned to this part of Mexico, this time as a collector in 
the employ of the United States Department of Agriculture. He spent nearly four 
months in the State of Colima, collecting at Manzanillo during December, 1890, and 
again March 2—18, 1891. The interim he collected in the neighborhood of the city of 
Colima from about January 9 to March 1, except for a ten-day period (February 
6—15) which he took for a trip to Armeria, Colima. The entire collection from the 
State of Colima, comprising nos. 886—1410, was reported upon by J. N. Rose in a 

long and thoughtful paper. 1 Rose (with the aid of various collaborators) described 
numerous new species from Colima (29 from Manzanillo, 26 from Colima [city] , and 
4 from Armeria). In addition his list contained many species not previously reported 
from Mexico. This was actually the first large series of plants obtained from this part 
of the Mexican coast (although Barclay, Sinclair, and others had collected at 
Manzanillo years earlier), and Palmer's collection remains the most important contribu- 
tion which has been made to our knowledge of the flora of Colima. The plants 
themselves were apparently distributed in about twelve sets, of which the largest (525 
sheets approximately) is now in the U.S. National Herbarium (US). 

After a brief period in Sinaloa and Sonora in 1891, Palmer arrived in Tepic soon 
after the first of January, 1892, and spent the first two months of that year visiting 
and collecting at the classical localities where botanists of the ''Blossom" had worked 
65 years before. He spent most of his time near Tepic, but visited Jalisco and 
Compostela. The specimens resulting from this collection (nos. 1813—2040) were 
distributed in many sets, but no report on them was ever published. The first set, that 
at the U.S. National Herbarium, included approximately 628 numbers, and there were 
at least ten other sets numbering from 107 to 585 specimens each. 

Palmer's last visit to Nueva Galicia was in 1897, when he spent two months in the 
summer (approximately June 20 to August 19) at the city of Colima, collecting 
herbarium specimens and accumulating data, for the Department of Agriculture, on 
timber trees. I cannot find that he ever completed any report on his timber tree 
project, but apparently it took up a considerable share of his time, for his collections 
of dried plants included no more than 176 numbers. Few duplicate sets were collected; 
the first set is in the U.S. National Herbarium. 

Much of the above information on Palmer was obtained from official records and 

from correspondence files and other unpublished sources. Nearly complete sets of 
Palmer's field-notes are available in Washington for the years after 1886. 2 

Paray, Ladislao. Paray, a botanist of Mexico City, formed a large herbarium 
which is now part of the collection at the Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biologicas 
(ENCB). In 1958 he visited Nayarit and made a collection of about 50 numbers in his 
series 2674—2722, mostly on Cerro Sangangiiey but also in some other localities near 

Paxson, John B. See Rowell. 

Pennell, Francis Whittier (1886—1952). Pennell undertook long field-trips into 
Mexico in 1934 and 1935, primarily to collect material toward a revision of the 
Scrophulariaceae. In 1935 he spent 8 days in the highlands of southern Nayarit and 
adjacent Jalisco. The principal set of his collections is at the Academy of Natural 

^ontr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 1: 293-366. 1895. 
McVaugh, Rogers. Edward Palmer, Plant Explorer of the American West. pp. xvii, 430, illus. 

Univ. of Oklahoma Press, Norman, 1956. 



Sciences of Philadelphia (PH). The following account of his itinerary was supplied by 
Dr. C. Earle Smith, formerly of that institution. 

Pennell was in Mazatlan, Sinaloa, on August 16, 1935, and came by train to Ruiz, Nayarit, 
where on August 17 he collected nos. 19746 to 19750. He continued as follows, in Nayarit except 
for the collections of August 21, from Quemada, Jalisco: Tepic, August 18-19 (19751-19753); 
Cerro de San Juan, southwest of Tepic, August 18 (19754-19819); Barranca southeast of 
Trapichillo, August 19 (19820-19830); Trapichillo, August 19 (19831-19843); San Cayetano, 
southeast of Tepic, August 20 (19844); Santa Maria del Oro, August 20 (19845-19875); between 
La Labor and Santa. Maria del Oro, August 20 (19876-19890); Barrancas west of La Quemada, 
Jalisco, August 21 (19891-19931); Tepic, August 22-24 (19932-19973); Cerro de San Juan, 
August 24 (19974-20001). At the conclusion of this work in Nayarit, Pennell returned to Sinaloa 
and began to collect near Concordia on August 27. 

Perez Cisneros, Roberto. See Muller. 

Perez Jimenez, Alfredo. See McVaugh (1970). 

Philbrick, Ralph Nowell. Philbrick, than a student at Pomona College and at the 
University of California, Los Angeles, collected with Thomas H. Lewis of the U.S. 
Naval Hospital, Bethesda, Maryland. Philbrick collected first near San Bias and Singaita, 
December 25-27, 1954 (nos. 401-423). From June 25 through July 5, 1955, 
Philbrick and Lewis collected nos. 725—827 and 850—852 from the general area of 
San Bias and nos. 828—847 near Ixtlan (July 3—4). In May 1956 Lewis collected a few 
more herbarium specimens near San Bias and in February 1957 flew to San Juan 
Peyotan where he collected several plants on February 7 and 8. In August 1957 
Philbrick and Lewis flew to San Juan Peyotan and proceeded southeasterly by 
muleback into the drainages of the Rio Guayavas and Rio Chapalagana (For a map of 
the area explored, see Los Angeles Co. Mus. Contr. Sci. 68: 4. 1963). They collected 
about 50 specimens, mostly of ethnobotanical interest. "The principal localities where 
they collected plants between August 10 and 26 were: Las Ranas and La Vuelta, 
Nayarit, roughly 5 air miles [8 km] south of San Juan Peyotan; Santa Barbara, 
Nayarit, 15 miles [24 km] south of San Juan Peyotan; Guayavas, Jalisco, 25 miles [40 
km] south-southeast of San Juan Peyotan; Rancho de Antonio, Jalisco, 15 miles 
southeast of San Juan Peyotan, on Rio Guayavas; the mission at Santa Clara, Jalisco; 
San Andres, Jalisco, 20 miles [32 km] southeast of San Juan Peyotan, just west of the 
Rio Chapalagana." [Data from Philbrick, 1971]. The specimens collected by Philbrick 
and Lewis are in the Bailey Hortorium of Cornell University (BH). 

Phillips, Allan R. A collection of the tree-fern Hemitelia costaricensis, made by 
Phillips in the Arroyo de la Cordoncillera a little south of Puerto Vallarta, in March, 
1955, was reported in a note by Morton 1 as an interesting range-extension. Phillips, an 
ornithologist of Tucson, Arizona, collected the fern in the course of an ornithological 

Pippen, Richard Wayne. See McVaugh (1958, 1960). 

Powell, A. Michael. Powell travelled in Mexico in 1961 with J. Edmondson, 
primarily to gather materials for a revision of the genus Tridax. Some of their 
collections were taken along the highway from Jiquilpan to Guadalajara and Tepic. The 
first set of their specimens is at the University of Texas (TEX). 

Pringle, Cyrus Guernsey (1838—1911). Edward Palmer's first trip to Jalisco 
apparently attracted the attention of another and equally indefatigable Mexican 
collector, for in 1888 Pringle made an extended visit to Guadalajara, where he spent 
48 days (late October to mid-December). Enthused by the richness of the flora, 

Morton, C. V. Tree-ferns in western Mexico. Amer. Fern Journ. 46: 146-148. 1956. 


particularly of the deep barrancas of the Rio Grande, Pringle returned again and again 
to Jalisco; he made in all more than twenty visits, in fifteen different years from 1888 
to 1908. According to the account in his published journal, 1 Pringle worked a total of 
more than 500 days in Jalisco and collected for distribution more than 900 numbered 
collections (in sets of 60 as was his practice). One can only guess at the number of 
smaller sets which he collected, but it must be large, for his journal abounds in 


references to species which he collected "in dozens," "in 15's," "in scores," and so on. 
Collection numbers cited in the journal are chiefly those of which full sets were 
collected. Urbina, 2 on the other hand, in his enumeration of the collections of 
Mexican plants in the National Museum of Mexico up to about 1895, cites many 
additional numbers, apparently collected in smaller sets and not mentioned by Pringle 
in the journal; he includes also many collections, presumably unicates, which are 
un-numbered. Urbina cites, in all, about 650 collections made by Pringle in Jalisco, 
including more than 200 not cited by Pringle himself. 

No annotated list of Pringle's collections has ever been published, and it has not 
seemed feasible to summarize by number his collections from Jalisco, because of the 
gaps and inconsistencies in his numbering system. Only rarely are plants from any one 
locality all together in a continuous series. Pringle's plan to obtain 60 sets where he 
could do so often made it impossible for him to obtain more than a few numbers at 
any one place at one time, so that he traveled much, and planned to return to 
desirable localities time after time. Thus in 1893 he made six separate visits to Jalisco, 
and his collection-numbers are correspondingly separated. Numbers which he assigned 
tentatively, moreover, were often cancelled when he failed to find enough specimens to 
make 60 sets, and unused numbers were thus relatively frequent. These unused 
numbers were then on occasion taken up for plants from other localities. Add to this 
the fact that the principal series, those collected in 60 sets, were numbered separately 
from the "dozens," the "15V and the "scores." His collections for any one year may 
thus be represented by several series of numbers. In 1893, for example, his principal 
series from Jalisco apparently included nos. 4365-4627; most of these numbers are 
mentioned in the diaries (Davis, pp. 112-124). In addition to these there are more 
than 40 numbers between 5370 and 5527, and about 30 un-numbered collections, 
which are cited by Urbina (1897). 

It may be estimated, however, that Pringle added at least 600 species to the 
known flora of Jalisco. His extensive collections from near Guadalajara, even though all 
made in the wet season from May to December, make this one of the best-studied 
localities in Mexico. Most of his time in Jalisco was spent in the vicinity of 
Guadalajara, where it was his practice to concentrate on the flora of the barrancas, 
while interspersing this work with trips of one day, or over one or two nights, to 
certain favorite localities within a radius of about 40 kilometers. These favorite and 
often-visited spots included the Falls of Juanacatlan, and the mountains north of Lake 
Chapala, which Pringle reached by walking from stations on the railroad. He travelled 
customarily by rail from one collecting center to another, as pointed out by Pennell, 3 
and with few exceptions his collecting trips in Jalisco were made on foot from stations 
along the railroad, or from a base in Guadalajara. Many details can be obtained from 
his own diaries as published by Davis. 

In 1893, during a stay of more than 165 days in Jalisco, between May 3 and 
November 18, Pringle made a trip of about a month, by stage from Guadalajara, to 

^avis, H. B. Life and work of Cyrus Guernsey Pringle, pp. [iv] , 756, frontisp., University of 

Vermont, 1936. 

2 Urbina, Manuel. Catalogo de Plantas Mexicanas (Faner6gamas). vi, 487 pp. Mexico, Imprenta 

del Museo National, 1897. 

3 Pennell, Francis Whittier. Indices of States, Places and Railroad Routes of Mexico. Suppl. to 
Davis, H. B., Life and Work of Cyrus Guernsey Pringle. pp. 14. Univ. of Vermont, 1937. 



Zapotlan and the Nevado de Colima. 1 Later the same year 2 he made two trips, by 
stage and on foot, to Tequila, where lie spent a total of about six weeks in all. Except 
for a few days in the vicinity of Etzatlan in 1904, these were his only extended trips 
in Jalisco outside the vicinity of Guadalajara. 

The following summary of Pringle's activities in Jalisco is taken primarily from his 
published journal, which the reader may consult for further details, and for mention of 
specific localities and collection numbers. The dates as given below are those of his 
known visits to the State; actual dates of collecting are not cited: 

1888 Oct 28-Dec 15 1893 Nov 10-Nov 11 

1889 May 20-May 24 1893 Nov 15-Nov 18 
1889 Jun 25-Jul 8 1894 Apr 30-May 5 
1889 Sep 20-Nov 25 1894 Jul 8-Jul ?13 

1889 Dec 2-Dec 20 1895 Oct 9-Oct 12 

1890 May 16-May 24 1898 Jun 9-Jun 16 
1890 Sep 8-Sep 12 1901 May 10-May 16 

1890 Oct 31 -Nov 4 1902 Jul 9-Aug 1 

1891 May 19 -May 29 1902 Aug 3-Aug 13 

1891 Sep 10-Oct 13 1902 Aug 19 

1892 Jun 24-Jun 29 1902 Dec 2-Dec ?12 

1892 Nov ?10-Nov 26 1903 Sep 26-Oct 29 

1893 May 3 Aug 1 1904 Oct 21-Oct 31 
1893 Aug 14-Sep 11 1905 Nov 28-Nov 30 
1893 Sep 18-Oct 20 1908 Sep 25-Oct 7 
1893 Oct 28-Nov 3 

Puga, Adrian. See Safford. 

Puga, Luz Maria Villarreal de. Resident in Guadalajara with a longtime interest in 
the flora of Jalisco, Mrs. Puga has collected many specimens, mostly from Jalisco, 
Michoacan, Nayarit, and Colima, but also some from Chihuahua and Baja California. 
Her numbered collections since 1960 total about 4500, about 3000 of which 
are represented in the herbarium of the Escuela National de Ciencias Biologicas (ENCB), 
or at the University of Michigan (MICH). One of her most interesting discoveries was 
that of the genus Ledenbergia (Phytolaccaceae) in Jalisco (cf. Rzedowski, J., An. Esc. Nac. 
Ci. Biol. 14: 28-32. 1967). See also McVaugh (1965, 1967), and Rzedowski (1968, 1970). 


Puga y Robles Gil, Luis. See McVaugh (1967). 

Purpus, C. A. [Karl Albert] (1851-1941). Purpus collected botanical specimens 
in many parts of Mexico from 1897 until a few years before his death. His work has 
recently been summarized by Sousa, 3 who does not mention Jalisco among the States 
in which Purpus collected. Scattered records in the literature, however, indicate that at 
least his numbers 486-527 came from the vicinity of Tuzpan, Jalisco, about February 
1904 (cf. no. 527, the type of Achaetogeron corymbosus Larsen, Jour. Washington 
Acad. Sci. 38: 201. 1948; the specimen is at the Gray Herbarium [GH]). A few of his 
specimens from Tuxpan apparently bear the date 1905. I have not been able to learn 
any more about his travels in this part of Mexico. 

Reeder, John Raymond, and Charlotte Goodding Reeder. Professor and Mrs. 
Reeder, then of Yale University, collected plants (chiefly grasses) in Mexico in 1950 

^avis, pp. 113 115. See also Pringle's popular accounts of the trip: Pringlc, C. G. Notes on 
Mexican travel -VIII. Zapotlan and the Nevado of Colima. Gard. & For. 7: 162-163. 25 Apr 1894; 
idem. -IX. San Marcos and the Volcano of Colima. op. cit. 7: 172-173. 2 May 1894. 

2 Davis, pp. 115-116, 120-122; see also the description by Pringle under his Notes on 
Mexican Travel-IX (preceding footnote). 

3'Sousa Sanchez, Mario. Las colecciones botanicas de C. A. Purpus en Mexico. Periodo 

1898-1925. Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 51: i-ix, 1-36. 1969. 


and again in 1953. Botanical collecting in 1950 was incidental to the collection of 
soil-samples to be used in the study of actinomycetes. In 1953 the collectors were 
again interested in obtaining soil-samples, but also travelled widely by truck and 
obtained many collections of Gramineae, mostly from near the principal highways. The 
principal set of the Reeders' collections is at Yale (YU). 

Collections in 1950 in Jalisco were as follows: 5 miles south of Ojuelos, July 19 (nos. 
1400-1401); 18 miles east [northeast] of Lagos, 3 miles east of Presa de Cuarenta, July 19 
(1402-1410); 6 miles west of Lagos, July 20 (1411-1419); 10 miles northeast of Zapotlanejo, 
July 20 (1420); 7 miles northeast of Tepatitldn, July 20 (1421-1423); 10 miles northwest of 
Guadalajara, on Tepic road, July 21 (1424-1430). 

In 1953, after spending some weeks in eastern and southern Mexico, the Reeders 
travelled from Mexico City to Guadalajara by way of Toluca and Guanajuato, made a 
side trip from Guadalajara to Colima and the Pacific Coast, then after return to 
Guadalajara proceeded to Tepic, San Bias, and northward to Durango and Chihuahua. 
Collections in Nueva Galicia may be summarized as follows: 

Jalisco, 13 miles northwest of Ledn, Gto., September 13 (nos. 2288-2293); 7 miles southeast 
of Lagos, September 13 (2294-2307); 3 miles north of EncarnackSn de Diaz, September 14 
(2308-2310); 1 mile northeast of Valle de Guadalupe, September 14 (2311-2316); various 
localities between Guadalajara and Acatlin, September 16 (2317-2331); 9 miles south of 
Guadalajara, September 17 (2332-2335); 18 miles south of Guadalajara, September 17 
(2336-2344); between Acatldn and Cuidad Guzman, September 18 (2345-2352). Colima, between 
the city of Colima and the lagoon at Cuyutldn, various localities, September 19 (2353-2373); 
between the city of Colima and Mazamitla, Jal., various localities, September 20 (2374-2389). 
Jalisco and Nayarit, various localities between Guadalajara and Tepic, September 21 (2390-2409). 
Nayarit, between Tepic and San Bias, various localities, September 22 (2410-2422). 

Professor and Mrs. Reeder have continued their interest in Mexican grasses and 
have travelled widely in Mexico in recent years. 

Reiche, Karl Friedrich (1860—1929). A German botanist perhaps best known for 
his work on the flora of Chile, Reiche also lived many years in Mexico and was the 
author of a useful local flora based on his work there. 1 

Reiche went to Chile in 1889 2 and resided there until 1911, when he went to 
Mexico as Professor of Botany and Biology in the National University. In 1923 he lost 
this position because of political conditions, and in 1924 he returned to Germany and 
settled in Munich. In March 1926 he left for his last trip to Mexico, from which he 
returned to Munich in December, 1927. His experiences in Mexico, and his impressions 
of that country, are described in a posthumous work. 3 He travelled widely during his 
earlier residence in Mexico, but I have not seen any references to botanical work in 
Nueva Galicia except during the trip of 1926-1927. Some of the experiences in 
"Kreuz und Quer durch Mexiko" certainly date from this trip, but because of the style 
of narration it is not always possible to be sure. His description of Jalisco, however, in 
the chapter entitled "Quer durch Jalisco und Colima" (pp. 113—117), seems to be 
drawn largely from this last trip. He came to Guadalajara by rail from Mexico. He gives 
some space to a description of Lake Chapala, then takes the reader to Guadalajara, and 
finally by train to Tonilita. Near Tonilita, at the Hacienda de Esperanza, he made his 
headquarters for a time in preparation for a climb to the heights of the volcano of 
Colima. He climbed as far as the beginning of the steeply lying volcanic sands that 
surround the base of the cone, to an elevation estimated at 3500 meters, at about the 
upper limit of the lupines and bunch-grasses. He also states that on an earlier occasion 
he had climbed from San Antonio to the summit of the Nevado. 

1 Flora excursoria en el valle central de Mexico, pp. 303. Mexico, 1926. 

2 Ross, Hermann. Karl Reiche. Ber. Deutsch. Bot. Ges. 47: appendix 103-110. 1929. 

3 Reiche, Karl. Kreuz und quer durch Mexiko. pp. 128. illus. Deutsche Buchwerkstatten, 

Leipzig, 1930. 



In the chapter "Die Staaten Nayarit und Sinaloa" (pp. 118—121) he describes the 
train-ride from Guadalajara to Tepic, and refers also to San Bias, which he knew only 
from having touched there during a trip by sea from Manzanillo to Mazatlan. 

Reiche's collection, comprising 1069 numbered specimens, is in the Botanische 
Staatssamlung at Munich (M), where 1 examined it in 1954 through the courtesy of the 
late Professor Suessenguth. Numbers 400 to 420, inclusive, are from the Nevado de 
Colima, where they were collected in January, 1927. 

Reko, Bias Patio ( -1953). The United States National Herbarium has a 

series of specimens, numbered approximately 4814-4886, collected in Jalisco and 

Colima between 1923 and 1925 by Reko, an Austrian medical man who made Mexico 
his adopted country, and who collected extensively in various parts of the Republic. 

Most of the above collections were made at Hacienda San Antonio, Colima (almost the 

only specimens 1 have seen from that locality), or from other localities along the 

railroad between Colima and Guadalajara. A few collections made in 1922 are from the 

vicinity of Guadalajara. There is a brief obituary notice in Bol. Soc. Bot. Mex. 
16: 25-27. portr. 1954. 

Reyes Parra, . See Muller. 

Roe, Keith, and Eunice Roe. Mr. and Mrs. Roe collected in the Sierra del Halo, 
on the side toward Tecalitlan, in 1965. Their specimens were distributed from the 
University of Wisconsin (WIS). 

Roezl, Benedict (1824—1885). One of the most industrious and widely travelled 
collectors of American plants for European gardens, Roezl visited Mexico on a number 
of occasions and lived in that country for extended periods. His first visit was in 1854, 
when according to his own account he started a nursery for European fruit trees, 
introduced into Mexico the culture of ramie, and invented and patented a machine for 
extracting and cleaning the fibers of ramie and hemp. His introductions of horticultural 
plants to Europe were measured by the tens of thousands of plants, by tons of weight, 
and by hundreds of species. His botanical publications included numerous newly 
described species, but were neither detailed nor from a scientific standpoint carefully 
prepared. A note in Roezl's "autobiography" suggests that he rarely if ever preserved 
herbarium specimens: 

One thing we beg of M. Roezl, and others who like him can boast of the tons of rare plants 
they send to Europe, that, ere they exterminate, as they must surely do, the plants from their 
native haunts, they carefully preserve a few pounds' weight only of dried specimens, to serve as 
records for the future. 1 

Perhaps on Roezl's later trips to Mexico he was induced to collect at least a few 
dried plants, for the Kew herbarium is said to possess some of his collections, probably 
from the trip of 1874 (e.g. Cuphea hookeriana, collected at Tepic, and between San 
Bias and Tepic, cited by Hemsley in Biol. Centr. Am. Bot. 1: 441. 1880). 

Some notes on Roezl's early travels in Mexico can be obtained from his so-called 
autobiography, cited above, and others from his published descriptions of horticultural 
novelties. 2 There are some additional notes in what is perhaps his best-known botanical 
work, a catalogue containing descriptions of a large number of new species of the 

Benedict Roezl. Gard. Chron. II. 2: 73. 18 Jul 1874. 

2 Deutsche Gaertner-Zeitung, 1881, p. 118 ff., translated in Belgique Horticole 33: 123-139, 
157-177, 221-239, 296-314. 1883, under the title of "Notes sur les ddcouvertes botaniques les 
plus remarquables faites en Amdrique." 


genus Pinus, including several from the vicinity of Morelia, Michoacan, and others from 
as far west as northwestern Michoacan. 1 

In the summer of 1854 Roezl collected in various localities in Veracruz and near 
the city of Mexico. In July 1855 he was collecting at the mountain called Istapalapa, 
two days' travel from Mexico. In October 1855 he undertook a trip to collect orchids 
and pine seeds, south of Mexico City. The following month, November 1855, he was 
in Queretaro. In the summer of 1856 he made a trip to the west of Mexico, crossing 
the territory of Atacuba; in October 1856 he made a trip to a mountainous region 
(?near Zimapan) four days from Mexico; in January 1857 he made the ascent of Mt. 
Acusca (?Ajusco); in February he camped at Zacatlan in the pine forests at 2000 m; in 
January 1858 he set out for Michoacan, passing through Toluca and scaling the Nevado 
de Toluca; after a trip of 14 days he reached a place called "Spiritus Sanctus" where 
there was a rich silver mine and where he found Pilocereus chrysomallus. 2 Roezl spent 
a considerable amount of time on the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, chiefly near a place he 
called Sante Comapan; he visited Puebla and Oaxaca, climbed Popocatepetl at least to 
3500 m, visited the mines of Real del Monte. In 1860 he visited Michoacan and 
ascended the Volcano of Jorullo; then, as he said, he left Michoacan to undertake an 
ascent of the Sierra Madre; this was probably in March. He seems to have visited 
Manzanillo about the year 1868; in his account of his visit in 1874, when describing 
Agave ortgiesi, he wrote: 3 

"II y a six ans que j'ai recolte au meme lieu, pour la premiere fois, ce magnifique 

In 1868—69 Roezl visited Cuba, returned to Mexico and again to Cuba; he went 
to New Orleans, Louisiana, in December 1868; crossed from New York to San 
Francisco probably in the summer of 1869, went after some work in California to 
Panama and Colombia; at the beginning of the Franco-Prussian war he went to 
Panama, San Francisco, and Washington Territory, returned to Colombia and Peru, 
finally to Europe. Leaving Liverpool August 3, 1872, Roezl went to New York, 
crossed to Colorado and California, collected orchids in the Sierra Madre of Mexico 
"via Acapulco," went on to South America, back to the West Indies and eastern 
Mexico, then by way of New York to Panama and the Andes before returning to 
London. On this trip Roezl stated that he sent home 3500 orchid plants from his 
Acapulco collection; his total shipments included one of eight tons and another of ten 


In 1874, in company with his nephew B. Houda, Roezl undertook a long trip to 
the west coast of Mexico. Leaving Europe on July 15, they crossed the North 
American continent in a leisurely manner, collecting plants and seeds and arriving in 
California late in the fall. They left San Francisco by steamer on November 27, 
touched at San Pedro, San Diego, San Lucas and Mazatlan (December 8) before 
disembarking at San Bias, where they spent 36 hours making ready for a trip to Tepic. 
Roezl stayed several days at Tepic, but was prevented by the authorities from traveling 
farther into the interior; he was especially disappointed not to be able to visit the 
volcano "Cherubusco" [Ceboruco] , then active. He returned to San Bias and continued 
by boat to Manzanillo, where he hired mules for the trip to Colima. 

1 Catalogue des graines de Coniferes Mexicains, qui se trouvent chez J. Roezl et Co. a Napoles 
pr6s Mexico. M. Murguia, Mexico, 1857. pp. 34. [The title as given is taken from Schlechtendal, 
who published a translation from French into Latin of all the descriptions of new pines 
(Schlechtendal, D. F. L. de, Coniferae Mexicanae, ex catalogo clar. Roezl translatae, &c. Linnaea 
29: 326-356. 1858). See also Shaw, G. R., Pines of Mexico. Arnold Arb. Publ. 1: 3. 1909.] 

2 Perhaps Roezl meant the mine called Esplritu Santo, in southern Michoacan not far from the 
Rio Balsas, west of Huetamo and north of Zirandaro. See Candollea 13: 197. 1951. 

3 Belg. Hort. 32: 90. 1882. 



After a few days spent in Colima to put his affairs in order, Roezl determined to 

ascend the Volcan de Colima to search for orchids. His party left Colima about 
December 21 and stayed the first night not far beyond the Indian village in the orange 
belt near the foot of the mountain. The second day, after passing evidences of volcanic 
action on the lower slopes, they ascended into a virgin forest where they found orchids 
in abundance. 1 The second night was spent in the open, after the travellers had left 
their pack-animals behind; the third night in the oak forest at an elevation of 2340 m. 
The following day, December 24, the party climbed into the fir forest to an elevation 
of about 3000 m and passed one more night there before beginning the three-day trip 
back to Colima. Here Roezl suffered an attack of fever which kept him in bed for a 
week. In the meantime Indian collectors were gathering orchids for him, and by the 
middle of January, 1875, he had more than 10,000 good plants of choice species to 
export. Two months later, early in March, he had packed and shipped 100,000 orchids, 
including 22,000 specimens of Odontoglossum cervantesi. 

Roezl then determined to ascend the volcano by another route, and set out from 
Colima on March 8, traveling the old camino real to Guadalajara. He reached Tonila 
("Tonilla") the first night, and began his ascent from there the following morning. He 
travelled relatively rapidly upward through the pine and fir zones, and by nightfall had 
reached an altitude of 3400 m. After a night much disturbed by the eruptions of the 
volcano, Roezl left the animals with the guides, and climbed with his nephew to the 
summit ridge, some 300 meters below the peak of the Nevado, before returning to the 
previous night's encampment. The return to Tonila was delayed a day by a river of 
molten lava around which the travelers had to detour. 

Roezl arranged to have 1000 plants of Cypripediwn irapeanwn brought in for 
packing, and while he was waiting for these he passed around the flank of the 
mountain to Zapotlan ("Zapotitlan"), a two-days' journey from Tonila, and after a 
short visit to the city ascended the mountains to the eastward before returning to 
Tonila. After packing his collections in Colima he embarked soon at Manzanillo and 
returned to Europe by way of California. 

Roller, Jane. See Weintraub. 

Rose, Joseph Nelson (1862-1928). Rose's trip across the Sierra Madre in 1897, 
with Nelson (q.v.) and Goldman, has already been mentioned. This was, botanically 
speaking, one of the most profitable ever made in Nueva Galicia. His collections 
comprised the only large series ever obtained from this part of Mexico, and one of the 
most important, because they represent the flora of a large area, even now very 
imperfectly known, between the Sierra Madre Occidental of Chihuahua and Durango, 
and the more southerly ranges that are bounded on the north by the barrancas of the 
Rio Grande system. Rose's collection was only partially studied by him before his 
death in 1928, and many novelties will doubtless be found in it in the future. Plants 
were collected at the following localities, beginning at Aguacate about ten miles east of 
the Rio San Pedro (Goldman, p. 202): 

Aguacate to Dolores, August 6, 1897 (nos. 2013-2030, 3332, 3348-3362, 3424); Dolores, 
August 6 (3363-3366); Dolores to Santa Gertrudis, August 7 (2031-2065, 3367-3374, 3423); 
near Santa Gertrudis, August 7 or 8 (3406, 3407, 3411); Santa Gertrudis to Santa Teresa, August 8 
(2066-2121, 3323, 3375-3385); near Santa Teresa, August 8-13 (2122-2234, 3313, 3386-3405, 

] Roezrs narrative was published in Deutsche Gaertner-Zeitung 4: 11-12, 34-36, 58-60, 
78-79, 105-108, 129-131, 154-155, 180-181, 227. Jan -Oct 1880, as "Meine letzte Reise an 
der Westkuste von Mexiko." A translation, by Dr. H. F., "Mon dernier voyage k la cote occidentale 
du Mexique," appeared in Belgique Horticole 32:68-113. 1882. A portion of the article, that 
describing the ascent of the volcano, was translated into English by W. B. Hemsley and published, 
in abridged form, with the title "Ascent of the Volcan de Colima," in Gard. Chron II. 19: 369. 24 
Mar 1883, and op. cit. 415-416. 31 Mar 1883. 


3408-3410, 3412-3418, 3425-3454, 3456-3466, 3737, 3745, 3770, 3772, 3791); Sierra Madre 
near Huazamota, Durango, August 13-16 (2235-2360, 3455, 3467-3519, 3523, 3752-3754, 
3793); Sierra Madre, Zacatecas (see Goldman, p. 288), August 16-18 (2361-2403, 3520-3522, 
3524-3533, 3535, 3736, 3756, 3764); near San Juan Capistrano, Zac., August 18-22 
(2404-2485, 3534, 3536-3557, 3762); Zacatecas, between San Juan Capistrano and Huejuquilla, 
August 23 (2486-2495, 3751); Jalisco, between San Juan Capistrano and Huejuquilla, August 23 
(2496-2519); Huejuquilla, August 24-25 (2520-2556, 3558-3565, 3773, 3781); Huejuquilla to 
Mezquitic, August 25 (2557-2592, 3566-3578, 3771, 3775); Mezquitic, August 26 (2593-2596, 
3579); Mezquitic to Monte Escobedo, August 26 (2597—2662, 3580—3588); near Monte Escobedo, 
August 26-28 (2623-2668, 3589-3595, 3760, 3769); Monte Escobedo to Colotlan, August 28 
(2669-2677, 3596-3601); near Colotlan, August 28-30 (2678-2681, 3602-3610); Jalisco, 
between Colotlan and Plateado, August 31 (2682-2692, 3611-3618 1 ); Zacatecas, between 
Colotlan and Plateado, August 31 (2693-2710); Plateado, September 1 (2711-2712); Sierra de los 
Morones, September 1 (2713-2743, 3619-3631); Plateado, September 2-4 (2744-2807, 
3632-3650, 3740-73744); Plateado to Colotlan, September 5 (3651-3655); Colotlan, September 
6-7 (2808-2820, 3656-3665, 3776); Colotlan to Bolanos, September 7-8 (2821-2844, 
3666-3677, 3681, 3765); Bolanos, September 9-19 (2845-2943, 3679-3680, 3682-3700, 3746, 
3780); Sierra Madre west of Bolanos, September 15-17 (2944-3015, 3701-3730, 3732, 
3738-3739, 3767); Jalisco, between Bolanos and Guadalajara, September 19-20 (3016-3031, 
3731, 3733-3735), September 21-22 (3045-3068); Zacatecas, between Bolanos and Guadalajara, 
September 20-21 (3032-3044); Bolanos to Guadalajara, September 20-22 (3079-3098); 
Guadalajara, September 24 (3099). 

Rose made a second journey to Mexico, May 9 to July 15, 1899, in company with 
Dr. Walter Hough, of the United States National Museum (Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 8: 1. 
1903). They came to Jalisco by train, after collecting in the State of Puebla until June 
27. They worked in the vicinity of Tequila, July 5 and 6, collecting nos. 4740-4796 
and 4979-4980; at Orendain, July 7 (4797-4802); at Guadalajara, July 9 
(4803-4805 and 4981-4982), in the barranca near Guadalajara, the same day 
(4806-4833); and at Ocotlan, July 10 (4834). The following day, July 11, they began 
to work near the city of Guanajuato. 

In 1901, accompanied by Robert Hay, Rose travelled in Mexico from June 26 to 
August 31. The two men collected near the city of Aguascalientes, August 20 (nos. 
6197-6239). Returning immediately to Mexico, they collected on Popocatepetl, at 
elevations between 8600 and 10700 feet, on August 22 (nos. 6240-6264). The next 
numbers are from Guadalajara, August 24 and 25 (6265-6294 or 6295, 6401, 6402, 
6404), and August 26-27 (6372, 6373). Nos. 6296-6322 are from Popocatepetl, 
August 22. No. 6374, according to the field-book, is from Poncitlan, Jalisco, under 
dates of August 1 and 2; there is perhaps some error here, since the book also shows 
that numerous collections were made on these latter dates at Tehuacan, Puebla. 


Somewhat more extensive collections were made in 1903 by Rose, who was then 
assisted by J. H. Painter. A summary of their joint collections follows: 

Near Guadalajara, September 26 (7314-7345); near Guadalajara, September 27 (7346-7348); 
Barranca near Guadalajara, September 28 (7349-7425); Barranca near Guadalajara, September 29 
(7426-7443); Rio Blanco, September 30 (7444-7509); mountains near Etzatlan, October 2 
(7510-7601, 7699); near Atequiza, October 4 (7602-7605); between Atequiza and Chapala, 
October 4-6 (7606-7613, 7696); chalky hills near Chapala, October 5 (7614-7638); Chapala, 
October 5 (7639-7670); hills beyond Chapala, October 5 (7671-7695); near Atequiza, October 6 
(7697, 7698); hills east of Aguascalientes, October 9 (7700-7779), near Aguascalientes, October 9 
(7801), west of Aguascalientes, October 10 (7780-7800). 

Rose and Painter worked for a part of the time with C. G. Pringle and sometimes 
also with the mycologist Holway. Comparison of their dates and localities with those 
in Pringle's diary (Davis, p. 209), shows that Pringle, Holway and Rose were together 
in the Barranca de Ibarra, north of Atemajac, on September 28 and 29, and that all 
travelled together to Etzatlan. Apparently Pringle did not accompany Rose and Painter 
on their trip to Chapala. In some instances it appears that Pringle and Rose collected 

Perhaps partly in Zacatecas. 



the same species at the same locality (cf. Pringle 8766, and Rose & Painter 7531, both 
from Etzatlan, both representing Cuphea hookeriana). 

The summaries of Rose's collections for the years 1897—1899, 1901, and 1903, 
have been drawn from his field-books, generously made available by the United States 
National Herbarium, where is also the only nearly complete set of his plants. It was 
not his custom to collect large sets of duplicate specimens; many numbers are 
represented only by the specimen in the National Herbarium, and rarely does a number 
consist of more than five sets. The largest set of his duplicates is probably at the Gray 
Herbarium (GH). Smaller sets went to New York (NY), to Kew (K), to Mexico 
(MEXU), to St. Louis (MO), and to the British Museum (BM). The serial numbers on 
the specimens are those of Rose himself, although the plants of 1899, 1901 and 1903 
were distributed under the names of Rose & Hough, Rose & Hay, and Rose & Painter, 

Ross, Gordon Burwell. Ross collected approximately 150 specimens in southern 
Mexico, and presented these to the United States National Herbarium in 1955. About 
28 numbers were from Jalisco, and most of these from the vicinity of Puerto Vallarta. 

Ross, Hermann (1862-1942). In connection with the Tenth International 
Geological Congress, held in Mexico City in 1906, an excursion was arranged to the 
Volcan de Colima. Ross, a member of the staff of the Botanical Garden (now 
Botanische Staatssamlung) of Munich, took part in this excursion and collected a 
number of plants. His collections for the entire summer (from this and other 
excursions) include more than 600 numbers of flowering plants, which are deposited 
in the Munich herbarium (M). The specimens are serially numbered, more or less 
chronologically, and an alphabetical list (by plant-family and genus) is preserved at 
Munich. Through the kindness of the late Professor Suessenguth I was able to consult 
this list and determine the localities for specimens already in the herbarium. It appears 
that the specimens collected in Jalisco number approximately 136 (nos. 415-550), or 
perhaps fewer. Numbers preceding this (up to at least 427), were collected in the 
Sierra de San Andres, Michoacan, and numbers beginning with 551 were collected in 
Veracruz, near Cordoba and Mirador. A series from about 445 to 459 came from the 
vicinity of Zapotlan, Jalisco, and nos. 490 to about 536 came from the northeastern 
slopes of the Nevado de Colima, especially near the Rancho de la Joya and on up to 
the "saddle" by which one crosses the divide between the Nevado and the "Volcan de 
Fuego." There are many gaps in the series between 415 and 550; some of these are 
known to be non-vascular cryptogams, and the remaining numbers may have been 
assigned to plant-galls (Ross's principal field of interest) or to zoological or geological 

The excursionists for the Volcan de Colima left Celaya, Gto., in a special train, 
and arrived in Guadalajara on August 26, 1906. 1 They continued by train to Zapotlan, 
where they passed the day of the 27th. The Governor of Jalisco personally attended 
them here, and accompanied them on a short trip to the volcanic craters of 
Apaxtepetl. At 6 o'clock on the morning of the 28th the party left on horseback for 
the mountain, going by way of the Rancho de la Joya, where they stopped for lunch. 
In the afternoon they continued through the pass called Los Colimotes and turned the 
south flank of the Nevado, to a camp which they reached about 6 in the evening. The 
day of the 29th was given up to an ascent of the volcano proper, and the night was 
passed at the same camp as before. On the 30th they descended by way of the 
Barranca of Atenquique, reached Zapotlan during the night and took the train at once 
for Guadalajara. 

^ompte Rendu X me Sess. Congr. Geol. Int. [Mexico 1906] 2: 1298. 1907. 


Ross obtained some of the characteristic high-altitude plants (e.g. Draba jorullensis, 
Festuca tolucensis, Pernettya ciliata, Vaccinum geminiflorum) on the open slopes of 
the saddle, near the camp of August 28 and 29. The flowering plants have been little 
cited in the literature, although the grasses were identified by A. S. Hitchcock, and the 
oaks by William Trelease. A paper on the cryptogams was published by Ross and 
collaborators. 1 For a sketch of the life and work of Ross, there is a paper by 
Suessenguth. 2 

Rowell, Chester Morrison, Jr. In the summer of 1947, Dr. Fred A. Barkley, who 
was at that time a member of the staff of the University of Texas, conducted a 
collecting trip in Mexico. He was accompanied by several University students, including 
John B. Paxson, C. M. Rowell, Jr., Grady L. Webster and B. L. Westlund. The many 
collections which were made by the party are now in the herbarium of the University, 
at Austin (TEX). Most of the labels bear the names of three collectors, headed by that 
of Barkley, e.g. "Fred A. Barkley, B. L. Westlund & C. M. Rowell, Jr. 7618," or "Fred 
A. Barkley, John B. Paxson & Chester M. Rowell, Jr. 7605." According to the 
numbering system used by the group, the serial number is that of the collector whose 
name appears last on the label (i.e. next to the number). The specimens collected in 
Jalisco by this party were all assigned numbers in Rowell's series, and accordingly his 
name is written next to the serial number on each label. 

Approximately 169 numbers were collected in Jalisco, on August 12, 1947, near 
the highway from Guadalajara to Morelia. The following list of numbers and localities 
was sent me by Dr. Rowell, and the entire series of specimens was loaned for my 
study by the late Dr. B. C. Tharp: 

Five miles south of Guadalajara, xeric scrub near highway (nos. 7492-7553); marsh beside 
road about 10 miles southeast of Guadalajara [It is probable that this locality was near Santa Cruz 
de las Flores, which is almost southwest of Guadalajara, not southeast; marshy areas are 
conspicuous here along the highway] (7554-7578); 5 miles southeast of Jocotepec (7579-7581); 
15 miles southeast of Jocotepec (7582—7591); in pool beside road, 30 miles southeast [i.e. 30 
miles by road from the city] of Guadalajara (7592-7601); mountainsides above southern shore of 
Lake Chapala (7602-7660); 10 miles west of Zamora, Michoacdn (7661-7669). 

Rowntree, Lester. Mrs. Rowntree, an author, horticulturist, and garden consultant 
of Carmel, California, collected seeds, living plants and herbarium material in Mexico 

during the autumn months (September to December) of 1938, paying particular 

attention to plants which might be expected to do well in California gardens. Her 
entire herbarium, including nearly 1000 sheets, was later destroyed by fire, but at least 
a few specimens were distributed and some have been cited, e.g. a number of Labiatae, 
including numbers from 111 to 273, mostly from Jalisco and Michoacan (cf. Epling, 
Carl C, in Rev. Mus. La Plata II, 7 [Bot.] : 196. 1949, and Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 
67: 509-534. 1940). 

Russell, Paul George (1889-1963), and Max J. Souviron (1898- ). These 
plant-explorers for the United States Department of Agriculture reached Guadalajara 
by train on August 14, 1930, and left for Mexico City the night of the 15th. They 
spent as much time as possible, on the 15th, collecting in the Barranca de Oblatos. The 
botanical specimens, now in the United States National Herbarium, were made by 
Russell and distributed under the names of Russell and Souviron. 

Rzedowski, Jerzy. Professor Rzedowski, a member of the faculty of the Escuela 
Nacional de Ciencias Biologicas, Mexico, has made more than 15 trips to Nueva Galicia 
since 1960, and has collected more than 3000 numbers, the first set of which is in the 

Contributions k la flore du Mexique avec la collaboration de specialistes. Mem. Soc. Cient. 

Antonio Alzate" 32: 155-199. 1912. 

2 Hermann Ross. Ber. Deutsch. Bot. Ges. 60 (2): 177-185, portr. 1943. 



herbarium of his institution (ENCB). A considerable duplicate set is at the University 
of Michigan (MICH), and other sets have been distributed. His longest excursions to 
our area were in I960, when he collected more than 1000 numbers, traveling with a 
party from the University of Michigan (see McVaugh, 1960); from June 20 to July 1, 
1961, when he collected more than 250 numbers; from October 21 to November 25, 
1963, when he took approximately 679 numbers; and from October 24 to November 

I, 1967; other important trips were those to San Martin de Bolanos (August 
31 -September 3, 1968), and to Cerro Viejo (August 14-16, 1970). 

In 1960 Rzedowski's travels closely paralleled our own, but our collecting 
localities were not always identical. He took nos. 14001—14075 along the Aguas- 
calientes-Calvillo highway (August 24-25), 14116-14181 in the Sierra del Laurel 
(August 26-28), 14183-14209 on a trip to Jalpa (August 30), 14213-14248 at the 
Presa de Santa Rosa (September 1) and 14249-14261 at El Molino (September 2). On 
the trip to Tepic and Compostela he collected nos. 14262—14400 (September 3—6). 
When we met in Guadalajara 3 weeks later he collected at Santa Cruz de las Flores and 
in the lake-basins south of Acatlan and Cocula (nos. 14500-14527, September 
26-28). On our travels to Autlan and the coast, September 29-October 4, he 
collected nos. 14531—14744. After a short respite he rejoined our party on November 

II, in time to collect with us on our trip to Tenacatita Bay on the 12th (nos. 
14846-14911). He then accompanied us to Talpa and La Cuesta, collecting along the 
road to Autlan (nos. 14912-15051, November 13-16), near Cuautla (nos. 
15052-15064, November 17), between Talpa and La Cuesta (nos. 15065-15169, 
15207-15247, November 18-22, 24-25), and near Llano Grande (nos. 
15170-15206, November 23). 

In 1961, Rzedowski came into Jalisco by automobile, via Atotonilco (nos. 
15248-15256, June 20), and Guadalajara (along the highway to Ixtlahuacan del Rio 
and beyond, nos. 15257-15269, June 21), Zacoalco and Tapalpa (nos. 15270-15279, 
June 22), Tecalitlan and Pihuamo (nos. 15280-15326, June 23-24). For the next 
three days he explored in different directions from the City of Colima, taking nos. 
15328-15342 on a trip to Tonila, Jalisco (June 25), 15343-15361 on the road to San 
Antonio (June 26), and 15362-15385 on an excursion toward Pihuamo (June 27). 
The following day (June 28) he went toward the coast and on that day and the 29th 
collected nos. 15386—15465 near Tecoman, Los Pascuales and Cerro de Ortega, and in 
the foothills between Tecoman and Manzanillo. After an excursion on the 30th, 
beyond Manzanillo toward Cihuatlan, he returned the next day to Colima and 
Jiquilpan (between Tecoman and Cihuatlan, nos. 15466— 15488; northeast of San Jose 
de Gracia, July 1, 15494-15506). 

On a second trip to Jalisco this summer, Rzedowski collected for two days with L. 
E. Detling (q.v.) on July 20 near La Primavera (nos. 15489-15493; Detling collected 
his nos. 8449-8451), and on July 21 near San Juan Cozala (nos. 15510-15514; 
Detling nos. 8452-8453). 

In February, 1962, Rzedowski travelled along the highway from Tepic to 
Guadalajara and Leon, Guanajuato, collecting especially in the vicinity of Tepic and 
along the highway as far as Tequila (nos. 15586-15639, February 11-12), between 
Zapotlanejo and Pegueros (nos. 15640—15651, February 14), from San Miguel el Alto 
to Lagos, Encarnacion de Diaz and Leon (nos. 15652—15661, February 15 — 16). 

On September 25, 1962, Rzedowski collected nos. 16117-16211, near Ojuelos 
and on the road to Aguascalientes. In March and April, 1963, he was in Jalisco twice, 
the first time taking nos. 16325-16341 near Lake Chapala and near Atotonilco (March 
22-24), and on the second trip collecting nos. 16562—16587 about 5 km east of 
Puerto Vallarta (April 27). On a third trip to Nueva Galicia, nearly a month later, he 
spent 8 days in the region between Apatzingan and Coalcoman, taking nos. 
16607-16656 between Apatzingan and Tepalcatepec and along the road to Jilotlan 



(May 20-23), and nos. 16657-16716 in the Municipio de Coalcoman or along the 
highway from Tepalcatepec to Coalcoman (May 24-27). 

In October 1963, Rzedowski joined a University of Michigan expedition conducted 
by Feddema and Mrs. Dieterle. With them he collected first on an excursion from 
Apatzingan to Tepalcatepec and the Sierra de los Corales (nos. 17308-17526, 
October 21-27). The party then transferred its attention to the high grasslands of 
northern Jalisco and adjacent Zacatecas, Rzedowski collecting between Valparaiso and 
Huejuquilla and near Huejuquilla (nos. 17527-17645, October 30-November 3), near 
Mezquitic, and between Mezquitic and Monte Escobedo (nos. 17646-17717, 
November 3-6). Moving to southern Nayarit, the party traveled from Tepic to Puerto 
Vallarta on November 10, when Rzedowski collected nos. 17719 between Mazata'n and 
Las Varas, and 17720 in Mpio. Valle de Banderas. The party collected from Puerto 
Vallarta as a base for the next 8 days; Rzedowski took nos. 17721-17765 (November 
11-12), nos. 17766-17782 (November 13, on an excursion over the new highway to 
Tomatlan), nos. 17783-17830 (November 14-16, including an excursion via El Pitillal 
and El Milagro in the direction of Mascota), and nos. 17831-17880 (November 
17-18, at San Jose and El Cuatante, Mpio. Valle de Banderas). Returning to Tepic on 
November 20, Rzedowski took nos. 17881-17916 between Mazatan and Las Varas. 
On the final excursion of this year, the group proceeded via Guadalajara, Colima, and 
Tecoman to the coast of western Michoacan, where they spent 3 days. Rzedowski took 
nos. 17917-17941a (near Chila, November 23), 17942-17971 (near Cruz del Campo, 
November 24), nos. 17972-17986 (near San Juan de Lima, and on the return to 
Colima, November 25). 

In January 1964 Rzedowski made a short but interesting trip to Aguascalientes 
and southern Zacatecas, collecting few specimens (nos. 18250-18264, January 
23-25), but visiting for the first time the limestone mountains near Asientos, and then 
proceeding by way of Aguascalientes and Calvillo to Jalpa and Juchipila, near which 
latter place he discovered the very distinctive new species of pine, Pinus maxi- 

In 1965 and 1966 he visited Nueva Galicia briefly on four occasions. On an ascent 
of the Nevado de Colima, January 10, 1965, he collected nos. 19349-19403. Near the 
highways north and west of Guadalajara he collected nos. 20238-20283 (south of 
Moyahua, July 25, 1965, and La Primavera, July 27, 1965). On February 5 and 6, 
1966 he visited the barrancas near Atenquique and collected nos. 21866-21952. On a 
three-day trip in May 1966, he ascended the Nevado de Colima to above the tree-line 

(May 2, nos. 22222 


the area of Apatzingan and that of Uruapan (May 3-4, nos. 22286-22330). 

In the course of a 9-day visit to Jalisco, Colima, and Aguascalientes, beginning in 
October, 1967, Rzedowski went first from Guadalajara to Colima and the coast, 
collecting nos. 24925-24971, chiefly near Barra de Navidad, San Patricio Melaque and 
Playa de Oro (October 24-28). He then went to northern Aguascalientes, where he 
worked for two days in the interesting mountains between Tepezala and Asientos, 
where the limestone and volcanic rocks are adjacent (nos. 24972-25089, October 
31 -November 1), before leaving the area by way of Aguascalientes and Ojuelos (nos. 
25090-25103, November 1). 

On his two most recent excursions to Jalisco, on both occasions accompanied by 
Sra. de Puga, Rzedowski visited relatively inaccessible localities from which additional 
collections were badly needed. On August 31, 1968, he flew in to San Martin de 
Bolahos, and collected nearby nos. 26080-26122 (also nearby, on September 3, 
26247-26249). The party then walked to El Platanar, a small village about 4 km west 
of San Martin, and from there ascended the trail in a 
Treinta Vueltas and Los Yerbanis, to a place called 
forest in the higher mountains. Rzedowski collected nos. 26123-26147 (Los Yerbanis, 





September 1), 26148-26202 (Las Vidrieras, September 1), 26203-26235 (Las Treinta 

Vueltas, September 2). 

On his most recent excursion of which I have record, Rzedowski ascended Cerro 
Viejo from Cuyutlan on the north side of the mountain. He collected nos. 
27453-27583, August 14-16, 1970; about half his plants came from the lower slopes 
above Cuyutlan, and the rest from the upper part of the peak, up to an elevation of 
more than 2900 m. 

Safford, William Edwin (1859-1926). To study and collect the cacti of Mexico, 
Safford travelled in that country in 1907. An informal synopsis of his travels may be 
found in his Cactaceae of northeastern and central Mexico, l He writes of his visit to 
Guadalajara, his meeting with Adrian Puga, his introduction to various species of cacti 
found locally in gardens and in the markets. His collections of botanical specimens 
from Jalisco are numbered from 1375 to 1463. These were collected during the last six 
days in February, mostly from the barrancas near Guadalajara. The specimens are in 
the United States National Herbarium. 

Santana V., Miguel. See McVaugh (1952). 

Schaffner, [J. G.?] According to a report in Candollea 6: 108. 1936, a specimen 
of Cestrum porphyreum in the herbarium at Hamburg (HBG) was collected at 
Tepatitlan by a collector named Schaffner, not otherwise identified. J. G. Schaffner 
(1830—1882), a native of Germany, lived in Mexico for 30 years and collected 
extensively in San Luis Potosi and elsewhere in eastern Mexico. In the Gray Herbarium 
(GH) there is at least a small series attributed to Schaffner, collected near Mazatlan, 
Sinaloa. Rzedowski 2 states that collections from Guadalajara, although attributed to 
Schaffner, were probably made by Leonardo Oliva, q.v. There seems to be no real 
evidence that Schaffner ever collected in Nueva Galicia. 

Schery, Robert Walter. In the summer of 1941 Schery, then engaged in 
taxonomic studies of the genus Malvaviscus, travelled in Mexico by automobile. Most 
of his work was in eastern Mexico, but one side trip was made to Guadalajara, and 
some herbarium specimens were obtained. In our area, as far as known, these were 
taken mostly near the highway along the south side of Lake Chapala. The specimens 
were given to the Missouri Botanical Garden (MO), and some duplicates have been 

Schiede, Christian Julius Wilhelm (1798-1836). See Ehrenberg. 

Schott, Arthur (1814-1875). Reported to have collected in the "Sierra de 
Nayarit, Jalisco" (Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 24:410, 413. 1937), on June 18, 1855. 
Schott was one of the collectors of the Mexican Boundary Survey, who on the date in 
question was collecting in the Sierra del Pajarito near the boundary between Arizona 
and Sonora. This is known from collections of other species, taken the same day at the 
same locality, e.g. Prunus serotina var. virens (Brittonia 7: 306. 1951). Schott was one 
of a party that ran a survey line eastward from the Colorado River through the deserts, 
in the spring of this year. They finished their work near Fort Yuma about the middle 
of January. In mid-April they were ready to begin the survey from a point about 20 
miles below the junction of the Gila and Colorado River (letters from Schott to 
Torrey, 18 Jan 1855 and 18 Apr 1855). 

The references to the Sierra de Nayarit, and to Jalisco, are evidently completely in 

^mithson. Rept. 1908: 525-563. pi 1-15. 1909. 

2 Rzedowski, J. Las colecciones botdnicas de Wilhelm (Josd Guillermo) Schaffner en San Luis 
Potosi. L Acta Cientifica Potosina 3: 99-121. 1959. 


Seemann, Berthold (1825-1871). As the botanist of H. M. S. "Herald," Seemann 
was able to collect in western Mexico on two trips. 1 The first was of a few days only 
(November 26— December 4, 1848). Seemann went from Mazatlan to San Sebastian (at 
an elevation supposed to be 1000 feet), thence a day's journey to the Hda. de las 
Naranjas at the foot of Cerro del Pinal, where he stayed two days to collect among the 
oaks and pines, returning in good time by the same route, via Santa Catarina, Nanches, 
and San Sebastian. As far as I know the exact location of Cerro del Pinal has never 
been reported by any botanist since Seemann's time, although he obtained some very 
interesting plants there. 

On the second trip into the interior, November 23, 1849 to February 22, 1850, 
Seemann travelled from Mazatlan to Durango by a route very nearly that of the 
modern highway. When he reached the heights west of the City of Durango 
"everything partook of a wintry aspect," and [he] "soon became aware that [his] 
principal harvest was over." The vicinity of Durango proved equally disappointing for 
his purposes, so he turned southward. The following is from the Botany of the Herald 
(p. 260): 

I now took a south-western direction, the little-frequented road from Durango to Tepic. 
Departing from Durango on the 2nd of January, 1850, I reached on the 5th of the same month 
San Franzisco de Mesquital . . . having passed that place one enters a desolate district; there are no 
houses, no people; the road becomes mountainous and very badly marked, as it is only trodden by 
a few Indians, the principal communication between Durango and Tepic being carried on by way of 
Guadalajara. I collected however a good many specimens, the vegetation not having suffered so 
much from drought and frost as in that part of the Sierra Madre which I crossed when coming 
from Mazatlan. On the 12th of January I reached the village of Santa Teresa, about two days' 
distance from Tepic, and inhabited by the Coras, a tribe of Indians whom the Jesuits converted to 
Christianity. ... I remained five days with them, proceeded to within a day's distance of Tepic, and 
then returned to Durango, taking a different route, which conducted me to a place termed 
Guajolote, also inhabited by Indians. I left Durango on the 13th of February for Mazatlan. . . . 

The Botany of the Herald is an important source-book for all floristic studies in 
western Mexico, especially for the family Compositae, in which over 30 new species 
were described by Schultz Bipontinus. It is all the more frustrating that it is usually 

impossible to ascertain the exact locality at which any given specimen was collected. 
Nearly full sets of Seemann's plants are at Kew (K) and the British Museum (BM), and 
additional duplicates are at the Gray Herbarium (GH), in the herbarium of Schultz at 
Paris (P), and elsewhere, but most of them are labelled merely "Sa. Madre N.W. of 
Mexico." Some in Hooker's herbarium (at Kew) are labelled "Cerro del Pinal," but I 
have never seen any other definite locality recorded on a specimen. 

The citations in the published "Flora of north-western Mexico" are not more 
helpful; most species are cited simply as from the "Sierra Madre," although a relatively 
few are identified as from Mazatlan, Santa Lucia, Cerro del Pinal, Durango, or "road 
from Mazatlan to Durango." About a score are definitely identified as from the area 
between Durango and Tepic (e.g. "Durango to Tepic," Gaudichaudia schiedeana, 
Euphorbia recta, Ipomoea murucoides, Mimulus madrensis, Cornus grandis; "Durango 
to Santa Teresa," Helianthemum glomeratum; "Between Mesquital and Tepic," 
Cupressus thurifera; "between Mesquital and Santa Teresa," Pinus patula; "Santa 
Teresa," Poinsettia pedunculata, Acacia glabrata, Gerardia pedunculata; "Mesquital," 
Cowan ia mexicana). 

To judge from those cited by Seemann, he secured approximately 200 collections 
on his trip to Durango in 1849—50. Because of his comments about the poor 
collecting near Durango and in the high mountains between Durango and Mazatlan, 

Seemann, Berthold. The botany of the voyage of H. M. S. Herald, under the command of 
Captain Henry Kellett, . . . 1845-51. pp. i-vi, 5-483. pi 1-100. London, 1852-1857. [Flora of 
north-western Mexico, pp. 255-346, publ. 1856]. 



and his remark that he collected "a good many specimens" during his trip of almost a 
month toward Tepic, it seems likely that half or more of all his collections from the 
"Sierra Madre" came in fact from the mountains south of Mezquital, in extreme 
southern Durango or northeastern Nayarit. 

Seler, Eduard (1849-1922). A noted German archaeologist, Seler made several 
long trips to Mexico and Central America, primarily to explore in his own field. In the 
course of his first two trips (1887-1888 and 1895-1897), he passed briefly through 
Nueva Galicia and on each occasion collected a few plant-specimens. On both of these 
expeditions Seler was accompanied by his wife, Frau Caecilie (Sachs) Seler 
(1855-1935). On the first trip the Selers accumulated, in addition to their archae- 
ological materials, more than 900 numbered collections of herbarium specimens; on the 
second trip the botanical collections were even more numerous. The plants collected 
on these and later expeditions were made the subjects of papers entitled Plantae 
Selerianae, prepared by Theodor Loesener with the collaboration of specialists. 1 The 
expeditions themselves, and the archaeological results of the work, have been described 

elsewhere. 2 

The Selers left St. Louis, Missouri, travelling by train, on October 21, 1887. They 
went directly to Santa Fe, New Mexico, thence after a few days' work to El Paso, 
Texas. They left El Paso the night of November 10 and continued by train to Mexico 
City. Their stops were limited ones, but a number of plants were collected at various 
localities along the railroad on November 11 and 12, especially in the States of 
Chihuahua, Zacatecas, and Aguascalientes. On November 12, as far as may be inferred 
from the account under this date in Seler's Reisebriefe, travel was from a point north 
of the city of Zacatecas, through Aguascalientes and later through a station called 
Serrano, to the evening stop in Leon, Guanajuato. 

Apparently no more than three collections (nos. 565, 575, and 581) are cited in 
Plantae Selerianae as from "Serrano, Jalisco." 1 have not been able to locate a place of 
this name except Serrano, Guanajuato, a locality near the railroad between Irapuato 
and Silao. Although Seler's description of "Station Serrano," as a place where garden 
products were much in evidence, suggests a locality in the rich valley of Guanajuato, 
his mention of Serrano precedes that of Leon and so implies that Serrano lay between 
Leon and Aguascalientes, and presumably in Jalisco. Serrano does not appear in 
Barcena's list of populated places in Jalisco (An. Min. Fom. Rep. Mex. 9: 34-203. 
1891), nor on any map of the state at my disposal. 

Some weeks later (February 4, 1888) the Selers passed briefly through a corner of 
Jalisco, but as far as I know they collected no plants at this time. They came to Lagos 
by train from Queretaro, took the stage to Ojuelos, where they spent the night, and 
continued the following day toward San Luis Potosi. 

^oesener's Plantae Selerianae was issued in reprint form with continuous pagination, in 
addition to the pagination of the volumes in which the separate parts originally appeared. 
Following are the two sets of pagination, with that of the reprint in square brackets: Bull. Herb. 
Boiss. 2: 533-566. 1894 [1-34] ; op. cit. 3: 609-629. 1895 [35-55J ; op. cit. 7: 534-553. 1899 
[56-75] ; op. cit. 7: 561-579. 1899 [76-94] ; op. cit., ser. 2, 3: 81-97. 1903 [95-111] ; op. cit. 
208-223. 1903 [112-127]; op. cit. 278-287. 1903 [128-137]; op. cit. 6:831-871. 1906 
[138-178, by error un-numbered, 177, 140-176, 139-140]. Beginning in 1909 the series was 
continued in another journal, as follows: Verh. Bot. Ver. Brandenb. 51: abh. 1-36. 1909 
[179-214]; op. cit. 53: abh. 50-86. 1911 [215-251]; op. cit. 55: abh. 151-194. 1913 
[252-295]; op. cit. 58: 129- 157. 1917 [296-324]; op. cit. 65: 84-122. 1923 [325-363]. 

2 fFor the trip of 1887-1888, see Seler, Eduard, Reisebriefe aus Mexiko, i-iv, 1 — 267 pp., 
illus., Verlag von Ferd. Diimmlcr, Berlin, 1889; for an account of the trip of 1895-1897, see Seler, 
Caecilie, Auf alten Wegen in Mexiko und Guatemala, XXVI, 363 pp., 65 pi., map. Dietrich Reimer, 
Berlin, 1900; for a summary of all Seler's American travels, and a bibliography of his writings, see 
Festschrift Eduard Seler, edited by Walter Lehmann, VIII, 654 pp., illus. Stuttgart, 1922. 


Approximately 90 collections of plants were made by the Selers in October and 
November (nos. 502-591). Numbers were assigned more or less chronologically, and 
most of the numbers were cited in the Plantae Selerianae. According to Loesener (PL 
SeL 1. 1894) the principal sets of the collection of 1887-1888 became the property 
of the Berlin Herbarium. 

Near the end of the expedition of 1895-1897 the Selers passed through Colima 
and again through a part of Jalisco. After completion of their work in Guatemala they 
left San Jose on March 2, 1897 1 and reached Manzanillo nine days later after a 
leisurely trip in a small coastal vessel. They made their way to Colima on the 
narrow-gauge railroad, which at that time followed the spit between the ocean and the 
Laguna de Cuyutlan almost to Armeria before turning inland. They were forced to 
wait two days in Manzanillo because there were only three trains a week. In Colima 
they were assisted by the German consul, Arnold Vogel, who at the conclusion of their 
visit helped them to secure guide and horses for the two-day ride to Zapotlan. They 
took the usual route around the southeastern foothills of the volcano, passing through 
Queseria and Tonila probably April 4, and collecting in the Barranca de Tonila and 
Barranca de Beltran on April 5. Not far beyond Tonila they were met by a wagon (for 
which they had arranged by telegraph) which took them the rest of the way to 
Zapotlan, where after a day's stopover they took the stage for the three-day ride to 
Guadalajara. Their trip ended with the train trip from Guadalajara to Irapuato and the 
overnight ride to Mexico. 

The Colima and Jalisco collections, as far as known, include nos. 3424-3436. 
Numbers up to and including 3423 are from Guatemala, numbers 3438 and 3439 are 
from some unknown locality (PL seler. 98), and number 3440, from Ohio, begins the 
series collected during another and later expedition. According to Loesener (PL seler. 
57-58) the principal sets of plants from Seler's second expedition went to Berlin, to 
Dr. Seler himself, and to New York. 

Sesse y Lacasta, Martin de (ca 1750-1808). For the history of Sesse and the 
Royal Botanical Expedition to New Spain, the reader is referred to the detailed 
description by Harold W. Rickett, 2 or to more recent works based on additional study 
of archival materials in Spain. 3 The group headed by Don Martin de Sesse set out from 
Mexico City for "Mechoacan and Sonora" on May 17, 1790. The party included, in 
addition to Director Sesse, two artists, and two botanists, Juan de Castillo 
(1744_1793) an d Jose Mariano Mocino (1757-1820). They travelled by way of San 
Juan del Rio, Queretaro, Guanajuato, and Valladolid (now Morelia), which they 
reached early in August. They continued through Patzcuaro and Uruapan, and went as 
far south as the still-active volcano of Jorullo, which had first erupted in 1759. They 
reached Apatzingan at least by the 20th of October, and made their base there for 
more than a month. The three-month period beginning with the arrival at Apatzingan 
was the most successful of the entire trip to western Mexico, from the standpoint of 
new species studied, described, and painted. More than 140 species, about half of them 
from Apatzingan and vicinity, are cited from southwestern Michoacan in the Plantae 
Novae Hispaniae 4 About the end of November the party made plans to continue to 

2 Cf. Chapter 12 (pp. 344-363; maps, pp. 356, 358) of Frau SAei'sAu fatten Wegen inMexiko 
und Guatemala. 

^Chron. Bot. 11: 1-86. pi 44-52. 1947. 
Wilson, Iris Higbie. Scientific Aspects of Spanish Exploration in New Spain during the late 
Eighteenth Century, pp. ii-x, 1-330. Ph.D. thesis, Univ. of S. Calif., 1962. 

Arias Divito, Juan Carlos. Las expediciones cientificas espanolas durante el siglo XVIII. pp. 
1-427. 59 plates. Ediciones Cultura Hispanica, Madrid. 1968. 

4 Sessd, M., and J. M. Mocino. Plantae Novae Hispaniae [Published in 9 parts as appendices to 
La Naturaleza, series 2, vol. 1]. pp. i-xiii, 1-184, index. 1887-1890. Second edition, revised and 
reset, pp. i-vii, 1-175, index. Mexico, 1893. 



the Pacific Coast, but on January 2, 1791, they had progressed no farther than 
Tepalcatepec, about 65 km west of Apatzingan. They had followed more or less the 
route of the modern highway, via San Juan de los Platanos, Santa Ana Amatlan, and 

Buenavista Tomatlan. 

From Tepalcatepec the Expedition crossed the divide into what is now Jalisco to 
the valley of the Rio Ahuijullo, which they followed down toward Coahuayana. Even 
when travelling with pack-animals the botanists seem to have been impressed with the 
rough terrain, as there are several references in Plantae Novae Hispaniae to the 
"montibus inhospitalibus" between Tepalcatepec and Coahuayana. Evidently their stay 
near the coast was a profitable one, as more than 30 species are cited from 
Coahuayana and the nearby shores of the Pacific Ocean. Brand (1960, p. 221) seems 
to have been the first to use the Plantae Novae Hispaniae as a source of information 
about the itinerary of Sesse and Mociho and their party, by noting the species and 
their dates of flowering as given for each locality, and combining these data with those 
obtained by Rickett and others from archival sources. 

After the party left Coahuayana they moved fairly rapidly for a time in February, 
probably passing Colima, Tonila (in the foothills of the Nevado de Colima), Zapotlan 
(today Ciudad Guzman), Sayula, Lake Chapala. We do not know exactly when they 
reached Guadalajara, but it must have been just before the first of April. They stayed 
in Guadalajara about 4 months, organizing the materials they had gathered so far, and 
sending back to Mexico, or even to Spain, whatever could be readied for the purpose. 
It was here that Mociho must have completed the manuscript of the Plantae Novae 
Hispaniae, which was forwarded to the Viceroy in Mexico with a set of copies of the 
illustrations so far prepared by the artists Juan de la Cerda and Atanasio Echeverria. 

Sometime between July 22 and August 13, 1791, the expedition travelled from 
Guadalajara to Tepic, more or less over the course of the modern highway at least as 
far as Ahuacatlan, Nayarit and then turning a little north of Cerro Sangangiiey. After 
the departure from Guadalajara, there are of course no more helpful references in the 
Plantae Novae Hispaniae. In the other work attributed to Sesse and Mociho, the Flora 
Mexicana, there are occasional citations of localities in western Mexico, and among the 
manuscripts in the Instituto Botanico at Madrid is a stitched notebook of 32 pages 
that may be Sesse's original field-book (MA, 4 a Div., num. 2). The descriptions of 
plants in the latter seem to be roughly in chronological and geographical order from 

Guadalajara to Tepic and thence northward through Sinaloa. 

For this part of the expedition, and indeed for the earlier part as well, the primary 

source of information has been the History section of the National Archives of 
Mexico— the Archive General de la Nacion. Specific dates and places in the travels of 
Sesse and Mociho have mostly been obtained from volumes 460, 462 (nos. 2, 3, 5), 
464 (nos. 1,4, 5), and 527 (nos. 7, 12, 13, 14). 

After leaving Tepic, their route presumably followed the coastal lowlands through 
Nayarit and Sinaloa as far as Alamos, Sonora, where the entire party of scientists 
(consisting of Sesse, Mociho, Castillo, Echeverria and Cerda) drew their regular salary 
on October 21, 1791. On the way to Alamos from Tepic, judging from the entries in 
Sesse's notebook, they travelled through Ixcuintla, Paramita, Acaponeta, Rosario, 
Mazatlan, Piaxtla, Vinapa, Culiacan, and the settlement ["oppidum"] of Sinaloa. There 
is also a record in the Archivo General (AG, Hist. 527, pt. 7: 95) that all the above 
were present in the City of Durango on January 2, 1792, but nothing definite is 
known about their routes between Alamos and Durango. Sesse and Castillo, with one 
of the artists, returned to Mexico City before May 1, 1792, while Mociho, with the 
other artist, left San Bias in February 1792 with a Spanish naval expedition to the 
Pacific Northwest. 

Table 1 lists the localities between Morelia and Tepic, as cited in the Plantae 
Novae Hispaniae and the Flora Mexicana of Sesse & Mociho. In these works the 


Dates and localities from Plantae Novae Hispaniae and Flora Mexicana 

Number of Species Reported as Flowering 


Patzcuaro, [Mich.] 

Tingambato, [Mich.] 

Uruapan, [Mich.] 

Ario, [Mich.] 

Xorullo (or Jorullo), [Mich.] 

Apatzingan, [Mich.] 

S. Juan de los Platanos, [Mich.] 

Sta. Ana Amatlan, [Mich.] 

Tepalcatepec, [Mich.] 

Ahuejuyo, [Jal.] 

Between Tepalcatepec and Coahuayana 
Chacalapa, [Mich.] near Coahuayana 
Coahuayana, [Mich.] 
Colima, [Col.] 
Tonila, [Jal.] 

"Ad margines rivulorum ex Colimense 

vulcano effluentium" 
Zapotlan, [Jal.] 
Sayula, [Jal.] 
Lake Chapala, [Jal.] 
Chapala, [Jal.] 

Guadalaxara and vicinity, [Jal.] 

Amatitan (or Amatitlan), [Jal.] 

Hostotipaquillo (or Hostitipaquillo, or "S 

Thoma near Hostotipaquillo), [Jal.] 
Tequila, [Jal.] 

Tepic, [Nay.] 











Oct Nov 


























Apr May 


Jun & 













No date 






1 [also 
1 Jan] 




























authors customarily cited the date of flowering of each species, and mentioned the 
locality (or sometimes several localities) from which they knew it. By assembling the 
data in chronological order it is possible to follow their route through Nueva Galicia 
with some assurance, and to estimate the length of their stay in each place. Published 
dates of flowering are to be interpreted with caution, as in some instances the period 
of flowering seems to have been inferred from study of fruiting specimens; in at least 
one instance the authors specifically state that they had done just this. 

Approximately 50 species, mostly said to flower in October, are cited in the works 
of Sesse & Mocino as from Ahualulco. This is apparently not the place of that name in 
Jalisco, as supposed by Sprague, 1 but a place with a wanner, wetter climate, perhaps 
in southeastern Mexico. The list of species from Ahualulco includes several which seem 
out of place on the plains west of Guadalajara, including three species of Heliconia, 
thirteen species of Melastoma, four of Piper, and others. A species of Cynanchwn and 
one of Solarium, newly described as from Ahualulco, are given the specific epithet 
tabascense, which would suggest that their geographical source was in the lowlands 
somewhere southeast of Mexico City. I have not located any place of this name in 
Tabasco or adjoining Veracruz, but Mocino worked in southern Veracruz and perhaps 
in Tabasco also during the last few months of 1794, and it seems likely that the 
locality was somewhere in this region. 

The one species, Geum resinosum, which is reported to flower at San Juan de los 
Lagos in February, may have been noted by Mocino as he passed through after leaving 
Aguascalientes (cf. Rickett's account, p. 29) on his way to join the Nutka Expedition 
or, more probably because of the dates involved, on his way back to Mexico after he 
disembarked at San Bias on February 3, 1793. 

The rebellious Naturalist of the Royal Botanical Expedition, Jose Longinos 
Martinez, passed through Jalisco on his way to San Bias, having left Mexico in January 
1791; it is possible but unlikely that he was the author of the report of Geum 
resinosum from San Juan de los Lagos; his primary interest was zoological rather than 
botanical, and he is not known to have collected many plants. The Sesse & Mocino 
collection in Madrid includes 2 specimens (out of about 8000 in all) known to be 
labelled in the writing of Longinos. Longinos spent a considerable amount of time in 
the exploration of southern Nayarit before going on to Baja California, and then again 
after his return from Upper California in November 1792. He made some botanical 
observations, and even compiled a list of trees of San Bias, but the fate of his 
collections is unknown. His journals of 1791 — 1792, recently newly translated and 
edited by Simpson, 2 include many interesting descriptive notes on the route between 
Mexico City and San Bias, and on other localities in southern Nayarit. 

The botanical results of the so-called "Third Excursion," which effectively 
terminated in Guadalajara or perhaps in Tepic in the summer of 1791, were 
considerable, although neither the number of specimens collected nor the number of 
icones was as large as the corresponding number on the "Second Excursion" [that to 
Acapulco in 1789], because the botanists were becoming more selective and were not 
finding as many species new to them. On the excursion of 1790—1791, they assembled 
slightly more than 100 paintings, and herbarium collections to the number of 172; the 
latter, including all those sent back to Mexico before July 1791, are listed by Alvarez 
Lopez (An. Inst. Bot. Cav. 11, pt. 1: 125-141. 1953). The most important result of 
the excursion was the completion of the manuscript of the Plantae Novae Hispaniae, 
without which we should be lacking much of the information we now have about the 

Sprague, T. A. Sesse 7 and Mocino's Plantae Novae Hispaniae and Flora Mexicana. Kew Bull. 
1926: 417-425. 1926 [Sesse' and Mocino's Mexican localities, pp. 422-424). 

Simpson, Lesley Byrd. Journal of Jose Longinos Martinez, i-xvii, 114 pp. maps. John 
Ho well-Books, San Francisco, 1961. 


early botanical activities of the Expedicion Botanica, and about the organization and 
identification of the paintings made during the early years of the expedition (the 
"Icones Florae Mexicanae"). 

Because the manuscript descriptions written by Sesse and Mocino were not 
published for a century after they were written, most of the new names published in 
1887—1894 in the Plantae Novae Hispaniae and in the Flora Mexicana are later 
synonyms. It cannot automatically be assumed, however, that a name published by 
Sesse & Mocino is not the oldest available one for a species. This is particularly true 
for species from western Mexico, where there is much local endemism and where many 
species discovered by the party of 1790—1791 were not again noted by botanists until 
very recently. 

More than 200 species were definitely reported, in the works written by Sesse and 
Mocino themselves, from within or near the boundaries of Nueva Galicia. Perhaps half 
of these were described as new, and 60 or more of these bear names that appear to be 
valid and tenable even though delayed a century in publication. 

Identification of the new species described in the Plantae Novae Hispaniae and the 
Flora Mexicana is not always easy. The original specimens, in the herbarium of Sesse 
and Mocino at Madrid (MA), usually lack identifying data except for the binomial 
conferred on the species. When a given binomial in one of the floras can be matched 
with the same name on a specimen, or on one of the icones, positive identification is 
sometimes possible. Duplicate specimens, usually bearing the original binomials 
proposed by Sesse and Mocino, were somewhat widely distributed through the larger 
European herbaria before 1850, and often these can be identified by their names as 
belonging to the original collections, even though they lack locality data. 

As examples of the method of identification of species published in the Plantae 
Novae Hispaniae, the following will suffice: 

Saurauja serrata DC. (DC. Mem. Soc. Phys. Hist. Nat. Geneve 1; 420. pi 5.1822) 

was long unidentifiable because it was based wholly on one of the paintings made by 
the artists of the Sesse and Mocino expedition; DeCandolle knew only that it was 
painted in Mexico and, as no known specimens existed, no botanist after DeCandolle 
knew the source of the painting of the identity of the plant depicted in it. 
DeCandolle's published plate proves to be an exact copy of a plate at Madrid, this 
labelled in a contemporary hand with the name Coriaria cuneifolia. Coriaria cuneifolia 
Sesse & Mocino (PI. Nov. Hisp. 173. 1890, with type-locality near Uruapan, 
Michoacan), is from the description presumably Saurauia, and evidently the common 
species of its genus in western Mexico, the one called most recently S. reticulata Rose 

Melochia rotundifolia Sesse & Moc. PL Nov. Hisp. 106. 1889, with type-locality 
Chilpancingo, Guerrero, is evidently the same as Pterostemon mexicanus S. Schauer 
(1847). Ic. Fl. Mex. 296, cited in the protologue of M. rotundifolia, exists in the form 
of an original painting in the collection of DeCandolle (his no. 93*, also bearing the 
number "296"); the plant depicted is evidently P. mexicanus; furthermore specimens 
of the same species, labelled as Melochia rotundifolia, exist in the Sesse & Mocino 

herbarium at Madrid, and in the British Museum, among specimens sold to A. B. 
Lambert by Pavon. 

Schinus angustifolius Sesse & Moc. PL Nov. Hisp. 173. 1890, with type-locality 
near Ixtla, Guanajuato, not represented in the Sesse & Mocino herbarium, was thought 
from the description to be a synonym oi Bur sera galeottiana Engl. (1881). On a visit 
to the type-locality, not far from the City of Queretaro, Prof. Jerzy Rzedowski 
confirmed this tentative identification by re-collecting the same plant, still known 
locally as "xixote Colorado," as reported by Sesse & Mocino. 

Spilanthus [sic] corymbosus Sesse & Moc. PL Nov. Hisp. 129. 1889, with 
type-locality Queretaro, is. recognizable from the description as a species of Verbesina, 



perhaps V. serrata Cav. (1795). This tentative identification is confirmed by a specimen 
in the Sesse & Mocino herbarium, labelled as a Verbesina, but with the epithet 

A definitive summary and evaluation of the botanical work of the Royal Botanical 
Expedition to New Spain remains to be written. Because of the uncontrolled dispersal 
of the original herbarium materials and the paintings assembled by the Expedition, and 
the inability of Sesse and his associates to publish the Flora Mexicana under the 
conditions prevailing in Europe at the time of his return (1803 — 1804), much valuable 
information was lost. During the 19th Century botanists in Europe published several 
hundred new species based on the Sesse & Mocino specimens, and even on the 
paintings in the absence of specimens. The authors of such new taxa were often 
unaware of the exact geographical source of their material, and as often ignorant of 
the name of the collector of the type-specimen. From the standpoint of the Flora 
Novo-Galiciana, this means that every new species described by Sesse & Mocino has to 
be investigated on its own merits, and compared with other species that may have been 
published and based on the Icones Florae Mexicanae, or based on specimens attributed 
to Sesse and Mocino, or even on specimens from Mexico or "New Spain" attributed to 

Shaw, George Russell (1848-1937). Shaw, the author of The Pines of Mexico} 
travelled with C. G. Pringle during the season of 1904, to study his specialty, the genus 
Pinus. With Pringle he came by train to Guadalajara on October 21, and to Etzatlan 
late the night of the following day. On the 23rd, according to Pringle's account (Davis, 
p. 223), they followed the "steep tortuous cart road up and over the mountain 
summits nearly to the Santo Domingo mines, then ... on to the Mesa Colorado to the 
south." Here they were pleased to find Pinus lumholtzii. They returned to Guadalajara 
on October 25, and on the 26th took train for Zapotlan, where Shaw wished to study 
the native pines. 

Shaw's specimens of the genus Pinus were not widely distributed. A large set, 
originally from the herbarium of H. H. Bartlett, is at the University of Michigan 
(MICH). A complete collection is maintained separately at the Arnold Aboretum of 
Harvard University (A). 

Sheldon, Mrs. D. Henry. The herbarium of the Field Museum (F) contains 
approximately 177 specimens, collected in Jalisco by Mrs. Sheldon in 1892—93. These 
were originally a part of the herbarium of the University of Chicago, and are listed in 
the Accession records of the Museum, volume 53, pp. 83—87, under nos. 
354580—354756. Mrs. Sheldon appears to have lived in Guadalajara from about 
mid-August, 1892, until the following spring. The earliest collection I have seen is from 
Agua Azul (Guadalajara), August 18 {Sagittaria variabilis), and the latest is from 
Guadalajara, March 1893 {Philadelphus sp.). Most of the collections appear to be from 
the immediate vicinity of Guadalajara (e.g. Agua Azul, Atemajac, Barranca de Ibarra); a 
considerable number are from Chapala and vicinity ("Island in Lake Chapala," or "San 
Antonio, Lake Chapala' 5 ), and at least one collection is labelled as from Mascota 
(Rondeletia langlassei, January 7, 1893). The locality which has been cited in literature 
as "San Antonia" is clearly written "San Antonio" in several places in the Sheldon 
lists; presumably this is San Antonio Tlayacapan, between Chapala and Ajijic. I have 
not been able to learn anything more about this collector or her work in Mexico. 

The labels attached to Mrs. Sheldon's collections are hand-written and the 
collector's name does not appear on the label; in case of doubt reference may be made 
to the accession records where the species are listed by name. One of the species, 
Cosmos crithmifolius, collected September 6, 1892, was cited by Sherff, who suggested 

Arnold Arb. Publ. 1: [i-iv] , 1-29, index; pi 1-22. 1909 


that the collector might have been Edward Palmer. 1 From the locality and data, 
however, it seems apparent that the collector was Mrs. Sheldon. Palmer did not collect 
in the vicinity of Guadalajara except in 1886. 


Shreve, Forrest (1878—1950). As part of his longtime study of the North 
American deserts, Shreve travelled and collected briefly in Aguascalientes, northern 
Jalisco and southern Zacatecas, in 1938 and 1939. His specimens and notebooks are at 
the University of Arizona, Tucson (ARIZ). I am indebted to Dr. Charles T. Mason, Jr., 
for much of the following information. 

On September 7, 1938, Shreve drove from the City of Zacatecas via Noria Los 
Angeles to Pinos, Zacatecas, and thence the next day to San Luis Potosi. In the hills 
west of Pinos and 7—17 miles south and southeast of that place he collected nos. 
8658—8684. In 1939 he came into Aguascalientes from the north. He camped August 
29 in a close stand of Prosopis, Acacia, Opuntia and Lippia, 11 miles [ca. 18 km] 
north of Rincon de Romos and the next day collected nos. 9221-9246. Continuing on 
August 30, he passed Rincon de Romos (nos. 9247— 9248a), drove by way of Pabellon 
to beyond Presa Calles, where he collected nos. 9249—9271, at elevations of about 
2200 m ("7300 to 7400 feet"). Near the dam at "7000 feet" he collected nos. 
9272-9279 on August 31. On the same day he took nos. 9280-9283 (8 km east of 
Aguascalientes). Continuing on the road to Ojuelos he passed La Punta (ca 11 km east 
of the Jalisco-Aguascalientes border) and camped 8 km further on [Here he was 5 km 
or a little more north of the present highway] . On September 1 he collected nos. 
9284-9296 near La Punta and east of the place, 9297-9299 near Chinampas, 
9300-9301 near Ojuelos. 

Sinclair, Andrew ( —1861). In the final fascicles of the Botany of Captain 
Beechey's Voyage, Hooker and Arnott 2 described a collection made in December, 
1837, "at San Bias, or between San Bias and Tepic," by Dr. Andrew Sinclair, "Surgeon 
of H. M. surveying Ship, Sulphur." Sinclair's collection, as listed, consisted of about 72 
species, of which 17 were described as new; part of the collection was left unlisted 
because of lack of space in the final fascicle (Hooker & Arnott, p. 433). A number of 
the novelties not described in the Botany of Captain Beechey's Voyage, however, were 
published by Bentham a few years later in the Botany of the Voyage of H. M. S. 
Sulphur (for full citation of this work see above under Hinds). The number of 
specimens gathered by Sinclair in Mexico may have been well over a hundred. Bentham 
noted that "A considerable portion of the specimens described from Western Tropical 


America [in the "Botany of the Sulphur"] , were gathered by Dr. Sinclair, and 
presented by him to Sir William Hooker, in whose herbarium the originals of these 
species will be found." Sinclair's name, however, does not accompany the mention of 
individual species in the text, so that for specimens attributed to Tepic or San Bias the 
collector's name can be ascertained only by reference to the actual specimen in the 
herbarium of Hooker or in some cases that of Bentham. The locality given in the text 
for Crusea lucida Benth., for example, is merely "Southern Mexico" and no collector's 
name is cited; on the type-sheet in Hooker's herbarium the locality is given as 
"Mexico," and the collector as Sinclair. 

Dates of individual collections are not given in the "Botany of the Sulphur"; there 
is nothing more than a general statement that the work took place "Between the years 
1836 and 1839." The herbarium specimens at Kew are likewise undated. Sinclair 
presumably collected when the "Sulphur" was in port and when his duties permitted 
him to leave the ship. The movements of the "Sulphur" are described by Barclay 

1 Field Mus. Publ. Bot. 8: 427. 1932. 
2 Bot. Beech. Voy. 410-444. 1840-1841. 



(q.v.), who also mentions a trip from San Bias to Tepic with Dr. Sinclair, December 
26, 1837 to January 3, 1838. 

Soderstrom, Thomas R. See King. 

Sooby, Joseph, Jr. See McVaugh (1952). 

Souviron, Max J. See Erlanson, and Russell. 


Stadden, . The Herbarium of the United States National Arboretum, 

according to Killip, 1 contains a specimen of Passiflora ligularis, collected at Manzanillo by 
Stadden in 1911. Possibly this is the same Stadden whose ranch near Manzanillo was 
visited by Marcus E. Jones, June 24-26, 1892. 

Stanford, L. R. See Hitchcock, C. Leo. 

Stevens, Warren Douglas. See McVaugh (1970). 

Stork, H. E. See California, University of. 

Straw, Richard Myron. In connection with revisionary studies on the genus 
Penstemon, Professor Straw of Los Angeles State College, California, travelled widely 
in Mexico in the years between 1957 and 1960. In 1957, assisted by David P. Gregory, 
he collected in Jalisco, and in 1958, assisted by Michael Forman, he collected in 
Aguascalientes and northern Jalisco. His specimens were distributed especially to 
Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Graden (RSA), the University of Michigan (MICH), and the 
Instituto de Biologia, Mexico (MEXU). 

Thibaud, H. It may be inferred from the wording of the protologue of 
Cissampelos heterophylla DC. (Syst. 1: 534. 1818) that the type was collected at San 
Bias, "Nova Hispania," by Thibaud. Presumably this is the same Thibaud who 
contributed 1200 specimens to the DeCandolle herbarium (A. DeCandolle, Phyto- 
graphie 454. 1880), but it is unlikely that he was the collector of this particular 
specimen. Not to be confused with Lieutenant Thiebaut, who at a much later date 
collected at Acapulco according to Hemsley (Biol. Cent. Am. Bot. 4: 136. 1887). 
Brand (1960, p. 226) states that Lt. Thiebaut collected at Manzanillo while a member 
of the French Mission Scientifique of 1865—66, but I have never seen any other 
evidence of this. 

Thiebaut, Lieutenant. See Thibaud. 

Torres, Andrew Marion. Professor Torres, now of the University of Kansas, 
travelled in Mexico to collect material for revisions of Zinnia and other genera of 
Compositae. He collected a few specimens in Jalisco (cf. Brittonia 16: 425. 1964); the 
first set of these is at the University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee (UWM). 

Trelease, William (1857-1945). Trelease, while engaged in the study of Yuccas, 
agaves, and other plants, visited Jalisco several times, and some of his collections and 
observations have been recorded in the literature. In September 1901 he visited 
Zapotlan to observe and photograph the plants which he subsequently described as 
Yucca schottii jaliscensis. 2 In the same year he visited La Barca, at the east end of 
Lake Chapala. 3 

In 1903, and again in 1904, Trelease returned to the vicinity of Guadalajara, this 
time more particularly concerned with the study of Agave. Some new species were 
described from his collections; the types are in the Missouri Botanical Garden (MO). 

1 Field Mus. Publ. Bot. 19: 345. 1938. 

JtRep. Missouri Bot. Gard. 13: 99-100, 127, pi 56. 1902. 

3 Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 23: 114, 116, 132. 1920. 



Turner, Billie Lee. Professor Turner, now of the University of Texas, in the 
summer of 1950 was one of a group that visited Michoacan and Colima, under the 
leadership of Donald D. Brand, for geographical and biological studies. Turner, the 
only botanist on the trip, collected plants to the extent of about 327 numbers. The 
first set of these is deposited at Southern Methodist University (SMU); a second set is 
at the University of Michgian (MICH). After collecting (nos. 1861-1952) in 
Michoacan, chiefly in the vicinity of Volcan Paricutin, near Uruapan, in and about La 
Playa (18 miles south of Ario de Rosales), and in the vicinity of Volcan Jorullo, 
Turner travelled by bus and train from Ario to Guadalajara and thence to Colima, June 
20-21. He collected nos. 1953-1965 near Colima, June 22; travelled to Coahuayana, 
Michoacan, by truck (June 24) and collected at Coahuayana nos. 1966-1996 (June 
25); travelled to the mouth of Rio Coahuayana by truck and collected there nos. 
1997-2002 (June 26); at the same locality and at Ojos de Agua collected nos. 
2003-2013, 2036-2037 (June 27-29). On June 30 he walked with a pack-train to La 
Placita; he collected in this locality nos. 2014-2035, 2038-2153 (July 1-12). On 
July 13 he walked and rode horseback to Ostula, where he collected nos. 2154-2186 
(July 14-16). 

Turner's report on the flora and vegetation was published by Brand. 1 

Uhde, . In Das Pflanzenreich IV. 83 (Heft 39): 103. 1909, under 

Rivina humilis, there is a report of this species from Tonila, Jalisco, the collection by 
Uhde (no. 177). This report has not been verified and seems doubtful. C. A. Uhde, 
who was Prussian consul at Matamoros about 1845, 2 made large collections in eastern 
Mexico. I have not seen other reports of his having worked in Jalisco. 

Velasco, Jose. See McVaugh (1959, 1960). 


Viereck, H. W. The United States National Herbarium (US) has a series of 
collections made by Viereck in May 1931, including all or a part of his series at least 
from 1159 to 1320. The localities as far as noted are all near the railroad, between 
Tepic and Guadalajara: Tepic, Ixtlan, Magdalena. The specimens from Nayarit and 
Jalisco form part of a series of about 600 Mexican plants collected by Viereck, 
received in exchange from the Botanisches Museum, Berlin, in 1936. I know nothing 
further about the collector, or about the circumstances under which the plants were 

Wagner, Helmuth O. See McVaugh (1949). 

Waterfall, Umaldy Theodore (1910-1971). Professor Waterfall, of Oklahoma State 
University, travelled in Mexico on several occasions, primarily to collect material 
for a revision of the genus Physalis, but also to make general collections. He collected 
in Nueva Galicia at least in 1957, 1959, and 1961. His specimens are in the herbarium 
of the University, at Stillwater, Oklahoma (OKLA), and duplicates have been dis- 

Weber, Frederic Albert (1830-1903). Weber was a French physician who col- 
lected plants, particularly cacti, while attached to the marching columns of the French 
expeditionary forces in Mexico about 1865. 3 He is stated to have collected specimens 
of Cereus tetazo, including the type, at Zapatalan (i.e. Zapotlan?), Jalisco in 1864 and 

Turner, Billie L. Phytogeographic Reconnaissance: The western segment of the Michoacan 
coast. In Brand, 1960, pp. 272-286. See also the fuller report on the work of the University of 
Texas' field party of 1950, in Brand, 1960, pp. 3-34. 

^Cf. Standley in Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 23: 155. 1920. 

3 Hemsley, in Biol. Centr. Am. Bot. 4: 136. 1887. 



1869. Many of his specimens and extensive notes on cacti were given to George 
Engelmann in 1869 and are now in the Missouri Botanical Garden (MO). 1 

In Weber's later years he maintained a strong interest in cacti and other succulents, 
and published several papers based primarily upon materials collected in Jalisco and 
elsewhere in Mexico by Leon Diguet (e.g. an article on Agave which included the first 
botanical description of A. tequilana, the commercial source of tequila. 2 After his 
death his existing notes and other botanical materials became the property of the 
Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, and some species which he had in 
manuscript were published posthumously, edited by Rolland Gosselin. This included 
species noted by Weber during his own Mexican travels, and some collected by Diguet 
and others. 3 

Weber, William Alfred. Professor Weber of the University of Colorado, and 
Leopold Charette of the University of Vermont, travelled through Nayarit and Jalisco 
in 1962, and collected numerous herbarium specimens, of which a partial set is at the 
University of Michigan (MICH). 

Webster, Grady Linder. Professor Webster of the University of California at Davis 
has collected Euphorbiaceae and other things in Mexico on several occasions in recent 
years. In 1970 he visited the Cerro de Tequila and other localities in western Jalisco. 
See also Rowell. 

Weintraub, Frances C, and Jane Roller. About 204 numbers, including some 
duplicates, were obtained by these collectors in Jalisco in July, 1955. Most of the 
specimens came from localities near the highways leading from Guadalajara to 
Jiquilpan, Michoacan, to San Luis Potosi, or to Yahualica. The principal sets of the 
collection were presented by Mrs. Weintraub to the University of Michigan (MICH) and 
to the Instituto de Biologia, Universidad Nacional, Mexico (MEXU). Following is the 
list of collections: 

Five miles northeast of Ojuelos de Jalisco, July 19 (nos. 1-20); 1-4.5 miles south of Ojuelos, 
July 19 (21-74); 27 miles east [i.e. northeast] of Lagos de Moreno, July 20 (75-94); east 
[northeast] of Lagos at Km. 230, July 20 (95-102); edge of barranca near Guadalajara (vicinity of 
Huentitan), July 21 (103-117); hilltop overlooking Yahualica, July 22 (118 - 141); near bridge 17 
miles from Yahualica, July 22 (142-155); east of Guadalajara, July 22, between Km. 28 and 29 
(156-160), between Km. 20 and 21 (161-162); along road from Guadalajara to Jiquilpan, July 24, 
11 miles from Guadalajara (163-171); Km. 646-647 (172-173); at junction with road to Autlan 
(174-175); marshy roadside 7 miles south of Autkin junction, Km. 635 (176-186); Km. 630 
(187-196); Km. 617 (197-199); Km. 610 (200); Km. 560, near border of Jalisco and Michoacan 

West, James. See California, University of. 
Westlund, B. L. See Rowell. 

Wilbur, Robert Lynch. See McVaugh (1949). After Wilbur and I returned from 
Mexico to Ann Arbor, Michigan, early in June, 1949, he returned to Jalisco almost at 
once, with the aid of a grant from the Botanical Gardens, University of Michigan. He 
was accompanied by his brother, C. R. Wilbur, and by Howard A. Crum. Crum and 
Robert Wilbur were both at that time graduate students at the University. Crum's 
interest was in bryophytes, of which he obtained 998 specimens, and the Wilburs 
concentrated on the collection of vascular plants, of which they obtained approxi- 
mately 1100 numbers (1372—2479) in sets from 1 to 7 or more. The work of the 

party, which was centered about Autlan, began June 25 and continued until August 


Coulter, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 3: 382. 1896. 

2 Bull. Mus. Paris 8: 220. 1902. 

3 Bull. Mus. Par. 10: 382. 1904; op. cit. 11: 508. 1905 


Principal collecting areas were in the mountains and lowlands southwest of Autlan, 
between that place and La Resolana, June 28- July 2 (1392-1481), July 5-10 
(1499-1642), July 15 (1719-1762), August 5-9 (2117-2205), August 11-15 
(2241-2372), August 18-20 (2390-2465). Various areas, both on the moist seaward 
slopes and the more arid landward side, were explored thoroughly in trips out of 

After the middle of July several days were taken up with getting to El Chante and 
making arrangements for pack animals to take the party into the Sierra de Manantlan, 
to the base-camp which Robert Wilbur had visited earlier in the year; the trip beyond 
El Chante occupied approximately two days. Collections were made along the way, 
July 22 (1763-1787), and in the mountains, July 23-31 (1788-2017). The expedi- 
tion returned to Autlan on July 31, Wilbur collecting nos. 2018-2116 along the way. 

This is the largest and best summer collection ever made in Jalisco, and when it 
has been fully studied it will no doubt prove to be one of the most interesting because 
the area from which it came is still relatively little-known. The first sets of the 
collection are at the University of Michigan (MICH), and at the Instituto de Biologla, 
Mexico (MEXU). 

Windier, Donald R. Windier travelled in Mexico in 1967, primarily to collect 
material for revisions of Neptunia and allied groups. He made some collections in 
Nueva Galicia. 

Wood, Arthur. See Fernow. 

Wood, Carroll E., Jr. See Moore. 

Woods, . Reported by Trelease to have collected Quercus candicans 

at Colima, in March 1910. Presumably this is the "Arthur Wood of Colima" to whom 
Fernow wrote concerning a private forestry venture, on November 26, 1909, but 
nothing further about him has been learned. 1 

Worth, Carleton R. See California, University of. 

Wright, William Greenwood (ca 1830-1912). Wright, who was known to biologists 
chiefly for his work on butterflies, 2 travelled in western Mexico in the winter of 
1888-1889, and published a series of travel-notes. 3 He collected for several days in 
the vicinity of San Bias in January, 1889, and made several excursions along different 
roads towards the foothills in the direction of Tepic. His plant-specimens, serially 
numbered (from 1331 to 1351 have been seen), were distributed in several sets with a 
printed label headed "San Bias and vicinity, Jan. 1889." 

Xantus, Janos (1825-1894). A Hungarian naturalist who had already had much 
experience on the Pacific Coast of Mexico, Xantus was appointed American Consul at 
Manzanillo in November 1862. He reached Manzanillo, by boat from Panama, on 
December 28 of the same year. His commission was revoked about six months later, 
but he remained at Manzanillo until early in March, 1864. 4 

The work of Xantus in Colima was relatively unimportant in the field of Botany. 
Madden (op. cit. p. 291) did not locate any reference to species of plants new to 
science discovered by Xantus in Colima. Apparently he collected relatively few plants, 

^em. Nat. Acad. Sci. 20:204. 1924; Rodgers, Andrew Denny, III. Bernhard Eduard Fernow. 
p. 463. 1951. 

2 Essig, E. O. A history of entomology, pp. 802-804. 1931. 

3 Wright, W. G. Mexican notes. I. Zoe 1: 51-54; idem, II. op. cit. 102-106; idem, III. op. cit. 
212-219; idem, IV. op. cit. 231-235. 1890. 

Madden, Henry Miller. Xantus, Hungarian Naturalist in the Pioneer West. Linz, 1949. Chapter 
6, Manzanillo and Colima, 1863-1864, pp. 171-201. 



although his activity in zoological collecting was considerable. From his bases at 
Manzanillo, and Colima, according to Madden, Xantus made various trips within a 
radius of about 50 miles. In March, 1863, he went along the coast about 40 miles 
south of the mouth of the Rio de la Armeria; in August he visited Tonila and Zapotlan 
in Jalisco; and in December of the same year he scouted into Michoacan (Madden, op. 
cit. p. 190). James A. Peters 1 discusses the zoological work of Xantus, including a trip 
into southwestern Michoacan, when Xantus left Colima April 5, and returned May 10, 
1863, after a 16-day trip up the coast from La Orilla to Manzanillo. 

The plants which Xantus is actually known to have collected, at Fort Tejon, 
California and at Cape San Lucas, Baja California, were reported upon mostly by Asa 
Gray (see Madden, op. cit., pp. 262, 263, 286-288), and are mostly to be found in 
the Gray Herbarium (GH) or in the United States National Herbarium (US). These 
herbaria are known to contain at least a few plants collected by Xantus at Manzanillo 
(e.g. Kallstroemia grandiflora, Galeana hastata, Melampodium americanum, and Pedis 

Zingg, Robert M. This investigator, an ethnobotanist attached at that time to the 
staff of the University of Chicago, carried on some investigations from 1933 to 1935 
in the country of the Huichol Indians of northern Jalisco, and collected some plants, 
which are in the Herbarium of the Field Museum, Chicago (F). 2 

Zorrilla, G. See McVaugh (1952). 

Zorrilla, S. See McVaugh (1952). 

*In Brand, 1960, pp. 322-324. 

2 Cf. "mts. near Bolanos, 6000-8000 ft., 1935, R. M. Zingg, no. 21" Contr. Gray Herb. II, 

155: 12. 1945. 

Part II. Gazetteer 

The following alphabetical list is intended to include the names of all localities in 
Nueva Galicia from which plants have been collected, as far as these are known to me 
through herbarium specimens I have examined, or specimens that have been cited in 
botanical literature. It is thought to be reasonably complete for the period 
1790-1940. For the period after 1940, with increasingly easy access to almost all 
parts of the region, and correspondingly great increase in the number of collectors who 
took a few specimens here and there along the highways or at airports, I cannot 
pretend to any degree of completeness. In recent years, also, many botanists and 
others have visited Nueva Galicia more or less incidentally, in connection with their 
work on special groups of animals or plants, in connection with student tours from 
colleges and universities, in the course of ethnobotanical studies, or on vacation trips. 
Many of the specimens they collect go into personal herbaria or into small institutional 
herbaria where they are not likely to be found by students of the Mexican flora. 
Collectors who specialize in certain groups of plants often seek for and find specimens 
in localities where few general collections have been made. The following list is based 
primarily on references obtained from a general survey of literature and from study of 
the itineraries of known collectors, and secondarily on data obtained from specimens 
of Compositae, Burseraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fagaceae and a few smaller families that 
have been studied in detail for the Flora Novo-Galiciana. As more and more families 
are studied in the same detail, additional localities are sure to come to light. 

In the list the name of each locality is followed by the name of the State (Estado) 
in which it is located (if this is known), then by the names (in parentheses) of the 
principal collectors who are known to have worked at the locality. Such persons are 
mentioned if they are reported to have visited the locality, even if the reports are now 

known to be erroneous. 

The geographical position of each locality is indicated, if possible, by reference to 
the "Map of Hispanic America at 1:1,000,000," the "Millionth Map" of the American 
Geographical Society of New York. In 1950-1955, when the compilation of this 
gazetteer was begun, the Millionth Map was by far the best available general source of 
information about localities in Nueva Galicia, and it had the additional advantage of a 
complete, separately published index in book form. The sheets pertaining to Nueva 
Galicia were still available from the publishers in 1971, and although several recent 
Mexican maps are more detailed or in some respects more accurate, none is so 
generally accessible or so well indexed. It was therefore decided to use the Millionth 
Map as a standard whenever possible. If a locality in the present list is shown on the 
Millionth Map, this is indicated by the letters AGS. When the name of the locality is 
spelled one way on AGS and another in the index to the map, this is indicated in the 



the latitude and longitude are given exactly as in the Index to the Millionth Map, i.e. 
to the nearest degree, and the position further indicated by a letter (a, b, c, or d) 
showing that the place in question is, respectively, NW, NE, SW or SE of the point 
where the parallel and the meridian intersect. Thus in Jalisco there are several places 
called Santa Cruz; the one at which Marcus Jones collected is listed below as Santa 
Cruz, 20-104c (i.e. it is southwest of the point on the map where the lines marking 
20° North Latitude and 104° West Longitude intersect). Barcena's locality of the same 
name, on the other hand, is listed as Santa Cruz, 2 1-1 04c. 




Places not listed on the American Geographical Society's map have been located 
on other maps whenever possible, or by reference to some other well known fixed 
place. The principal maps used are the Carta Geografica de la Repiiblica Mexicana 
(cited as CARTA), published in 1956-1958; the earlier, provisional edition of the 
same map (also cited as CARTA, but with the date of publication, 1949); the Atlas 
Geografico de la Republica Mexicana (1943-1944, cited as ATLAS), and an unpub- 
lished map of Jalisco (cited as Jalisco 1:100,000). There are also a few citations from 
the map of Aguascalientes at 1:100,000, in the Atlas Geografico of 1963. Complete 
references to these maps may be found in the bibliography at the end of this paper. 

Additional information about collectors and localities, itineraries, and collections, 
may often be found in the text of the first part of this account, in the sketches of the 
work of individual collectors. Isolated records from the literature are cited in full in 
the body of the list below, but for works to which reference is made many times (e.g. 
Davis, 1936; Goldman, 1951, Martinez, 1948; Urbina, 1897) the reader should consult 
the bibliography. 

No attempt has been made to cite the place of publication of all mis-spellings and 
corruptions of geographical names, but these have been included in the index as noted, 
with appropriate cross-references. 

Acahuato, Michoaca'n (Leavenworth & Hoogslraal). AGS, 19-1 02a. 
Acatlan de Juarez, Jalisco (McVaugh). AGS, 20-1 04b. 
Acayapa, Nayarit (Mexia). Near Tepic, q.v. 

Adobes, Los, Rancho, Aguascalientes (McVaugh & Koelz). Adobes of ATLAS, Edo. de 
Aguascalientes 1:200,000, ed. of 1934, corr. 1961. South of Calvillo, at the foot of 
Sierra del Laurel. 

Agua Azul, Jalisco (Barcena, Jouy, Pringle, Sheldon). The site of a park near the 
southern edge of the city of Guadalajara, at about the end of the Calzada de 
Independencia. Jouy collected birds here. Said by Davis (1936, pp. 141, 705) to be 
a park "near Guadalajara." 

Agua Blanca, Jalisco (McVaugh). The site of a sawmill about 12 km north or northeast 
of Santa Monica, q.v. 

Agua del Obispo, Jalisco (Moore & Wood). AGS, 21-102a. See Lagos de Moreno. 
Aguacate, Nayarit (Rose). See Goldman (1951, p. 202). Also spelled Aguacata. 
Aguacates, Los, Nayarit (Mexia). AGS, 2 1-1 05b. See Tepic. 
Aguacatla'n, Nayarit (Gregg). Ahuacatlan of AGS, 21-104a. 

Aguascalientes, Aguascalientes (Griffiths, Hartweg, Hitchcock, McVaueh, Rose). AGS 

Aguililla, Michoacan (Hinton). AGS, 19-1 03d. 
Ahuacapan, Jalisco (McVaugh & Koelz). AGS, 20- 104c. 

Ahualulco, Jalisco (Barcena, Oliva). Ahualulco de Mercado of AGS, 21-104d. About 90 
species are reported by Urbina (1897), on the basis of collections made by Barcena, 
from "Valle de Ahualulco," from "Santa Cruz, Valle de Ahualulco" or from "Cerro 
de Santa Cruz, Valle de Ahualulco." Santa Cruz (AGS, 21-104c) is about 6 km 
south-southwest of Ahualulco. Sesse and Mocino reported about 50 species from 
Ahualulco, and Sprague (Kew Bull. 1926: 423. 1926) supposed that this was a 
locality in Jalisco. This is apparently not the case; see text above, page 308. 


Ahuijuyo, Jalisco (Sesse & Mocino). AGS, Index p. 14 (Ahuijullo of AGS, 19-103a). 
Also spelled Ahuejuyo, Ahueiuyo, Ahuehuio, Ahuesuyo. 

Alo, Sierra del, Jalisco (Diguet). See Sierra del Halo. 

Altanquillo, Altenguilla. See Atenguillo. 

Alzada, Colima (Hitchcock, Orcutt). AGS, 19- 104b. 

Amacueca, Jalisco (McVaugh). AGS, 20-1 04b. 

Amatanejo, Jalisco (Hartweg). Not located on a map, but nearly south of Compostela, 
Nayarit, just south of the Rio de Ameca. Called by Hartweg Matanejo. 

Amatitan, Jalisco (Gregg, McVaugh, Moore & Wood). AGS, between Arenal and 
Tequila. Also spelled Amatitlan. Sesse and Mocino cited specimens from a place 
called Amatitan or Amatitlan, which presumably was Gregg's locality (on the road 
between Guadalajara and the west). There is also a place near Sayula, not far from 
the route over which Sesse and Mocino passed in 1791, which is listed as Amatitlan 
on AGS, Amatitan on ATLAS. 

Amatlan de Carias, Nayarit (Reyes Parra). AGS, 2 1-1 04c. 

Ameca, Jalisco (Barcena, Diguet, Nelson, Pringle). AGS, 21 -104c. Also Cerro de 
Ameca, Sierra de Ameca, Valley of Ameca. 

Amparo, El, Jalisco (Collins & Kempton). A ranch about 3 km south of Etzatlan 
(Jalisco, 1:100,000). Also cited as Ampaso and Arupara. Specimens cited as from 

"Los Teosintes, Ampaso," are presumably from this locality. 

Angahuan, Michoacan (Straw & Gregory). AGS, 20-102c. 

Antonio, Rancho de, Jalisco (Philbrick & Lewis). On the Rio Guayavas, said to be 15 
miles [24 km] southeast of San Juan Peyotan, not far from the mission of Santa 
Clara. Called Rancho San Antonio in Los Angeles Co. Mus. Contr. Sci. 68: 4 [map] . 

Apatzingan, Michoacan (Ghiesbreght, Hinton, Lape, Leavenworth & Hoogstraal, 
McVaugh, Sesse & Mocino). AGS, 19-1 02a. 

Apo, Michoacan (McVaugh). AGS, 19-102a. On the western slope of Cerro Tancitaro. 
Apulco, Jalisco (McVaugh). AGS, 20-1 04d. 

Aquila, Michoacan (Feddema, Hinton, Rzedowski). CARTA, Colima 13Q-VI, 1958, 
about 20 km southeast of Coahuayana. 

Arandas, Jalisco (McVaugh). AGS, 2M02c. I visited this place September 29-30, 
1952, by auto, via the road 5 miles (8 km) east of Tepatitlan, to Capilla de 
Guadalupe, and San Ignacio. The country east of Arandas was first explored in 
1970, after the construction of a through road. 

Aranjues, Jalisco (McVaugh). A small settlement at the junction of Rio Aranjues (a 
tributary of Rio Talpa) and Rio Charco Verde, southwest of Talpa; see Cuale, Sierra 


Arenal, Jalisco (Collins & Kempton, De Leon, Moore & Wood, Torres). El Arenal of 
AGS, 21-104d. 

Ameria, Colima (Hitchcock, Jones, McVaugh, Palmer). AGS, 19-104d. 

Armerica River. See Tecoman. 

Arrero, Mesa del, Colima (Kerber). See Colima, Colima. 



Arroyo de En medio, Jalisco (Barcena). The site of a former hacienda of this name, 
about 10 km southeast of Guadalajara, near the highway about halfway between 
Tlaquepaque and Puente Grande (Jalisco, 1:100,000). 

Arroyo de Juan Sanchez, Nayarit (Nelson). A small settlement in the palm forest 28 
miles northeast of Colomo, according to Goldman (1951, p. 201). 

Arroyo del Obispo, Nayarit (Gentry). Said by Gentry to be 31 miles southeast of 
Tepic, near the highway to Guadalajara. 

Arroyos del Agua, Jalisco (Feddema, Rzedowski). Said to be 10 km northwest of 
Huejuquilla el Alto. 

Arupara, Jalisco. A corruption of Amparo, q.v. 

Asientos, Aguascalientes (McVaugh, Rzedowski). AGS, 22-102a. 

Astillero, Jalisco. A place-name now persisting in such combinations as Santa Cruz del 
Astillero (AGS). Barcena (1891) refers to the Hacienda de la Venta del Astillero, 5 
leagues west of Guadalajara. The railroad station in this vicinity is called La Venta 
(AGS, 21-104d). Sesse and Mociho refer to collections made on the grounds of the 
Belemite (or Carmelite) fathers here; they sometimes spell the name Hastillero: "in 
Praedio P. P. Belemitarum, Hastillero dicto haud procul a Guadalaxara." These 
authors also refer to a volcano by this name: "prope vulcanum del Astillero haud 
procul ab urbe Guadalaxarae 


Atarjea, La, Nayarit (Mexia). Near Ixtlan del Rio, q.v. 

Atemajac, Jalisco (Barcena, Pringle, Sheldon). Atemajac del Valle of AGS, 2 1-1 03c. 

Atengo, Jalisco (Martinez). AGS, 1959, 20-104a; CARTA, Guadalajara 13Q-IV, 1957. 
North-northeast of Ayutla, and about 10 km northwest of Tenamaxtlan. Also cited 
as "Cerro de Quelitan, Atengo," or as Atenco. 

Atenguillo, Jalisco (Nelson). AGS, 20-104a; see also Goldman (1951, p. 169). Also 
spelled Altenguilla, Altanquillo, Atenquillo. 

Atenquique, Jalisco (Pringle). AGS, 20-104d. 

Atequiza, Jalisco (Gregg. Langman, Martinez, Pringle, Rose & Painter). AGS, 20-1 03a. 
Also spelled Ataquiza. 

Atequizatlan, Jalisco (Correll). AGS, 20-1 04d. A road, little used except by pack 
animals since 1950, crosses from Zapotlan (C. Guzman) to Sayulapa and the western 
slopes of the ridge north of the Nevado de Colima. Atequizatlan is on the eastern 
slope, in the pine forest. Sayulapa is near the summit of the ridge, 2 or 3 
kilometers north of the truck road constructed by the paper company at 
Atenquique after CorrelPs visit. The road used by Correll enters the newer road 
about 5 km below (west of) the ridge, and about 3 km above a branch road which 
leads to El Izote, a locality also visited by Correll. 

Aticama, Nayarit (Hernandez X.). CARTA, San Bias 13Q-III, 1957. North of Miramar. 

Atotonilco el Alto, Jalisco (McVaugh). AGS, 21 -103d. Not to be confused with 
Atotonilco south of Lake Chapala, or Atotonilco el Bajo, southwest of Acatlan de 
Juarez on Laguna de Atotonilco. 

Atotonilco, Laguna de, Jalisco (McVaugh). AGS. South of Acatlan de Juarez, 20- 104b. 

Atotonilquillo, Hacienda de, Guanajuato (Hartweg). Not located, but said to be near 
Leon. The type of Ximenia parviflora came from here. There is a place by this name 
50-60 km southwest of Leon, 10 km southeast of Manuel Doblado (CARTA, 
Queretaro 14Q-1I1, 1956). 


Atoyac, Jalisco (Kerber). So reported in Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 37: 367. 1950. This 
is probably Atoyac, Veracruz, near Cordoba where Kerber made most of his 
collections on his second trip to Mexico. Atoyac, Jalisco, is in an arid area on the 

east side of Lake Sayula, where the habitat would seem to be unlike that in the 
other localities reported for the species in question, Triumfetta bogotensis. Kerber 
seems to have made no other collections in this part of Jalisco. 

Autlan, Jalisco (Crum, Gentry, Martinez, McVaugh, Wilbur). AGS, 20-1 04c. Numerous 
collections have been made in recent years, particularly in the mountains southwest 
of the city, on the seaward-facing slopes below the pass above La Resolana, and in 
the Sierra de Manantlan, q.v., some miles to the southeast. 

Ayo el Chico, Jalisco (McVaugh). AGS, 2 1-1 02c. 

Ayutla, Jalisco (Cronquist, McVaugh). AGS, 20-104a. West of Ayutla the first large 
town is Mascota, about 50 miles (80 km) distant. From Ayutla another road leads 
west to San Miguel de la Sierra, q.v. 

Balanos, see Bolarios. 

Barca, La, Jalisco (Gregg, Nelson, Pringle, Trelease). AGS, 20-1 03b. See Goldman 
(1951, pp. 172-174). 

Barra de Navidad, Jalisco (Koelz, McVaugh). CARTA, Colima 13Q-VI, 1958; Navidad 
of AGS, 19-105b. From this point I travelled in one day (April 8, 1951) by car to 
Tequezquitlan, Concepcion, La Resolana and Autlan. That road between Navidad 
and La Resolana is not accurately marked on maps. See Navidad, Bahia. 

Barranca, La, Jalisco (Barcena, Galeotti, Gregory & Eiten, Gregg, Hitchcock, Jones, 
Palmer, Pringle, Rose & Painter, Safford). The precipitous gorges of the Rio Grande 
de Santiago, just northeast and north of Guadalajara; for explanation and map see 
Asa Gray Bull. II, 1 : 385-390. 1953. For map see page 322 of this paper. 

Barranca, La, "Nayarit" (Jones). Stated by Jones to have been "some 30 miles" east of 
Ixtlan, and the terminus, at the time of his visit in February 1927, of the 
Tepic-Guadalajara railroad. This is probably the station listed as Barrancas, just 
within the border of Jalisco (ATLAS, 1943, hoja Guadalajara). Here the railroad, 
and the highway, cross the deep branch -barranca which passes northward through 
Plan de Barranca to the Rio Grande. The locality which Gregg called Barrancas (q.v.) 
is in the same general area. Pennell collected in 1935 in a locality which he 
designated as "Barrancas west of La Quemada, Jalisco"; he was traveling by train, 
and his locality was doubtless near to or identical with that of Jones. 

Barranca de Beltran (de Colimilla, de Huentitan, de Ibarra, de Oblatos, of Portillo, du 
Rio Santiago, de Tepic, etc.). See under specific localities, as Beltran, Barranca de. 

Barranca del Oro, Nayarit (Moran). AGS, 21 -104c. 

Barrancas, Jalisco (Gregg). This is the place near Mochitiltic, where the road between 
Magdalena and Ixtlan descends into the gorge; Gregg was here May 25 and 26, 1849. 
Jones' station called La Barranca, Nayarit, is in the same area, but the railroad 
crosses the end of the gorge somewhat above and to the south of the highway. 

Barranquillas, Michoacan (Leavenworth & Hoogstraal). AGS, 19-1 02a. 

Barranquitas, Jalisco (McVaugh). A small settlement just off the Guadalajara-Tepic 
highway, in the barranca near Mochitiltic, q.v. 

Barroloso, El, Mpio. de Coalcoman, Michoacan (Hinton, McVaugh). The site (1965) of 
an extensive sawmill village on the high ridges ca 30—32 km nearly southwest of 
Aserradero Dos Aguas, at an elevation of about 2200 m. 



Tonal a 

Guadalajara and vicinity, showing the location of the principal barrancas. Map from Asa Gray 
Bull. II, 1: 389. 1953. 

Belen, Jalisco (Barcena). A ranch on the plain a few kilometers north of Guadalajara 
and northeast of Zapopan. Collections made by Barcena were cited by Urbina 
(1897) as from "Belen, Valle de Guadalajara," or from Llano(s) de Belen. The place 
is called locally Rancho de los Belen. It is mentioned in Barcena's list of populated 
places in Jalisco (Barcena, 1891, p. 53) as Los Belenes. 

Beltran, Barranca de, Jalisco (Barcena, Jouy, McVaugh, Pringle, Seler). Descends from 
the east side of the Nevado de Colima to near San Marcos, q.v. on AGS, 19- 104b. 
For Pringle's account of his visit to San Marcos and the Barranca de Beltran, see 
Card. & For. 7: 172 — 173. 1894. Cited as Beltran on some labels, or as Veltran by 
Jouy, who collected birds here. 

Bolahos, Jalisco (Coulter, Diguet, Hartweg, Rose, Zingg). AGS, 22-1 04d. Also spelled 
Balahos, Bolanos, Bolonas, Bolohas, Polanos. 

Bolahos to Guadalajara, Jalisco (Rose). In 1897, while traveling with Nelson and 
Goldman, Rose made about 75 collections along the road between these places. The 
itinerary, as given by Goldman (1951, p. 176), was as follows: September 19, leave 
Bolahos and descend the canon of the Rio Bolahos about 23 miles; September 20, 


37 miles southeasterly, crossing a mountain range near La Laguna, Jalisco; turning 
southeasterly and crossing into Zacatecas near Florencia and continuing to El 
Conejo; September 21, 46 miles, via Estanzuela, Zacatecas; Malacate, Jalisco; and 
San Cristobal de la Barranca, Jalisco. 

Buena vista Tomatlan, Michoacan (McVaugh, Rzedowski, Sesse & Mociho). Tomatlan of 

AGS, 19-103b. 

Bufa, La, Jalisco (Mexia). CARTA, Guadalajara 13Q-(IV), 1957. Said by Mrs. Mexia to 
be the highest peak near San Sebastian, q.v., and to have an elevation of 2500 
meters. Called by Nelson Bufa de Mascota; described by Goldman (1951, p. 179), 
and said to be about 5 miles southeast of San Sebastian. 

Bules, Los, Nayarit (Goldsmith). On the Rio Jesus Maria, about 25 km south of Jesus 
Maria, q.v. ATLAS, Zacatecas sheet, 1944; AGS, 1959, 22-105b. 

Cabo Corrientes, Mpio. de, Jalisco. See El Tuito. As far as I am aware, no botanical 
collections have ever been made on the cape itself or in the mountains between the 

Cape and El Tuito. 


Pacific at a point southeast of Pomaro, between 103°05' and 103°15' W. long. 

Calabazas, Jalisco (Reko). Also spelled Calabazos. Not located, but possibly the same 
as Calabozo of AGS 19-103a, a small place near the railroad just east of Tonila, in 
the same general area where Reko is known to have collected. 

Caleras, Colima (Hitchcock). AGS, 19-104d. Also spelled Caldras. 

California, Hda., Michoacan (Leavenworth & Hoogstraal, Rzedowski). Near Apatzingan, 
on the road to Aguililla. Not located on a map. 

Calixcillo, Nayarit (Mexia). Near Tepic, q.v. 

Calvillo, Aguascalientes (McVaugh & Koelz). AGS, 22-1 03d. 

Campana, Sierra de la, Jalisco (McVaugh). About 12-15 km northwest of Los 
Volcanes, q.v. 

Canelillas, Arroyo de las, Jalisco (Mexia). Near Real Alto, q.v. 

Cangrejo, Nayarit (Norris). A settlement near Mesa Nayar, one day's journey west of 
Jesus Maria. 

Canoas, Las, "Jalisco." A locality cited by Urbina (1897). The collections cited 
{Pringle 3827, 3936) were made at Las Canoas, S. L. P. 

Canada, La, Jalisco (McVaugh). The site of a sawmill southwest of Ayutla, between 
San Miguel de la Sierra and Santa Monica, q.v. 

Cahas, Las, Zacatecas. See Huejucar. 

Capilla, La, Jalisco (Martinez, Pringle). AGS, 20-1 03a. A railroad station southeast of 
Guadalajara. Spelled Capella by Pringle. 



Capiri, El, Michoacan (Leavenworth & Hoogstraal). Capirio of AGS, 19-1 02c. 

Carmen, Colima (Moran). Not located on a map. Said to be in the Sierra de los 
Teiones. about 30 miles more or less northwest of Manzanillo. 



Carmen, El, Jalisco (Cronquist, McVaugh). A very small settlement with a school; in 
the so-called Sierra del Parnaso of AGS, southeast of Talpa and north of west of 
Ayutla. See San Miguel de la Sierra. 

Casa Fuerte, Jalisco (Griffiths). Not located. 

Casillas, Arroyo de las, Jalisco (Mexia). Near San Sebastian, q.v. 


3Q-VI, 1958. The official name of the 

place usually called La Resolana, q.v. Collections were made near here on Cerro el 

Casitas, Arroyo de las, Jalisco (Mexia). Near San Sebastian, q.v. 

Castillo, El, Jalisco (Oliva, Pringle). Pringle's locality was the railroad station of this 
name (AGS, 21 -103c), in the vicinity of which he collected on several occasions. 
Oliva is reported (Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 28: 35. 1929) to have collected at Hecla 
del Castillo, "Republic of Mexico"; the word "Hecla" is apparently derived from a 
misinterpretation of an abbreviation of "Hacienda," and Oliva's locality is probably 
the Hacienda del Castillo, Jalisco (AGS, 21 -103c, as El Castillo). 

Cavianes, Rio, Jalisco (Jones). See Covianes. 

Ceboruco, Volcan, Nayarit (Hartweg, McVaugh, Paray). AGS, 21 -104a. The road from 
Ixtlan to Tepic crosses extensive rough lava-flows from this volcano, south and 
southwest of the summit. The first recorded eruptions were during the period from 
1870 to 1875, when large quantities of lava were emitted (Barcena, 1891, p. 249). 
Lava from earlier flows, however, formed the "malpais" where Gregg collected, in 
this same locality, May 26, 1849. 

Cerrero, Mesa del, Colima (Kerber). See Colima, Colima. 

Cerro de Ortega, Colima (McVaugh). A small settlement at the Rio Coahuayana, across 
from the town of Coahuayana, on the road from Tecoman. 

Cerro de la Cruz. See Cruz, Cerro de la. 

Cerro Grande, Jalisco (Burnett). Not located, but see Burnett in index to collectors. 

Cerro San Juan, Nayarit. See San Juan, Cerro. 

Chacala, Nayarit (McVaugh). AGS, 21 -105a. 

Chacalapa, Michoacan (Hinton, Sesse & Mociho). AGS, 19-104d. 

Chamela, Jalisco (McVaugh, Perez J.). AGS, 20- 105c. 

Chante, El, Jalisco (Crum, McVaugh, Wilbur). CARTA, Colima 13Q-VI, 1958. A 
good-sized town about 20 km (airline) southeast of Autlan, used (1949) as an 
outfitting point for pack-trips further southeast into the Sierra de Manantlan, q.v. 
Oddly enough Chante does not appear on most maps of this area. Between 1959 
and 1965 a lumber-road was constructed from El Chante into the Sierra, to replace 
the former road from Santiago via Durazno, washed out by the 1959 hurricane. 


Chapala, Lago de, Jalisco or Michoacan (Galeotti, C. L. Hitchcock, Jouy, Lemmon, 
Nelson, Pringle, Rowell, Schery, Sesse & Mociho, Sheldon). AGS, 20-103a. Most of 
the shoreline is in Jalisco; the southeastern side, however, from about long. 103° 
east to the mouth of the Rio Lerma, is in Michoacan. Most collections are labelled 
in English, i.e. as from Lake Chapala; probably few are from the lake itself, but 
rather from the mountains on the north side, or mountainsides above the road 
which parallels the south side. 


Chapalagana, Rio, Jalisco (see Philbrick & Lewis). AGS, 22-1 04a. 
Charco Verde, Rio, Jalisco (McVaugh). See Cuale, Sierra del. 

Chicalote, Aguascalientes (Nelson). AGS, 22-1 02a. A railroad junction-point about 15 
km north of Aguascalientes. Nelson & Goldman collected here, July 1-7, 1896 
(Goldman, p. 35). 

Chila, Michoacan (Feddema, Rzedowski). Said to be 8 km northwest of Aquila, q.v. 

Chinampas, Hda. de, Jalisco (McVaugh, Shreve). Chinampas of AGS, 22-1 02d. 

Chinicuila, Mpio. de, Michoacan (Hinton). Chinicuila, the place that gives its name to 
the municipality, is listed on AGS, 19-103c; since 1924 it has been officially known 
as Villa Victoria. Hinton collected at Villa Victoria and also at Huizontla, Sierra 
Naranjillo and Tehuantepec in this municipio, but located all these places in the old 
distrito of Coalcoman. 

Chiqueritos, Cerro de, Mpio. de Coalcoman, Michoacan (Madrigal S.). About 3 km 
northwest of Dos Aguas, q.v. 

Chiquilistlan, Jalisco (Jones). AGS, 20-104b. 

Cienaga, La, Nayarit (Norris). A high summit in the Sierra del Nayarit, nearly west of 
Jesus Maria and south of Santa Teresa, said to reach an elevation of 2800 m. 
Probably west of Cienega of AGS, 22-105b. 

Cienega de Mata, Jalisco (McVaugh). AGS, 22-1 02a. Apparently the same as La 
Cienega of Rzedowski. 

Cienega Grande, Aguascalientes (Coulter, McVaugh). AGS, 22-1 02a. 

Cihuatlan, Jalisco (McVaugh & Koelz). AGS, 19-105b. 

Cirata, La, ?Nayarit (Gregg). Not located, but presumably in this state and near Ixtlan 
del Rio; Gregg collected here May 26, 1849. The name as written may be from a 
misinterpretation of Gregg's notes. 

Ciudad Garcia, Zacatecas (Martinez, Muller). AGS, 23-103c. Formerly Jerez or Xeres. 

Ciudad Guzman, Jalisco (Collins & Kempton, Cutler, Gregory & Eiten, Martinez, Moore). 
AGS, 20-103c. Formerly Zapotlan, q.v. 

Coahuayana, Michoacan (Emrick, Hinton, McVaugh, Sesse & Mociho, Turner). AGS, 
19-104d. Sometimes reported as in the State of Colima, or spelled Cohuayana. 
Hacienda Coahuayula, Michoacan, where Emrick made a large collection in Febru- 
ary, 1901, is sometimes wrongly cited as Coahuayana. 

Coahuayula, Michoacan (Emrick). According to Brand (Coalcoman and Motines del 
Oro, p. 158), in the 1890's an American named Fortune acquired some of the lands 
of the pueblo San Juan Huitzontla, including the lake of Guavayutla, and founded 
the Hacienda Coahuayula. It may be located approximately as between Aquila and 
Tehuantepec, near the head of the Rio de Ostula. 

Coalcoman (de Matamoros), Michoacan (Hinton, Rzedowski). AGS, 19-1 03c. The town 
of Coalcoman (de Matamoros) gave its name to a distrito which at one time (see 
AGS) took in most of the part of Michoacan south and west of the Rio 
Balsas-Tepalcatepec. Hinton's collections from "Distr. Coalcoman" were taken from 
localities in the present municipios of Coahuayana, Aquila, Chinicuila, Coalcoman, 
and Aguililla. 

In May, 1963, Rzedowski explored the vicinity of Tepalcatepec, travelled to 
Jilotlan, and tried unsuccessfully to reach Ahuijullo. He went then by the direct 



road from Tepalcatepec to Coalcoman, stopping briefly to collect at Puerto de las 
Cruces and at Salitre. 

Coalcoman, Mpio de, Michoacan. See Coalcoman de Matamoros. Hinton collected in 
this municipio at or near Barroloso, Coalcoman, Cuchilla, Ocorla, Palmitas, Parotas 
del Cobre, Pie de la Cuesta, Puerto de Aire, Puerto de las Cruces, Puerto Zarzamora, 
Salitre, San Jose, Tiquiluca, Sierra Torrecillas, and Trojes (cf. Brand, 1960, p. 231.) 

Cocula, Jalisco (Collins & Kempton, McVaugh, Pippen, Reko). AGS, 20-104b. Collec- 
tions were made by Collins and Kempton at Hacienda San Diego, near Cocula. 

Cofradia, La, Nayarit (Mexia). Near Ixtlan del Rio, q.v., and said by Mrs. Mexia to be 
north of that place. Also spelled Copradia. 

Coire, Michoacan (Hinton). AGS, 18-1 03a, as